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Invest in a sound generator, and install it in close proximity to the head of your bed frame. Based on stylistic comparisons such as striations inside body contours and the presentation of horns in twisted perspective, several Paleolithic art experts, including the first curator of the Chauvet Cave, Jean Clottes, have accredited the Portuguese friezes to the early Solutrean of about 20,000 years ago3.
In Portugal, the government did the opposite a€“ plunging ahead with a project destined to destroy the nationa€™s oldest cultural heritage by completing a 300-million-dollar dam whose reservoir will flood a valley packed with dozens of art sites spread over at least 17 kilometers. Yet construction continues - even on holidays - and the water is about to rise another hundred meters.
A male ibex with his head shown in two positions, as if he were turning to watch the female behind him. As we drove up to a sentry box perched on the lip of a road into the vast, unnatural gashing of mountains at Foz CA?a, it was hard to tell if the young guard blocking us in a crisp red and gray uniform represented a well-heeled security service or an elite military unit - but it was plain that bluff and sweet talk wouldn't get us far.
The next time the car eased over the knuckles of a road crisscrossed by up-ended strata, past empty huts built just of stacked slabs, and jostled between overhanging and plunging cliffs until an avalanche of tailings from an old quarry almost blocked the path.
Here was one of the places of grandeur where our ancestors had first grasped visions and then concretized them by hewing - and sometimes painting - images into rock panels. As I pushed forward and the river grew shallower, turtles became so numerous that their stacks toppled like circus acts from the brinks of submerged cliffs. As a draftsman, I could feel empathy for the beast flowing into the hands that had etched her.
This first frieze stood at a fitting point, practically where the reservoir yielded to the original rapids and long pools of the virgin river.
Far away across the moonscape of rutted ramps, knots of men stood before tunnels as fleets of dump trucks, made so tiny by distance that they only gave away their magnitude by over-sized wheels, eased to the brink of platforms, and added avalanches to tailings. Above us, the titanium-white cleanliness of the cement plant's towers stood in bold contrast to the devastation, like a phalanx of gigantic chess-rooks bunched for the kill. According to press articles, the dam-builders had recognized him as the true discoverer of Portugal's first reported Paleolithic engravings, at nearby Mazouco, even though the doctoral student's mentor, Professor Vitor Oliviera Jorge, had stolen his thunder.7 They had given Rebanda a job as their obligatory salvage archaeologist when the new doctor somehow couldn't get a position on a faculty. In return, all he'd had to do was wait till their concrete curtain had gone up and its reservoir had risen into a sea so voluminous and costly that its drainage would have been unthinkable.
My goateed interlocutor smirked as he told me I could try looking for the doctor at the complex built for the previous dam, 15A kilometers downstream. But I'd hit pay dirt: the fact that I might hear Rebanda's mea culpa was more than Ia€™d hoped for.
Sebastian elected to wait outside and embarked on Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth as I knocked at the locked door.
Still, I complimented her on her English, sympathized with them for having to put up with this hierarchical bother, and kept spinning innocuous questions, while she kept waiting for me to go. When Rebanda's secretary came out again, to see if she could get either me a€“ or her boss - to give up as the wait grew embarrassingly long, I asked her what the round silos with tipped roofs on the hills had been used for.
But the next time, after they had gotten used to my rounds, I stepped inside and admired a sequence of two eight-foot-tall maps full of pins. Something was wrong: in addition to the constellations of pins extending for 17 kilometers upstream from the construction site, there were dozens downstream, along the reservoir behind the dam just outside! Finally, so many hours had passed, and she'd informed the doctor so many times that I was still hanging around, that I was forced by the sheer need for new scenery to vary my route, and drifted through empty rooms.
The only thing the reports agreed on was that Rebanda had somehow discovered the flooded portion of Canada do Inferno by the previous autumn22 a€“ asking the EDP to lower the Pocinho reservoir by just 3 meters in November 1994 so he could study the engravings.23 a€?They told me it was too expensive,a€? Rebanda had told the New York Times. So who had shot these photographs, which looked like they had been taken when the sites were dry vegetated hillsides instead of among the muck and bare banks below a fallen waterline? I realized that the photos of the dry sites might have been taken before the Pocinho Dam, which had flooded them, had even been completed a€“ over 12 years before! UNESCO had suggested Clottes, who, in an uncanny convergence of good and bad karma, was taken on a whirlwind tour of the tip of the iceberg at Canada do Inferno, then immediately whisked to a press conference in Vila Nova do Foz CA?a on Dec 16th, 199428 a€“ just two days before the discovery of the Chauvet Cave that catapulted him, as its first interpreter and protector, from the summit of the French archaeological establishment to world fame. But Clottesa€™ judgement was mixed, confirming that the art could be dated on stylistic grounds to the early Solutrean or even late Gravettian of twenty to twenty-four thousand years ago while suggesting that flooding the valley might be the best way of protecting it, since Portugal was ill-equipped to protect such widely dispersed panels from vandals!29 a€?There is no easy solution,a€? he told a reporter.
What the press forgot to emphasize with quite as much fervor was the fact that Clottes had prefaced his Solomonic verdict by saying, a€?Whatever happens, the engravings must be preserved and not be damaged.a€? Clottes might have felt that he could safely pass the buck because no art conservationist could honestly guarantee the engravingsa€™ fate once they were subjected to currents carrying abrasives, burial under the petrifying alluvia that accumulates behind dams,33 and the worlda€™s most destructive solvent a€“ water, which would dissolve pigments and destabilize rock that had proven its resistance to aerial conditions over tens of millennia. While chatting up the gaunt fellow traveller at the construction site, Ia€™d pretended to make small talk by asking engineering questions, including one about the depth of the sediment that had accumulated behind the Pocinho dam. The irony of it was that Clottesa€™ efforts to be honest without irritating his hosts had been the spark that the French diplomats had dreaded.
Despite the fact that the great prehistoriana€™s reputation would remain largely intact, and with good reason, in much of the rest of the world,34 the Portuguese intelligentsia began to shun him. A€ propos of CA?a, two Portuguese rock art researchers, who couldna€™t stomach Clottes after his press conference, ironically echoed him by telling me, confidentially, that flooding the engravings could still be a blessing since it would save them from graffiti and those boogeymen of archaeologistsa€™ dreams, prowling collectors. My guess is that he was so beleaguered by advisers that he was just trying to get out of an awkward situation as quickly, judiciously and diplomatically as possible.
I mentioned to Rebanda that I had just attended the lecture on Chauvet, that I even had a videotape of it right there in my camera. So it's true, I thought, drowning the site was Rebanda's solution to the problem of ownership of photographic rights. But then, what about Rebanda's self-serving talk of photo credits, not to mention the engravings already submerged by the dam at the doorstep a€“ and his belief that the engravings were doomed to be flooded? Strangely enough, I could again see it being both ways, since the roots of tragedy are self-deception and entwined motives.
He must have realized that I was rooting for him to pull himself out of his tailspin, because suddenly he decided. Upon leaving, Sebastian asked to check out the Pocinho dam, so I drove round an interchange into an empty parking lot with planters. As the sun slanted over the plateau into the wilderness of the CA?a valley, I decided to sneak into a side-valley to the north of our campsite that Rebanda's map had cluttered with pins. Then, after breaching a wall of rushes, we broke to the reservoir's edge - and were met by a horned skull stuck on a stake. Suddenly, I remembered what Rebanda had said about the engravings' association with witchcraft.
Being obstinate (or perhaps because of the prehistoric setting), I started whittling stone, knapping a microlithic surgeon's kit, and then bent single-mindedly to my task - failing till I was disgusted with myself and worried for my victim (which I had bizarrely associated with Rebanda).
This time there were two guards behind an overhanging military fence crested by barbed wire.
The guard who beckoned us in was rearing a guard-dog puppy, which scampered around, tumbling over ledges and using its chin to lever itself over steps. Our guide was a decent young man who couldn't help feeling uneasy blocking access to these bold masterpieces at the source of all our arts. Still, these guards were actually tame as the locals poured down to catch a glimpse of the animals through the fence. After he'd hastened to take up his time-clock again, I wandered if there might not be even more testimonials of man's attraction to this classical Eden with its islets and fords in the flowery river, and browsed through a plowed orchard, along a contour which I judged would have been the valley floor half a million years ago. We knew the next dawn would be our last, so we broke camp in blue light to explore the teeming side-valley beyond the first auroch. Not Portugal's - OURS - because this art is so old, despite its elegance, that we share the blood and genius of those distant ancestors who awoke to the universe, whether our cavalcade of ancestors migrated around the Old World or came across the Bering Straits 14,000 years ago.
Footnotes have been added to the internet version of the article to provide historical perspective and more detail about sources than the versions that were published & distributed in 1995. 1 The three discoverers of the Chauvet Cave were Eliette Brunel Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet. 2 The IPPAR announced the existence of the valleya€™s engravings on November 19, 1994 but a video was made of them in 1993.
10 Bahn 1995 for a re-capitulation of the same accusations against the IPPAR & Rebanda.
33 Bednarik & Jaffe have been the most outspoken spokesmen about delusions concerning the protective qualities of reservoirs a€“ which not only inundate art panels with water but deep alluvial deposits that make their later recovery dangerous and impractical. 34 Interestingly, a few years after this appeal was written, Clottes came under fierce attack and even ridicule by many representatives of the French intelligentsia, including some of the countrya€™s most prominent prehistorians, after he and David Lewis-Williams published a€?The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and magic in the painted cavesa€? in 1996. As soon as their results indicating that the art might be only 3,000 to 6,500 years old (if not even younger) were announced a€“ which actually made the engravings even more astonishing, potentially rewriting the history of rock art or even making Portugal the last bastion of the Paleolithic tradition a€“ the most important Portuguese right-wing weekly screamed that the direct-dating results proved that stylistic daters like Clottes had perpetrated a a€?FRAUDa€? (O Independente, 7 July 1995). It should also be noted that the individuals who participated in the debate were often somewhat unwittingly drawn into playing secondary or tertiary roles in a struggle between the Portuguese Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Industry. 40 In November 1995 - six months after this call-toa€“arms was published and circulated to Prehistoric Art Emergencya€™s volunteers (who Ia€™m glad to report included a young actor, Yann Montelle, who went on to earn a doctorate in prehistory) - a book edited by Jorge called a€?Dossier CA?aa€? appeared with 20 contributions by him or his wife.
44 After writing this article in May 1995, it occurred to me that I might have missed one of the main reasons for eliminating Rebanda from Portugala€™s archaeological milieu a€“ the fact that he was so effective at finding rock art that drew international attention, first to Mazouco, then to CA?a.
49 When I wrote the article, I assumed that the two young men were Rebandaa€™s subordinates and referred to them as a€?draftsmena€?. 50 After initially denigrating both the art and the idea of extracting it, the EDP later adopted the idea as one of its three strategies for overcoming opposition to the dam project. It is very rare that we need to remove tonsils as most cases respond to antibiotics and rest. One of our clients was driving by, and picked her up and brought her straight to the surgery. We packed the wound with a special cream for burn victims (Flamazine) and bandaged it for 3 days. We placed Bully on an IV drip and anesthetised him with IV Alfaxan, and then placed him on Isoflurane gas.
The bandage was changed every 4-5 days, and it did not take long for some nice healthy granulation tissue to fill in the gaps to give us a smooth surface for the surrounding skin to run along and close the gap.
Granulation tissue is the cherry ripe looking tissue in the middle of the wound that you can see in the post op photos. Once it is laid down, the skin edges naturally creep along the top of it and new skin is formed. By 30 days, the wound had completely closed over with fresh skin and Bully was a much happier dog. On examination, her vitals were all normal- good gum colour, heart and lungs ok, temperature normal and she was reasonably bright and alert.
We suspected a nasty tumour in the abdomen and offered exploratory surgery just in case it was benign. Some cephalexin antibiotic powder was placed in the abdomen and we closed the wound using normal sutures.
On cutting the mass in half, we found large chunks of food in the middle mixed with lots of inflammatory scar tissue. Over the weekend, she had to be force fed and given anti vomiting injections (Cerenia) and continued pain relief and antibiotic cover. We thought she may have developed fatty liver necrosis (damage to the liver) as a result of the major surgery. On Sunday morning, she looked a bit stronger and she even ate a tiny amount of cooked chicken brought in by her Mum. She was given a nice low voltage heat mat to sleep on and her Mum kept up the nutrition, antibiotics and pain relief. This was one of our trickiest cases and just goes to show that even though I have been in practice since 1981, I still have not seen all the different possible medical and surgical cases that present themselves to vets. In early December, late in the afternoon, we were presented with a 6 year old female kelpie, Molly who was slightly off colour and had a mild left head tilt and a throaty gag. All the symptoms suggest an issue with the nerves that supplied the left head and neck area. Well, after several extensive tick searches and an after hours clip, we had not found a tick or crater. We immediately setup two IV drips with a bottle of snake anti-venom in one and fluids in the other. While the fluids and anti venom were running in, we drew up some bloods and ran them on our in-house laboratory. At 11.00pm, I came in to check on Molly, and lo and behold, she was sitting up and wagging her tail.
On examination, his gums were nice and pink and filled up with blood quickly when pressed by a finger (capillary refill time).
Mac was very uncomfortable when palpating his abdomen, even with a heavy pain killer sedation. X-rays showed a lot of gas building up in his intestines but no real evidence of a solid foreign body. The fact that he had severe vomiting and marked pain in his abdomen and gas building up in his intestines was enough to warrant us having a look inside straight away. Mac was placed on an IV drip and anaesthetised with IV Alfaxan before being placed on Isoflurane gas. We removed the dead piece of small intestine and then joined (anastomosed) the 2 fresh edges together. The whole area was flushed several tines with saline and then Cephalexin antibiotic was sprayed over the operating site. Chloe was placed on an IV fluid drip and anaesthetised with IV Alfaxan followed by Isoflurane gas. The tumour was sent for pathology testing and came back as a soft tissue sarcoma which was more likely to regrow in the same area rather than spread to other parts of the body.
The plan is to monitor the area regularly and give Chloe regular health checks to pick up any signs of regrowth or spread of the tumour. Victor, a 14 year old cat, was having a nice sleep on the front verandah when 2 stray dogs came along and tried to kill him.
After 72 hours, we were not getting much fluid or air from the chest drain so it was removed. On palpating his middle abdomen, a thick firm irreglaur shaped swelling approx the size of a plum, could be felt.
Xrays showed a lot of gas building up in his small intestines and some faeces in his colon and an indistinct swelling in the mid-abdomen. The fact he was in sudden discomfort from being a healthy happy cat, it was suspected he may have an acute intestinal blockage, intestinal thrombus or a tumour causing an acute abdomen.
Chester was placed on a IV drip and anaesthetised with IV Alfaxan followed by Isoflurane gas. Surgery was scheduled using a new technique to deepen the groove in which the patella slides up and down.
The patella is attached to the big group of muscles at the top front of the leg- the quadriceps. In Hazmat's case, he had been born with a tibial crest that was off centre and was positioned too far medial (inside) which gave an unnatural "pull" on the patella tendon attached to it above. Using a small bone saw, 2 parallel cuts were made in this groove running form top to bottom.
The next part of the operation was to move the tibial crest to a more outward (lateral) position in order to straighten up the pull of the quadriceps muscles on the patella. The final part of the operation was to overlap the tissues (lateral fascia lata) on the outside of the stifle thereby pulling the patella laterally and away from its tendency to want to dislocate medially.
The stifle was irrigated with sterile saline and a soluble antibiotic was placed in the joint.
GOFAR Services, LLC - Appliance Repair Houston, TX - Chapter 4COMPRESSOR IS RUNNINGBUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDCOMPRESSOR IS RUNNING BUT REFRIGERATOR IS NOT COLDBefore you perform any of the other tests in this chapter, make sure that the compressor is running. If your pet is unfortunate enough to have an encounter with a snake you can help by being aware of the signs and symptoms of snake bite, and getting the affected animal to the hospital as quickly as possible.
The first clue that a pet has been bitten may just be a small amount of blood on the coat, face or limb with a some soft tissue swelling around a small puncture wound(s). Most snake bites in humans occur when people try to kill snakes, often after seeing them bite a pet. Calling ahead gives us critical extra time to make necessary preparations to ensure prompt and effective treatment.
When you call, listen very carefully to the announcements, and then call the emergency mobile number on the message (Mark sometimes has a night off with the after hours phone going to another vet).
If your pet has stopped breathing, attempt mouth to nose resuscitation and if possible continue this during transport of your pet to the hospital.
These days the treatment of snake bite has a good success rate, and with appropriate and timely medical therapy many patients recover completely. The unfortunate animal will require constant monitoring, day and night, every one or two hours for the first 24 hours then every three hours for the next two days, with high rate intravenous infusions, blood clotting products and regular blood tests. If a snake needs removal from the property, contact WIRES to ask for theie recommended local snake handler. Hyperthyroidism in Cats: Great News!This is a very interesting disease of cats which we see in nearly any age group. Hyper-active thyroids (hyperthyroidism) make cats act like a car all revved up- ravenous appetite, hyper-active (just like my kids), under weight, often difficult to handle (again like my kids!) and may suffer from heart failure- rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, panting. By performing a simple blood test, we can diagnose affected cats and institute therapy to knock-out the thyroid hormones causing all the problems.
Left un-treated, hyperthyroid cats run the major risk of high blood pressure and heart failure.
The ventricles become smaller and smaller and as a result, can’t fill up with the same volume of blood. Treated cases usually see an improvement in heart function and the removal of heart drugs from the treatment regime at this stage i.e. Blood test are performed before and 24-36 hours after starting therapy to ensure the kidneys can handle having the blood pressure dropped. Kidney DiseaseDogs and cats can suffer from either acute or chronic renal failure caused by many different types of illnesses. Kidneys have powerful protective mechanisms in place which kick into action if problems arise.
Kidneys are also responsible for sending messages to the bone marrow telling it to make more red blood cells (RBC's) to replace the old ones which are "gobbled up" by the spleen and liver when they are worn out. As with most diseases, early detection and treatment is much more preferable especially for a vitally important organ like the kidneys. For all our renal failure cases, we use a Doppler machine to record elevations in blood pressure and measure response to blood pressure lowering medications. Force feeding using a stomach tube through which fluids and liquidised renal support diets can be administered.
For cases with elevated Phosphorous in their body, we can use drugs called phosphate binders. For young cats in Australia with kidney failure, there is the possibility of kidney transplantation in Brisbane, but it is quite involved and the donor cat has to be taken on as a new family pet. Parvovirus- the Ebola equivalentWe all know about Ebola- one of the nastiest and most contagious viral diseases for man. Parvovirus has to be one of the nastiest and most infectious diseases of dogs causing severe suffering with a very high fatality rate despite all the best intensive care. Surprisingly, because Parvovirus has been around for so long, some pet owners have either forgotten what it does to dogs, or they were not yet born when it first arrived on the scene in a world wide epidmiec in the 1980's.
Parvovirus is a virus that attacks the lining of a dog’s stomach and intestines and literally strips it out. If pet owners are struggling financially, vets often have to euthanise infected dogs before starting any therapy.
Camden vets had 10 Parvovirus cases in just one day, not to mention how many cases they had for a whole year!
In a recent national study, there were 1,200 cases reported - and that was from only a small number of vet practices taking part in the survey. When Parvovirus first occurred in the 1980’s, people were not aware of just how tough and contagious it was. Well, the very fact that Parvovirus managed to spread across the world in just 2 years puts a few holes in this statement. A dog either brewing or in the recovery stage of a Parvovirus infection, sheds millions of the viruses into the environment. It does not take long for an epidemic of Parvovirus to occur if the general dog population has a low vaccination percentage. Parvovirus can affect dogs of all ages; however dogs less than one year of age are particularly susceptible. Treatment is difficult because there is no way to kill the virus once it has infected the dog. Treatment is intensive and involves hospitalisation in an isolation ward (sometimes for many days), aggressive fluid therapy, antibiotics, pain relief and anti-vomiting drugs. Despite all of these treatments, a high percentage of dogs die a few days later leaving the owner with no dog and a very large vet bill. Malignant tumour of the adrenal glands- tumours made up of the cortisone producing cells of the adrenal glands make excessive cortisone. Dogs with pituitary gland tumours can go on to live comfortably for some time until the tumour gets too big and starts to place pressure on adjacent parts of the brain.At this stage, we might see symptoms such as blindness and other hormone imbalances. Unfortunately, adrenal gland tumours are often malignant and can spread to other parts of the body. Suspected cases have blood tests done to try and find out where the excess cortisone is coming from.
Until recently, most cases were treated with a drug called Lysodren which destroys the parts of the adrenal glands that make cortisone.
Many cases on Trilostane can have the dose lowered after a few months, which helps with the budget.
Diabetes is commonly seen in Cushing's cases, probably as a result of cortisone interfering with the action of insulin. Before embarking on treatment, owners need to be very aware of the expensive nature of treament.
In human medicine, pituitary gland tumous can be removed by specialist surgeons operating through the nose or roof of the mouth. Increased Thirst (Polydypsia)There are a large number of causes of increased thirst (polydypsia) in pets. Blood tests (biochemistry and full blood count) give an overall picture of a pet's health.
Pets and humans can donate a kidney (and therefore be down to 50% total kidney function) and still lead a healthy life with no elevation of kidney blood tests or polydypsia. If their remaining kidney becomes diseased, and loses over half of its ability to function, kidney blood test start to rise i.e.
When there is 25-50% of healthy kidney function, kidney blood tests are often normal, but the urine may be dilute (low specific gravity). Between 50-100%, the urine will still be concentrated (high specific gravity), and bloods normal. It is important to check a urine sample as it can detect kidney failure long before a blood test. These chemicals travel down a special tube from the pancreas into the first part of the small intestines (the Duodenum).
Sometimes as pets get older and fatter, the pancreas gets inflamed or worn out from too much of a workload e.g. Traveling through the pancreas is the bile duct- a tube connecting the gall bladder in the liver to the duodenum. We normally see pancreatitis in older overweight dogs or dogs being fed too many fatty meals e.g.
From the history, breed, sex, age, symptoms and clinical examination, a vet usually has a pretty good idea the pet is suffering from pancreatitis. A special in-house blood test ( Idexx SNAP CPL) gives an accurate positive result in pancreatitis cases (blue dot on the right is the same or darker than the dot on the left- see picture).
Other blood tests may show elevated white blood cells combating inflammation and infection and elevated liver enzymes if the bile duct becomes blocked.
As mentioned above, the inflamed pancreas can block the bile duct, so jaundice is a common symptom, sometimes seen 1-2 days after the start of the condition. Cases failing to respond to therapy may require surgery to rule out pancreatic cancer or to gently flush the affected area to try and settle the inflammation. Repeated episodes of pancreatitis can destroy the ability of the pancreas to produce food digesting acids and alkalis, resulting in chronic diarrhoea. In humans, there is an overall 20% fatality rate, usually due to a secondary infection developing in the affected areas of the abdomen. Dogs with pancreatitis and diabetic keto-acidosis have a poor prognosis and despite the best of efforts, may die from complications.
Treatment can be very costly due to the length of stay in hospital with intensive care, drugs, repeat blood tests and fluid therapy.
Boxer CardiomyopathyThis condition is characterised by feinting (syncope) and sudden death in Boxer dogs. The problem is due to a run of extra heartbeats interrupting the normal flow of oxygen rich blood to the brain.
These extra heartbeats originate in damaged heart muscle in the right ventricle (ventricular premature contractions -VPC's).
A run of several or more VPC's can cause sudden death which is a common consequence of the condition. By listening to the heart for several minutes with a stethoscope, a vet may detect a skip in the normal heart rhythm although this is not a sure fire way of detecting a problem as affected dogs can go for several hours without as much as one skipped VPC. Similarly, connecting a dog to an ECG machine to record the heartbeat for a few minutes may miss a run of VPC's.
Listening to the heart or recording an ECG while the dog has a syncopal episode would be ideal way to diagnose the problem, but these events tend to happen away for vet surgeries and owners can be too stressed to  think about recording the heartbeat while their unconscious dog lies at their feet.
Specialist cardiologists can loan out 24hr ECG recording machines (Halters) which attach to the trunk of the body in special leather harnesses.
Quite often it is astounding to see how many runs of VPC's occur while the dog is asleep. Atrial FibrillationSome dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy and left A-V valve disease get a life threatening arrhythmia called atrial fibrillation. Each time the damaged atrium contracts, it tries to sends an electrical signal to the ventricles below telling it to contract as "its their turn now". The refractory period may only be a split part of a second, and follows a normal ventricle contraction. In effect, the atria are doing their own rapid irregular heart beat and 8 times out of 10 their extra contractions cause the ventricles to contract.
As a result, we see the ventricles pumping at a much faster and irregular rate than in a dog with no atrial fibrillation.
If a dog has either A-V valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy, the ventricles are already having a hard time. Cardiac output is reduced in A-V valve disease and dilated cardiomyopathy, so oxygen rich blood does not reach vital organs e.g. But don't forget the heart which is the most dynamic oxygen hungry organ (next to the brain). The last thing the diseased ventricles want is atrial fibrillation causing them to contract even faster. Atrial fibrillation can very quickly cause the ventricles to fail and lead to sudden heart failure and death. On exmination, the heart rate is very rapid and irregular- often over 200 beats a minute (nearly 3-4 beats a second).
A normal ECG has one P wave (atrial contraction) followed by one QRS wave (ventricle contraction) and a normal heart rate of approx 100-140. Atrial fibrillation shows rapid irregular spaced ventricle heartbeats (QRS waves) and no regular P waves. The constant ringing in your ears takes a toll on the way you go through your everyday life. If your tinnitus is causing you problems, flip on the television or a fan to add some background noise to your environment. The white noise can help to focus your attention on the noise, as opposed to your tinnitus symptoms. Be sure you remain calm and don’t stress yourself when you do start to hear some ringing in any of your ears. These sound machines help your brain focus on the noise that is produced, and not the tinnitus.
If you do not fall asleep during that period of time, then get off your bed and go into another room. Not only were frescoes of rhinos, horses and lions over 30,000 years old found in a cave in the Ardeche on Dec. Although theya€™re probably right, ita€™s worth noting that these same specialists used similar criteria to ascribe the animals of Chauvet to the same period - until carbon 14 results pushed their age back over 10,000 years, shattering the notion that prehistoric art had evolved linearly, like technologies. In France, the Ministry of Culture placed its new treasure under the most draconian protection, despite the fact that the country already has the lion's share of Paleolithic art. Standing right in front of some of the most spectacular engravings, the Secretary of State for Culture dismissed them as being nothing more than a€?childrena€™s doodlesa€? a€“ whereupon the students from Foz CA?aa€™s high school turned the official into a laughing-stock by presenting him with a schist slab covered with their own scribblings4.
It's now or never, the author of the following article decided in April 1995, as he set out to evaluate the engravings, find out the truth, and propose solutions.
My 13-year old son and I had flown to Porto in Portugal and driven far up the Douro valley into the northeastern mountains, prepared to maneuver around obstructions whether by negotiation or hiking through the back door. Still, here was our first encounter with the powers that be, so I took this opportunity to probe, and get a first step up the hierarchical ladder.


So I explained how Sebastian and I had come so far to see the Paleolithic glories that Portugal would be displaying with pride, spoke of credentials, and placed us (and our pen) in his hands.
Still, we had our bearings, and drove off into the late afternoon to penetrate the heart of the forbidden zone. We were getting closer, very close now, and could spy loops of a trail among the folds of a distant ridge. And here too was the arena where one of the greatest feuds between discoverers and custodians of the past had exploded since the conflict between Othniel Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope over the fossils of extinct giants in Sioux territory during Custer's battles.
With swifts swirling in up-drafts around our heads, we scrambled and picked our way among sheer precipices and ledges. Its tight horseshoe of cliffs and rubble made the perfect hiding place for our car and tent from the gray guards roaming the surrounding crests with binoculars. Sebastian snuggled tighter into his sleeping bag, so I set out to reconnoiter alone, systematically working quadrants and contours between our quarry at Fariseu and Piscos brook.
Somewhere among the jumble of a thousand rock faces would be an ancient image - perhaps masked by lichen or so faint one had to trace its parts before seeing it whole. The numbed waters suddenly spangled upstream with glitter and so many flowery white tresses of water plants that the currents looked like sudsy pastures.
After all the noisy demonstrations against the dam in Lisbon, how were they to know how much clout a nosy prehistorian might have? Whatever was going to happen to him afterwards in the backwater of Portuguese archaeology had surely been inconsequential, since experience proved that nobody made much fuss over sites that were out-of-sight and out-of-mind - especially with archaeologists beholding to dam-builders and political appointees for access and records. According to the insinuations, he could have continued his documentation right up to the headwaters as his masters worked their way upstream step by step. I sensed that this crowd felt their doctor deserved to be the one to tell fellow archaeologists that they might as well ask to visit Atlantis.
Sure enough, there was the 12 year-old Pocinho dam sweeping the valley with a clean curtain.14 But the silos of this former construction site's cement plant were speckled with rust, the ranks of its offices and dormitories were deserted and almost every window was broken. Fortunately, Sebastian was becoming ever more engrossed in Verne's book, spelunking towards the planet's core, so I began to gravitate down halls for exercise and companionship, coming to the door of the room where the secretary was braiding the blind's cord while two laconic draftsmen labored over tracings of horses, ibexes and aurochs.
It has been insinuated that Rebanda probably discovered Rock 1 at Canada do Inferno as early as November 1991.18 In Dec. So, quixotically, he had proposed building a dry-dock around the outcropping, and, failing that, underwater exploration.
If so, the power utility may have known of incredibly rich sites years before the first blueprint for the new dam! Clottes was the worlda€™s reigning prehistorian a€“ the man who had risen to the pinnacle of the French archaeological establishment and held the only keys to the holy grail of art caves - the unbelievably strong and ancient Grotte Chauvet.
After inspecting the 15% of the art that remained above water at the site in the rising dama€™s shadow, because the EDP had hardly felt it necessary to lower the water for the visit of the foreigner sent by the now antagonistic IPPAR, Clottes stepped before a highly polarized press corps.
The dam-builders and their government backers felt vindicated while much of Portuguese public was crestfallen or furious. The dam had become a poisonous political issue in a national election with the President and his fellow Socialists attacking the center-right Prime Minister for its willingness to sacrifice both the nationa€™s patrimony and vineyards to a flaky building scheme.
As if the owners of villas built around the new lake would really allow it to be drained 100 meters to its bottom - where almost all of the known panels would soon be drowned a€“ once every decade! Suddenly, the Portuguese public felt that the dam-builders were not only destroying the nationa€™s most ancient claim to world grandeur and civilization, but that they were in league with a man who would never have been so cavalier with Paleolithic masterpieces in his own country! When I later asked Portuguese archaeologists if they were going to attend an up-coming conference organized by Clottes, they recoiled.
First, because Clottesa€™ retinue of hosts, diplomats and reporters was rushing him and putting him in a bind a€“ even if his stature, pride, and role as UNESCOa€™s expert on rock art had led him into it.
They even echoed his faith in getting dam operators to regularly empty the vast lake a€“ despite the glaring evidence of the EDPa€™s behavior at CA?a itself.
No sooner had Clottes triggered a public outcry, than he began to explain away his tepid defense of the CA?aa€™s importance by saying that he had not been shown enough art to form a true idea of the valleya€™s richness.35 But the truth is, he was shown Rebandaa€™s trove of drawings from submerged sections and sites upstream36 and could have been more demanding.
After all it was a lot of money, the government was inflexible, the controversy had become a campaign issue a€“ which meant that his advice would seem like foreign meddling - and the elections were still far off. When, in fact, the long-term rights for the cave in France would belong to its Ministry of Culture a€“ which was already attacking its discoverer, Chauvet, for the pittance hea€™d received for his pictures. But I could hardly hold my tongue: why on earth had he invited people from this caste of academics back into his life - and the valley - when at least one of them had apparently abused him? The picture was compelling: SimAµes and her husband angelically insisting that the world must be told, while the hireling screamed demonically over the fire, accusing university archaeologists of trying to hog the credit yet again. If Rebanda had known SimAµes and Jaffe were going to paint him into a corner, wouldn't he have raced for the exit? Both Rebanda and SimAµes de Abreu could have been traitors and saviors at once, and as long as I was with this archaeologist, I felt bound to encourage the savior in him. It must have seemed like an insult to him after all his efforts, so with an anarchic gesture, he announced, what the hell, he'd photocopy their fax when it came, so we could enter a second.
Huge black derricks hulked atop the dam beside a row of gate-lifting pistons that looked like Big Berthas. We bagged the warning or omen, caught and released a giant water beetle - the kind that injects deliquescing enzymes into living frogs, then sucks out their juice - and worked our way along what was actually the upper tier of a disappearing cliff. When art panels are located in the CA?aa€™s side valleys, they are apparently concentrated on northern slopes. I was a willing guide as we skewered corn kernels on hooks, lashed lines around a log and threw the lethal leashes into the dark. They were a hundred yards apart, making perpetual rounds as they kept time clocks happy by cranking them every few paces with keys chained to the fence. It was probably his first job after military service, but he was intelligent enough to realize that hea€™d been hired as a pawn in a vast conspiracy to keep Portugal's greatest cultural wonders out of sight and out of mind, till they could be obliterated.
One, because any plan to remove the friezes not only meant assigning a value to them, but keeping the controversy alive.
The mountainous dirt road forked, meandered and even skirted an imposing castle,51 but several classes of children were making the long dusty pilgrimage on foot while carloads of adults in their Sunday best made the excursion to see the only engravings to have escaped the censors - either because the site at Penascosa was so far from Lima Montiero's spyglass or because the valley was gentler here and had always been farmed. I hadn't passed the first olive tree when I happened upon a well-knapped hand-axe, and then another! On-line commentary entitled a€?Some corrections about the CA?a petroglyphsa€? in TRACCE no. While Chauveta€™s name was given to the cave itself, the names of his co-discoverers were given to two of its large chambers. Mila SimAµes de Abreu and Ludwig Jaffe were the founders of the APAAR (AssociaA§ao Portuguesa de Arte e Arqueologia Rupestre), which has been a member of IFRAO (International Federation of Rock Art Organisations) since Sept. In an on-line commentary, Jaffe denounced what he perceived as a continuation of the scandal under new management: a€?In December 1994 IPPAR passed the responsibility for the rock art in the Coa valley to Mario Varela Gomes and Antonio Martinho Baptista. Their critics often subscribe to the doctrine that modern ethnographic evidence cannot be used to interpret ancient cultures.
Although Bednarik was one of the earliest crusaders for CA?a - calling for the EDP to stop building the dam in Nov.
The leftist press and Portuguese archaeological milieu reacted with just as much reflection, ignoring both Bednarika€™s qualifiers and his pioneering role in organizing the world campaign to fight for the whole valleya€™s salvation (see Dossier CA?a p. Of the 66 contributions written by individuals, not one is by Nelson Rebanda, whose ghost a€“ to anyone interested in intellectual property a€“ haunts every line.
After the CA?a scandal served its purpose as an electoral issue that helped the Socialists to win power, the new government kept its campaign promise by protecting the CA?a Valley but used the goodwill engendered by the decision to blunt criticism while flooding other huge assemblages of rock art. 3; Catherine Vincent, writing in Le Monde on March 11, 1995, goes into much more detail about one particular vineyard, Ervamoira, that would have been lost, along with its exceptional Port wine.
The first was to prove that the engravings were not Paleolithic a€“ an effort that entrapped researchers who wanted to apply experimental direct-dating techniques. It contains a tetracycline which is renowned for its effectiveness in respiratory tract infections. X-rays showed she had fractured 5 ribs on the right side, and her right lungs had filled up with blood (pulmonary contusion).
A needle biopsy of the lump failed to show any malignant cells so we decided to have a go at removing the tumour from the toes. At the first bandage change, the wound was a bit messy so we cleaned it up with sterile saline and repacked it with Flamazine. It been slowly growing for 2-3 years, but had reached the point where it was uncomfortable. We made a 1cm margin cut around the base of the tumour and, using blunt dissection, slowly peeled it away from the underlying tendons and bones.
The wound was packed with Flamazine ointment (used for treating burn victims), covered with sterile gauze then bandaged.
It is unusual to need skin grafts in dogs and cats as they are pretty good at this type of healing. Priscilla had some bloods taken and all the biochemistry and haematology results came back normal.
She is eating 7-8 times a day, running around following her Mum everywhere she goes and demanding to be allowed on her lap at every opportunity. It was a great result and one where we just had to go with the flow and get on with the surgery and intensive care. On my final tick search, I was running my fingers very tightly down the edges of Molly’s left ear flap and felt a tiny area of swelling and heat approx. We ran the anti-venom in over 60 minutes and had adrenaline drawn up and ready to inject IV in case of an anaphylactic allergic reaction to it. The owners mentioned they had found some piles of vomit in the yard which I suspect was the dog’s initial response to the snake bite. We were concerned he may have a foreign body in his stomach or intestines or had some kind of blockage in his intestines. Upon opening the abdomen, there was fresh blood lying around and a very nasty looking section of bleeding and dying small intestine. 50cm of his small intestine had slipped through a naturally occurring small hole in some tissue called the mesentery, and then twisted around and cut its own blood supply off. Luckily, there was 1.5cm of normal small intestine to work with before the junction of small and large intestines was involved (where the appendix is). We then wrapped the anastomosis in some tissue called omentum which has great at healing powers and is good at sealing any small leaks. Each breath he took would result in air from outside his chest being sucked in then pushed out as the lungs inside his chest collapsed and expanded. Other drains that had been placed under the skin where the torn muscles were were removed on day 4. On examining his intestines,  we found a 10cm section of small intestine which was very inflamed, thickened and swollen. On examination, he had a dislocating kneecap (patella) which continually locked itself in an abnormal position on the inside (medial aspect) of his knee (stifle). In Hazmat's case, the inside (medial) ridge of this groove had flattened out due to the patella continually dislocating medially and wearing the ridge out. The patella is attached by a tendon on its lower edge to the tibial crest ( a ridge of bone on the top front of the tibia).This is the same tendon the doctors tap on to test your reflexes. The rectangular block was then replaced into the deepened groove giving a nice ridge to stop the patella from slipping out of the groove.
If it is not running, see Chapter 5.Some refrigerators are very quiet and smooth when they operate.
Dogs, cats and horses are all at risk, although curious dogs are the most frequently affected. Tiger and Brown snakes are also prevalent, especially on Coolangatta Mountain and adjacent flat lands.
But don't waste time trying to find it as we stock a multi-snake anti-venom that covers Black, Tiger and Brown snake bites.
If we are at home, have the after hours going to another vet, or are out on a house call, you will be using up what might be precious time - always call first! But treating snake bite is always arduous for the affected pet, as well as for the vet and the nurses. Consequently, it can be expensive, although it may be covered by pet health insurance if you have it.
With the rapid heart rate, the heart muscles get thicker and thicker- its a bit like a weight lifter doing extra work. Less blood in means less blood out of the heart, and reduced blood supply to the body and its vital organs eg kidneys, liver, heart. In some cats, the high blood pressure from hyperthyroidism is keeping their poorly functioning kidneys going. Should your remaining kidney lose up to 50% of its ability to concentrate urine, you can still appear normal although you may be drinking a bit more and making dilute urine. A Senior Pet Health Check urine examination looks at the concentrating ability of the kidneys to detect early reduction in kidney function. In other words, the pet makes more urine than normal because the kidneys can't re-absorb the water out of the urine like they did when healthy. We would rather diagnose renal failure before clinical signs or blood tests indicate its presence.
It is very accurate at detecting early kidney problems long before blood tests start to indicate a problem.
It can survive up to 18 months in soil or concrete and needs strong disinfectants to kill it.
International travellers and infected or recovering dogs being flown to other countries would infect healthy dogs upon their arrival- either by direct contact with another dog or with their clothing, bedding and foot wear. It is vital all puppies and adult dogs are vaccinated against parvovirus and your vet will advise on the appropriate vaccination schedule.
Referral to a specialist may be an option if the tumour is in just one adrenal galnd and not adhered to any vital structures e.g. They must be fully committed and prepared to put up with regular blood tests and expensive drug bills. Besides the expected increase in thirst with hot days, exercise or change to a drier food,  any pet showing polydypsia over 2-3 days should be examined by a vet. The pancreas is a special organ that makes many different chemicals such as insulin, acids and alkalis which help digest and process foods.
Repeating these tests during the dog's stay in hospital gives the vet an good idea on how the dog is going. Diabetes and all of its associated complications (keto-acidosis) can be a life threatening presenting sign. It is unlike the traditional form of cardiomyopathy we see in large dog breeds (most of the time). By the time they do have a feel of the heartbeat or pulse, the rhythm may be back to normal as it may have just been a run of several VPC's taking up less than 1-2 seconds of time. A computer runs through the 24hrs of recording in seconds and prints out a report highlighting all the abnormal heartbeats. The damaged area fires off its own electrical current causing the atrium to contract very rapidly (sometimes as much as 200-300 times a minute). Not every electrical impulse gets through to the ventricle as a number of these extra charges arrive at the ventricle when it is in a "none-responsive" state (refractory period). Once it has passed, the extra electrical signals from the damaged atrium above can trigger off a ventricle contraction.
Any reduction in output means less oxygen for the heart muscles, so they can't pump as well as they would like. There is often evidence of left sided heart failure - coughing, weakness, pale gums, weak thready rapid pulse. This background noise will help take your mind off and cover the sounds of the tinnitus so it is not as loud. Professional therapy will help relieve any issues you may have that are related to your tinnitus. It could mean nothing, and it is generally not considered to be an indicator of any serious disease or illness. Reduce stress by planning your daily activities and long-term goals, so that you won’t be doing things at the last minute or hurrying to get somewhere on time. So in order to prevent damaging them and suffering the consequences, you should attempt to steer clear of loud noises for extended periods of time. Plan out your schedule in ways that leave you less rushed, and make preparations more earlier that before.
18th1, but Europea€™s biggest open-air gallery of Paleolithic animals was reported just a month earlier in the CA?a Valley of northeastern Portugal2.
Regardless of how old the CA?aa€™s art turns out to be, it is unique in its richness above ground and astonishing in its illustrations of movement - with animals tossing their heads with the same stop-action dynamism found at Chauvet and only millennia later in photography and Futurist painting.
The Chauvet Cavea€™s prehistoric bestiary was proudly splashed across magazines around the world. Soon, the guard turned into a regular lad, wrote down the chief engineer's name and pointed beyond the ramp-laced moonscape - into the wilderness. In this walled garden, the conflicting passions of archaeologists had exploded around a campfire, set a president and prime minister against each other, and cowed the emissaries of UNESCO. Lizards skidded into fissures, a rusty blade wedged in a nook beside a sliver of cliff garden spoke of an emigrant who had never returned, but the walls seemed barren. Over and over again, the scene seemed set, the rock stretched, but its lines were just fractals. I yanked myself up to a platform less than a step wide and a ten-foot long cow - an auroch!
By holding the animal's form and movement vividly in mind, the maker had poured himself into its body and experienced a power beyond abstraction, beyond even tool-making, to thrill to the new power of passing through the looking-glass into another being. A stream, running pure as its springs over crisp cresses between alternating bull rushes and crags, almost made it to the river unaltered, but met it just below the threshold and sank into an estuary. We had arrived at Pandemonium and would try to insinuate ourselves into an audience with the Chief Engineer himself.
Only one was so spotless and redolent of perks, though, with its rolled lawn incongruous in the desert, that we knew right where to head among forking roads. I was hardly surprised when these well-fed pros passed the buck to the only gaunt and partially toothless fellow traveler among them. So they decided to play it safe by dumping me on their pet nemesis, the organizationa€™s own archaeological a€?hirelinga€?, Dr. He could have added to his hoard of exclusive photos and measurements, imposed interpretations, and generally lorded it over his peers - for who could have naysayed him with his treasures locked a hundred meters deep in so many great watery safes?10 And to think that all the dam-builders' pet archaeologist and his accommodating superiors at the Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IPPAR)11 in Lisbon - to whom Rebanda had reported his discoveries at least twice12 - had had to do to pull off this economically patriotic (not to say mutually beneficial) stunt was keep their mouths shut! After having suffered at the hands of his mentor, Professor Jorge, why had Rebanda put himself at the mercy of two similar academics and representatives of an international body to boot - Mila SimAµes de Abreu and her archaeologist husband, Ludwig Jaffe, who represented the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO)? At least such nuisances would keep him from getting up to more mischief by turning up new discoveries. But, finally, a secretary answered my summons and let me into a vestibule empty except for a display of postcard-sized photographs of some of the engravings, and a cartoon caricaturing the scandal - which I reckoned had been knowingly posted to co-opt criticism. I couldn't quite make out the man's features through the crack, but it was obvious he was gushing recriminations - and no wonder: the entire archaeological profession had ganged up on the pariah. We all knew I had crossed a threshold, but, after all, I had paid my dues, and in any case, I padded off to the foyer again.
Yet they'd prattled to the press that they had found the art a year ago, and then more like two years ago, and now, word had it, a€?onlya€? three years ago25 - when it was always somehow too late to stop the process leading up to construction, which had only started in September a€™94.26 The gall! Instantly, I whipped out paper and scribbled the fastest copy of the main map that my hand could draw.
After SimAµes de Abreu and Jaffe had unleashed the scandal by revealing the conspiracy to flood Europea€™s richest assemblage of open-air Paleolithic art, the IPPAR and Portuguese Ministry of Culture had scrambled to get their own expert witness a€“ and, in a further twist, had asked UNESCO to recommend an expert to challenge the power companya€™s growing efforts to prove the art wasna€™t Paleolithic but recent27 a€“ in which case, the EDP seemed to think that the public would drop the subject as being the relatively recent work of peasants drawing their cows. For all their heightened sensitivity to having CA?aa€™s fate evaluated by a foreigner, the Portuguese press viewed Clottes as a referee and expected a verdict. Then, as fate would have it, Clottes was back in the headlines within the week, announcing drastic measures to protect Francea€™s new crown jewel, Chauvet. And as if anyone could even find new art during the two weeks a lake might be emptied (every hundred years) while everything was coated with algae and grime!
Opposition editorialists had a field day with Clottesa€™ apparent hypocrisy and dismissiveness towards Portugal - and demonstrators flooded the streets. Two, because people are often driven to produce their greatest work and worst mistakes by similar drives.
Rebanda was even fooling himself on this score, I thought - after all, the Foz CA?a photographs would probably end up belonging to Portugala€™s own ministry or even the EDP. Scientists - like lawyers - ply an adversarial trade, but the chance to put Portugal into the archaeological heavens a€“ and to boost their own reputations with it - had given many researchers more ulterior motives than usual.
Personally, I couldn't see anybody bedding down for the night and traipsing out the next morning with people who had announced that they were going to expose him. In essence, my heart a€“ if not my mind - had taken his side for the moment; he was the underdog, on the verge of a nervous breakdown, and I was concerned that he might even attempt suicide. If I didn't mind coming back at 9 the next morning, he apologized, the approval should be there. But basically the dam was a streamlined machine without much need for local intervention or maintenance. My unequivocal certification of their global importance only made him uneasier, as he didn't know whether to feel flattered or upset. We peered into a dovecot, a squat white tower lined inside with empty compartments like a city after a plague. Suddenly, a deeply hammered auroch on the rock stood out boldly as a road sign - alerting us to an entire herd.
The geology, erosion, & silica skins protecting engravings all seem similar on both slopes, so I theorize that this positioning is not simply a taphonomic illusion created by the disappearance of engravings on the southern slopes.
I wasn't expecting anything when I ambled down at dawn, but there it was: a big mound under the bank! From what I could tell, even his draftsmen had decided to take the day off 49, once they realized the coast was clear. By God, I thought, if the flooders don't save them, I hope the townspeople storm the valley!
If the guards hadn't been under strict orders not to sell admissions, they'd have made a killing; but then any financial association with the art is anathema to the dammers: the next thing they knew, they'd have a revolt on their hands! And like the first guard, when he realized that I had somehow gotten authorization despite my evident opposition to the reservoir, he let out his pent-up indignation - for we were insiders. As we passed the threshold between the deadened depths and virgin current with its billowing water-foliage, we had to skirt and climb over a sheer wall blocking the side-valleya€™s entrance. The intertwined couple, spanning the length of a single real horse, was still necking in Eden after twenty millennia.
Rock Art and the CA?a Valley Archaeological Park: A case study in the preservation of Portugal's prehistoric parietal heritage.
Although it is true that one must be extremely circumspect about doing so, such evidence often opens new perspectives that have more in common with the subsistence systems of ancient cultures than does our own, and the two authors showed considerable originality and courage in exploring it. 1994 - most Portuguese archaeologists with access to the CA?a sites now shun him as thoroughly as they do Clottes and Rebanda. 539, for a resolution, written in defense of CA?a, by Bednarik, in a book filled with vitriole against him). These retractions confirmed that some of ZilhA?oa€™s criticisms of the direct dating attempts were well founded, but dona€™t necessarily reflect on other matters raised in his disputes with Bednarik and Jaffe.
In the English sections, Jorge generously credits numerous associates and generations of Portuguese prehistorians by full name, while studiously avoiding any mention of Rebanda except where it is unavoidable, and then only with his last name between brackets.
The second was to make casts of panels for a museum a€“ which may have damaged some panels. This had happened due to the whiplash effect of internal organs from direct blunt trauma to the body.
The oxygen was continued, but the rate of IV fluids was lowered in case it had started to leak out of the damaged lungs. It looked pretty nasty and we were worried it was malignant and may have spread to other parts of her body. At the second bandage change, it looked a lot healthier and the skin defect had filled in with granulation tissue. There were several tough adhesions that had to be cut, and numerous blood vessels had to be clamped and tied off to prevent bleeding. Being a Friday evening, we decided to open her up just to check there were no adhesions or leaking for the stomach wall surgery site.
However, when we spun the blood down in our centrifuge, the serum (the watery part of the blood) was tinged red rather than being clear. It looks like she got just a small amount of venom when bitten and it only affected the local nerves near the bite wound, but the discoloured serum was a warning to more serious things on the way. Using blunt dissection and tying off blood vessels attached to the tumour, it was eventually removed after approx. We placed some sterile saline over the closure to check for leaks which would show up as bubbles. There was a lot of free clear watery fluid in the abdomen, possibly leaking from the swollen intestinal surface. If you feel that tendon, you can see how it is attached to the ridge of bone below your knee- the tibial crest. The constant "pulling" made the patella slide out of its groove and flatten the inside ridge.
The chisel was then placed at the top and bottom of the block and the whole section was gently lifted ff the bone. It was moved approx 3-4mm laterally before it was pinned in its new position using 2 thin orthopaedic pins (K wires). But it’s always better to keep your pets out of likely snake habitat and avoid the risk.
This thickening happens at the expense of the chamber (ventricle) sizes, and is called Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM). Dialysis is performed in people with renal failure to filter out the waste products that the kidney normally places in the urine. When we run blood tests on renal failure cases, we see elevated levels of urea (Blood Urea Nitrogen- BUN), Creatinine and Phosphate. More urine going out of the body automatically triggers a chemical release in the brain which makes the pet thirsty.
If the kidneys are not working properly, chemicals are released which elevate the blood pressure in an attempt to improve the flow of blood through the kidney and remove waste products that are building up in the body. Because RBC's are responsible for carrying oxygen around the whole body, the pet is quite weak and easily fatigued. Treatment involves intensive care, fluid therapy, pain relief, blood transfusions and no guarantee of success.
In a very old patient, no treatment may be a more preferable propositon especially if the owners are on a budget.
When making the appointment, try to bring along a fresh urine sample as a lot of information can be found by examining it. In other words, we don't normally see elevated kidney tests in chronic renal failure until there is only 25% of healthy tissue left.
The kidneys aren't doing their job of "recycling water" by sucking water out of the urine before it goes to the bladder to be voided.
This small amount of inflammation results in leakage of acids and alkalis both inside and adjacent to the pancreas.
Some older dogs can develop pancreatic cancer which looks just the same as normal pancreatitis.
Dogs must go onto an IV drip to correct dehydration and reverse shock and damage to the kidneys. This is important to provide fluid and nutrition to the cells lining the stomach and intestines.
It is vital that repeat episodes are avoided as too much damage to the pancreas can result in lack of insulin (diabetes) or the inability to digest and absorb foods (pancreatic exocrine insufficiency).
Boxer cardiomyopathy is also known as "Boxer arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy". It is crucial that you prevent any further damage to your ears to keep the tinnitus from worsening. Make it a daily practice to breathe deeply and meditate, so that it becomes a habit you don’t even have to think about. Use relaxation techniques daily until you find you’re doing them without even trying.
While the paintings in the French cave, which became known as the Grotte Chauvet, often have engraved contours, the Portuguese menagerie may also have been painted, but, being outdoors, their pigments have usually weathered away. As shadows welled from the valley, we turned from the scarps and trundled downwards into the cleavage, till the road turned into a path to the water through a profusion of poppies.
Finally, I discerned a flock ambling down through dry brush, then a shirt flashed a white dot, and we converged within hailing distance on opposite banks. Even ideal panels on either side of a fig tree bulging titanically from a small cave were barren. A stand of poplar trees crackled like Chinese New Year with small birds, abundant as leaves. It was a good thing we had his name, Lima Monteiro, because the Securitas guard on this side meant business.


Our compact car slid in among Mercedes and I stepped into glare, drawing cool stares from fleshy faces. My interlocutor explained that the Chief Engineer was powerless to help me, so he couldn't be bothered to give me an audience. Of course, the stories went, the honorable witnesses had refused to become accomplices and had immediately denounced the whole plot a€“ writing open letters to the Portuguese President, Vice President and Director of IPPAR - with carbon copies for the press.13 If only his employers had known that Rebanda was so naive! She announced that it was no use disturbing the doctor, who I could see through a jarred door talking to someone over the phone with peevish vehemence.
Finally, I suggested that she didn't need to keep me company while I waited for the good doctor to get off the phone.
That's strange, I thought as I wandered off again, mulling over a mental photograph of the site distribution. And here were others, even closer to the construction site, at "RA?go de Vide", which had been submerged by the same old dam!
Still, she caught me; whereupon I went on elaborating it, asking questions, and then padded back to the foyer again to continue my vigil. After all, the archaeologists and reporters had allowed the Tagus petrogylphs to be drowned with hardly a whimper. Not only did the contrast with his actions in Portugal now smack of a double standard, but there was a piquant irony. With stakes this high, both parties unleashed their opinion-making machines, making hash of Clottesa€™ carefully weighed words as quickly as theya€™d vilified Rebanda.
Clottesa€™ words may have been earnest, but with stakes this high and politicized they were about as reasonable as Pontius Pilatea€™s attempts to keep the peace. I prefer to think the latter, and that his only mistake was thinking that people on both sides were lucid and reflective enough to interpret his verdict correctly. In Rebanda's place, I'd have calmed down and let the traitors fall to sleep, but then I'd have snuck away - trekking fast through the dark, picking myself up when I fell, but getting out - bloody knees and all - and calling that alarm first! Furthermore, I had no doubt - whatever pacts he'd struck - that he would make up for them if only approached constructively.
After we'd faxed it, I was sorry to see him having to still recall and refax, as he nudged the request repeatedly through the unyielding bureaucracy.
Sebastian and I scrambled and tacked among the carious cliffs, till there was nothing left but rock overhanging the water itself. But a huge horse, leaning over the depths, was both more graceful and cryptic, for someone had wedged a rusty horseshoe into a crack between its hooves. No sooner had I chipped the thin device and steadily shoved each curve straight, than the hook slipped smoothly free.
Only Rebanda's long-suffering secretary had to keep her post and occupied herself by taking up the relay of calling and faxing. These red and gray devices were not only customized to match the guards' uniforms, but showed off the latest in high-tech materials and molding.
As we wound our way down towards the reservoir among towering red cliffs, he took quiet pride in pointing out the hidden elements of scattered engravings. But then Piscos Brook ran between trees, pastures and cane-groves, with cliffs full of shelters and stone panels at each bend.
La Pintura, The Official Newsletter of the American Rock Art Research Association (Member of IFRAO) Volume 21, Number 3, Winter.
In the same book, which Jorge compiled to record the campaign he was spear-heading to save CA?a a€“ a laudatory effort, if there ever was one, that made Jorge synonymous with yet another of Rebandaa€™s finds - Bednarik is repeatedly dismissed as a a€?charlatana€? (pp.
Jaffe accused the trio, who had taken over responsibility for the archaeological resources of the valley, of endangering art panels and refusing to allow qualified foreign researchers or even Dr. Whatever the case may be, the problem of rock art conservation is still as far from resolution in Portugal as it is in most other places in the world. As a precaution, we gave an IV injection of a diuretic to try and shift some of the bloody fluids inside her lungs.
We flushed the abdomen with sterile saline several ties, and placed more antibiotics inside.
On shaving the area very closely, we found 2 tiny snake bite marks surrounded by some bruising. This was due to the snake toxin damaging red blood cells and causing them to leak their contents into the blood stream. Once it slips through, the intestine twists around on itself and cuts its own blood supply off.
At stitches out 10 days post-op, he was bouncing up our stairs eager to get his special treat before having his stitches removed. There was also a smaller soft mobile lump just in front of the bigger one, which on examination of a needle biopsy turned out to be fatty in content (lipoma). We opened up the skin wound on his chest to find a large hole looking straight in at his lungs and beating heart.
The incision was closed using a soluble suture in an inverting continuos pattern (Connell Cushing). In other words, the whole patella apparatus was out of alignment with a natural tendency to pull the patella out of its groove in a medial direction.
If they are inactive (hypo-thyroidism), pets are lazy, over weight, have skin problems and greasy coats.
In fact, many dogs only survive 2-3 days with this intensive care before dying, leaving pet owners with huge vet bills and no dog. It did not take long before surrounding parks and streets were covered in millions of viruses.
This means a dog may appear healthy, but can be excreting virus particles in its faeces and so become a source of infection to other dogs while the disease is brewing in its intestines. As a result, bile "backs up" in the liver and can cause a yellow staining of the blood, skin and gums (jaundice). Dehydration and shock quickly follow, making the dog thirsty, however each time it drinks, more leakage of the acids and alkalis occurs.
If they are very rapid, the ventricle does not have time to fill up to the top befoire it is "told" to contract. Suffering from tinnitus can leave you feeling depressed, but luckily there is help available to help you take your life back. All that remains, where jagged outcroppings of schist jut from brushy slopes - exposing terminal facets perfect for murals - are hauntingly sinuous outlines of deer, horses, ibexes, and wild cattle called aurochs. The first flurry of press articles had mentioned that many of the engravings were already submerged by the cofferdam holding the river back for the more monstrous wall rising downstream from it. I sent greetings and the shepherd expostulated and gestured animatedly upstream towards towering slabs.
For me, all of mankind's later accomplishments, all our later experience of good and evil only become possible after such art.
The irrelevant exchange had sparked sympathy as we both waited - and waited, in similar irrelevance to someone too consumed to give us heed. I would have to go to Lisbon, and no, it wouldn't do any good for him to fax; he didn't have an iota of authority. Despite all the insinuations about Rebanda and IPPAR, they were actually the first to try blocking the philistines with the clout of an institution as important as UNESCO. About thirty years before, Francea€™s equivalent to the EDP had taken the entire Ardeche Gorge, where the Chauvet Cave had just been found, from its entrance at Sauze to a rainbow-huge, natural arch - Vallon Pont da€™Arc, next to Chauvet - by eminent domain, to build a dam. These conscientious people know that theya€™re barely tolerated by the forces of Mammon - scraping crumbs from the tables of vast enterprises armed with dynamite and bulldozers - and make compacts all the time with them, telling themselves, for instance, that the alluvial strata that cement plants exploit are always too tumbled to contain intact Acheulian hearths.
If only he'd announced the discovery, co-opted his employers, and splashed masterpieces across magazine covers while the art's existence was still fresh, he might have won honor, fame, a very small fortune (and maybe even kept his job).
Within weeks, local academics had begun signing their names to Rebandaa€™s discoveries, tracings, and interpretations while forgetting to cite him. I'd have been the one to announce the existence of the largest gathering of open-air Paleolithic engravings in Europe to the world. Slate slabs, thoughtfully laid into a wall as steps, led down through a canopy of fig trees into a cavernous wallow between cliffs.
I woke Sebastian in time to see the beast lumber over the bank and glide away, and then it was high time we checked out our other line at the doctor's office. Noon passed as we still waited together like an old couple, talking about the doctor's misery, Australian rock art, translations; whatever. The guards stiffened as Sebastian and I had the gumption to breach a forbidden zone and stride blithely forward.
There were so many warblers piping and whistling, there must have been a dozen species with overlapping territories. Botha€? - Baptista and Gomes a€“ a€?were closely involved in the rationale to submerge the rock art (to 'protect it from vandals'); in fact, on 8 November Baptista spoke of how sedimentation behind dams should protect rock arta€? - my italics.
After our departure, Bednarik and three other researchers (Alan Watchman from Canada, plus Fred Phillips and Ronald Dorn from the USA), who believed that they had found ways to date rock art directly, studied some of the CA?aa€™s engravings during separate visits.
1995 that was led by Mounir Bouchenaki, the IPPAR formed a scientific committee consisting of Antonio BeltrA?n, Emmanuel Anati and Jean Clottes, who came back for a second round. An incision was made in the stomach wall around the attachment’s base and the hole that was left was closed using a double layer of inverting dissolving Monosyn 3-0 sutures.
This is very painful, and it is not long before the intestine dies and leaks all the food and bacteria it contains into the abdomen causing sudden death. One of the nurses did his breathing for him by filling and gently squeezing his breathing bag on the anesthetic machine in time with his own breathing.
The area was washed in sterile saline several times then a soluble antibiotic (Cephalexin) was applied to the area.
The brain realises it is losing more "water" than it should be from the body, so it activates the "thirst centre" in the brain which makes the pet look for water. Acute secondary kidney failure can occur due to the large amount of fluid loss causing thickening of the blood and decreased blood flow to vital organs. If your bed is used just for sleeping, you can prevent yourself from tossing and turning, trying to fall asleep. And so, forgive me, but in comparison to these ancient windows, cathedrals seem to have anti-climatic and overwrought power. Except for the absence now of bigger species, this was how Solutreans had experienced the world - with whistling, mooing, barking, roaring and trumpeting not just on the Serengeti, but to the frozen north!
So much will go unrecorded because of all this fuss.a€? a€“ So, Rebanda is resigned to the inevitability of the flooding, I thought. If the dam had been built, a dozen known art caves would have been flooded or affected by rising water tables. So rather than condemn Clottes, perhaps the Portuguese should simply admit his diplomacy opened the debate, even if one might wish that hea€™d been a crusader. From Chauveta€™s pinnacle, its gatekeeper was probably right to dismiss the scratchings, which I too thought could have been the kneading of bears, but the contrast between the levels of encouragement was striking.
Although they granted him the discovery of Hella€™s Canyon (in footnotes), other sites that Rebanda had already noted were soon claimed by competitors as Rebanda was effectively silenced. And Vitor and his wife, Susanaa€? - was it my imagination or did her name stick in his craw?
Their stingy hypocrisy and philistinism revolted me: they wouldn't spend a penny on protecting such discoveries, but they'd drown the world up to its headwaters to keep driving Mercedes. Goldfinches sparked into the air, a crested hoopoo flashed orange and black, and the shaggy canes were a tumult of avian chatter. Jaffe was also the IFRAO representative of the SocietA  Cooperativa Archaeologica, Le Orme della€™Uomo, Italy (Bednarik 1994). But not before signing controversial non-disclosure agreements with the EDP, which was hoping that their techniques would yield dates so recent that they could be used to ridicule stylistic daters who had identified the engravings as Paleolithic (Baptista & Fernandes 2007, p. The incision was covered by omentum (fatty tissue in the abdomen), which provided an extra seal to the wound.
Intermittent splashes smacked echoes off the walls, a frog croaked and some beast keened a cry we had never heard. When I asked if they could intercede on our behalf, she said one had to apply in person, in Lisbon, and have connections. In fact, paw prints indicated that we had missed cornering another feral dog or fox in its lair.
Surgically, it was a nightmare: I'd have to pry its head out, keep its neck extended, wedge open its powerful beak and finally thrust the treble barbs down its throat, so as to carefully extract their burr, without snagging them again! Finally, they agreed that one of them would walk parallel to us, down the fence-line, to let us in the distant gate.
At our feet, frogs skipped like pebbles and painted turtles rowed earnestly in tangled water blossoms - all for the taking.
Unless you and I and all of us together add our voices to those of the Portuguese citizenry trekking down for a last look, and reclaim what is OURS!
The story of the denunciation is from Bednarik (1994) and Simons in the New York Times (1994). More damage to the pancreas means more leakage and it does not take long for massive inflammation and tissue destruction to occur.
Even the Chauvet Cave, which was unknown, might have been threatened by the changing water table!
Unfortunately, Bednarik, who is one of the worlda€™s most encyclopedically informed, accomplished, and bold prehistorians, walked right into the trap. Jorgea€™s utter dismissal of Bednarik was clearly motivated by the lattera€™s implicit condemnation of the way that Jorge had appropriated Rebandaa€™s earlier discovery at Mazouco, instigating Rebandaa€™s secrecy that was one component of the CA?a a€?cover-upa€? (Bednarik 1994, p. Later, Bednarik spear-headed another campaign to save a Portuguese rock-art assemblage from inundation a€“ this time behind a dam in the Guadiana Valley - and noted that a€?None of this helps the rock art of the Guadiana, condemned to inundation under billions of tonnes of lake sediment as the reservoir silts up over the next 70 yearsa€? a€“ again, my italics. If you are still unsure and you own an ammeter, test the current draw of the compressor at the compressor leads. Do you think I'm such a fool as to invite the man who deprived me of the credit for my first discovery, to come see my greatest wonders if it wasn't because I needed all the allies I could get; if it wasn't because I even needed the universities to help save them. Ironically, the mandarin in Porto would come out smelling like roses for his campaign while the roles of several well-meaning prehistorians, if I may insist upon the word, were simplified so as to make them better scapegoats. First, because his dating system, which was based on determining the degree of micro-erosion undergone by a rock face, had been developed in Australia, where climate and geological conditions are different from Portugala€™s.
This odd statement flies in the face of Bednarika€™s consistent defense of both the CA?aa€™s art and other assemblages, suggesting that it was a ploy to get the EDP to allow them to test their methods. Even though both men concluded that their observations proved that the art was no older than the Neolithic, Bednarik did not repeat the notion, when announcing his results, that a relatively recent vintage diminished the arta€™s importance or the need to protect it a€“ quite the contrary.
If the knob has an "off" setting which stops the compressor from running, it is thecold control.In the absence of an "off" setting, the easiest way to tell them apart is to pull the plastic knob off the control.
The idea is to keep the compartment at a different temperature from the rest of the food compartment; a more optimum temperature for the particular food that you're keeping in these compartments.
This is known as "sweating." So-called "Energy Saver" switches control small, low-wattage "mullion" heaters in the side and door panels that prevent the outside of the refrigerator from getting cool enough for sweating to occur.
Air flows over it by convection; the warm air rises and is replaced by cooler air from below. Feel for a steady flow of warm air from the drain pan side; it should be obvious (see Figure 11).
It has the veryimportantjob of directing airflow beneath the fridge, assuring that the condenser fan is drawing air over the condenser and not just sucking air in through the back of the fridge.
They are sealed units and cannot be rebuilt.Replacing the condenser fan motor can be dirty and difficult.
When installing a new motor with bracket mounts, it may be easier to install the brackets loosely on the motor until you can locate the mounting screws in their holes. Thus, when trouble-shooting the evaporator fan, you must depress the door switch(es).Open your freezer door, depress all door switches and listen for the evaporator fan. Look first for a separate access panel or a tower within the freezer that houses the fan (Figure 14). Check for anything that may be blocking the fan, including ice from a backed-up defrost drain or a frost problem. If nothing is blocking the fan and it still does not run, check for voltage across the fan motor leads (with the door switch depressed, of course.)If you have voltage across the fan motor leads, the fan motor is bad. Itcancause ice to build up in the internal ductwork.If you hear a "whistling" or "warbling" noise emanating from the fan motor itself or from the inside of the food or freezer compartment, it is probably coming from the evaporator fan motor. They don't cost much.REPLACING THE EVAPORATOR FAN MOTORIn replacing the fan motor, you must make sure that the rotation of the new fan motor is the same as the old one. The easiest way to do this is to look for the shading poles on the old fan motor (Figure 16).If they are on opposite corners from the ones on the new fan motor core, it is a simple enough task to reverse the new rotor in its core. Do not remove the icemaker (if installed.)Look at and feel the panel covering the bottom or back of the freezer compartment. You will see a removable panel covering the entire back or bottom of your freezer compartment.
Make sure the power is off the refrigerator before disassembling any lighting circuit.On some bottom-evap models, you may have to remove some of the plastic moulding around the door frame to access some of the evaporator panel screws. This can usually be accomplished by placing a pan of very hot water in various places on the panel, or by blowing warm air on it with a blow-dryer.
Therefore, when you are diagnosing a defrost problem, it's a good idea to try to avoid melting the ice encasing the terminating thermostat until you've made your diagnosis.
If the thermostat opens before you've had a chance to see if the heater works, you'll have to by-pass it. There are many styles, but most are variations of the three types pictured in Figure 20.Aback-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted vertically against theinside back wallof the freezer compartment. These may be bottom freezer models, side-by-sides (Figure 17) or top freezer models (Figure 18.)Abottom-evaporatormodel is one with the evaporator mounted horizontally (flat) beneath a panel on thebottomof the freezer compartment (Figure 19).
Does it have a fluffy (snowy) white consistency, or is it solid and clear-ish or slightly milky white-ish?Check the frostpattern. Or is it not frosted at all?On back-evap models, examine the drain pan directly beneath the evaporator. Is it clear, or is it filled with solid ice?Each of these symptoms indicates a different problem. If you have lots of white, snowy ice, keep reading.4-5 DEFROST SYSTEMIf the frost is snowy and white in appearance, you have a defrost problem. The three main components of the defrost system are the defrost timer, the defrost heater and the terminating thermostat.4-5(a) DEFROST TIMERS AND ADAPTIVE DEFROST CONTROLIn most older refrigerators and some newer ones, a motor-driven timer (Figure 21) is used to stop the compressor and initiate a defrost cycle. If you have a Whirlpool or Kenmore refrigerator with a flex-tray icemaker, the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker.
This is true whether you are using the icemaker to make ice or not; it is running constantly to time your defrost cycles.
If you have a defrost problem and you have one of these machines, follow the instructions in section 4-6.Nowadays, refrigerators are being made as efficient as possible, due in no small part to government energy efficiency requirements. Defrost heaters use a lot of energy, so designers are mimimizing the total amount of time that the heater is energized. Such factors include ambient humidity and temperature, the water content and temperature of the food you put into the fridge, icemaking within the freezer, and how often the door is opened and closed.For example, if you go away on vacation for a week, the refrigerator door will obviously not be opened for a long time. Less humid air will enter the fridge than if someone was at home, and opening and closing the door. Frost buildup will be much slower than usual, so the refrigerator will not need to be defrosted as often as normal. It also will not need to be chilled as often, so compressor run times will be shorter and less frequent.Designers are using microprocessors (on solid state circuit boards) to adapt defrost intervals and durations to compensate for differences and changes in operating conditions. Such techniques are calledAdaptive Defrost Control, commonly abbreviated as ADC.To make decisions about the correct defrost duration and interval, the control board must have input about the conditions that the fridge is operating under. Each manufacturer uses a different logic scheme and different inputs, such as door open time, compressor run time, duration of the previous defrost cycle, and duration and intervals of door openings.Door open info is provided to the logic board by the door switch - the same one that controls the refrigerator's internal lights.
For example, the ADC is programmed with a maximum amount of time that the heater can stay on; say, for 16 minutes. Often they are mounted under a cover plate or in a bracket that hides all but the advancement pinion.
The easiest way to recognize them is that the harness connection is always labelled with the compressor, defrost heater, L1 and L2.
The easiest way to see the heater is to look for the heavy, rubber-coated wires leading to it; one on each end.
The element has no protective tubing and generally wraps around beneath the evaporator in a large "U" shape.You must exercise caution when handling these heaters to prevent burning yourself.
If that happens, you want to turn the heater off soon after the ice melts, to prevent the evaporator compartment from heating up too much. If theterminating thermostatsenses too high a temperature in the compartment, it opens, and cuts power to the heater. The thermostat will then stay open until the compartment again reaches a very low temperature. In other words, it waits to reset itself until the cooling cycle starts again.If the evaporator is more heavily frosted, the ice may not all melt within the time allotted by the timer. The heater will stay on until thetimerstops the defrost cycle, and restarts the cooling cycle.If you initiate defrost (turn the timer on) and the heaterdoes notheat up, then usually the heater or terminating thermostat is bad. If you initiate defrost and the heaterdoesturn on, then usually the timer or ADC board is bad, and you must replace it.To diagnose which component is bad, you must initiate the defrost mode, or test continuity through the defrost heater and terminating thermostat. Within ten minutes (usually much less) you should be able to see a red glow from the defrost heater(s), which is (are) mounted beneath the evaporator.If you have an aluminum-tube heater as described in section 4-5(b), it will not glow red, but youwillsee ice melting away from its coils. Timers can get old, worn and coked up with dust, and may develop hard spots in the bearings.
If youdo nothear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, then it is necessary to investigate a little further. If you cannot tell for sure, get the information for your model fridge from your parts man. DIAGNOSIS: DEFROST HEATER AND TERMINATING THERMOSTATIf you do not hear or see indications that the defrost heater is working, you could be looking at one of several different problems. The heatermaybe so icebound that it would takehoursfor the heater to melt enough ice for you to see the heater begin to work.
If they are not connected to a terminal block, you will need to cut the leads to test for continuity. Make sure you're not testing continuity across the terminating thermostat too; it may be wide open above 40 or 50 degrees.
With glass-tube heaters, be careful that the glass is not cracked or broken and that you do not cut yourself. It's cheap.If you have an ammeter, try to determine if the heater is drawing any power before you melt any ice. In trying to find the heater leads, be careful that you do not melt so much ice that the terminating thermostat opens.
If you suspect that the terminating thermostat might be open, temporarily bypass the terminating thermostat with an alligator jumper as described below.If you cannot find the heater leads, an alternativeis to check the current in one lead of the main power cord. Double-check this diagnosis by jumping across (shorting) the terminating thermostat with your alligator jumpers.
If the two thermostat leads are not on a terminal block, you will have to cut the leads to jump the thermostat. Remember that it's a wet environment.LIFTING THE EVAPORATORIf you have a bottom-evap model fridge, replacing the heater will involve the delicate task of lifting the evaporator up to get to the heater.
If you break or puncture one of those tubes, you're looking at a potentially expensive sealed system repair.Thaw out the evaporator as thoroughly as is humanly possible. Remove the evaporator mounting screws (if there are any) and gently lift up the end of the evaporator opposite the tubes. Prop up the evaporator with a blunt instrument (I use my electrical pliers or a flashlight) and change the heater.
Do what you went in there to do, but as much as possible, avoid moving the evaporator around too much.When you finish, gently lower the evaporator back into place. The hard tray is finished in a dark gray or black color and has rotating fingers that eject the cubes from the unit; the flex-tray has a white plastic, flexible tray that inverts and twists to eject, much the same as a manual ice cube tray would work.
The hard-tray and separate defrost timer is by far the more common arrangement.This defrost system has the same components described in the defrost system in section 4-5, except that the defrost timer is integrated into the icemaker.
However, the actual switch that controls the heater is accessible.Remove the icemaker and the evaporator panel as described in section 4-4. Take the plastic cover off the face of the icemaker and remove the three screws holding the metal faceplate to the icemaker head.
Plug the icemaker back into its electrical socket and observe the drive motor in the upper lefthand corner of the icemaker head.
The defrost switch is the small, rectangular switch in the upper righthand corner of the icemaker head.
Using electrical tape, tape it out of the way so it does not touch any other metal object in the icemaker head. Using your resistance meter, you should see continuity (and no resistance) between the empty terminal (where the BLACK lead was) and the PINK terminal.You should see NO continuity between the empty (BLACK) and ORANGE terminal. When the switch toggle is depressed, continuity will be just the opposite: BLACK-ORANGE-CONTINUITY, BLACK-PINK-NO CONTINUITY.
If the switch is okay, the problem is probably your defrost heater or terminating thermostat.
Alignment of the gears is critical; follow the instructions that come with the gear sets carefully.
If you replace the motor, you will have to re-align the defrost timing gear mechanism.RE-ASSEMBLYIf you have not removed the defrost timing gear housing from the back of the icemaker head or the motor from the front of the head, you will not need to re-align thedefrost timinggear mechanism. However, youwillneed to realign thedrivegear mechanism.Align the hole in the small drive gear with the alignment hole in the icemaker head and install the gear.
If they do not line up perfectly, momentarily plug the icemaker in or apply 110 volt power to the two center leads of the plug This will turn the drive motor slightly.
Lift the spring-loaded shut-off arm (ice level sensor) as you install the cam and let it rest in the cam hollow. Carefully install the metal cover plate, making sure the end of the wire shut-off arm (ice level sensor) is in its pivot hole in the metal cover plate. Make sure the icemaker is turned on (ice level sensor arm is down) or it won't make ice.4-7 HOT GAS DEFROST PROBLEMSIf you have a refrigerator with a hot gas defrost system, the defrost mechanism is somewhat different from those described in previous sections of this book. If you suspect that you might have a hot-gas defroster but you are not sure, ask your appliance parts dealer. Most of these refrigerators were built before 1970, but not all.The main difference in a hot gas system is that there is no electrical heater or separate terminating thermostat. The defrost cycle is controlled by a defrost timer similar to the one you'll find in electric defrost systems, but the timer controls asolenoid valveinstead of aheater. These units have a temperature sensing bulb, similar to that found on the cold control (see section 4-9 and Figures 21 and 33) as a part of the timer.
Its function is to sense the temperature of the evaporator so the defrost mechanism knows when to shut off.Troubleshooting a defrost problem in this system involves two steps. Wait and watch your evaporator for 10-15 minutes.If the frost starts to melt, then your defrost timer has gone bad. Thoroughly melt the rest of the frost from your evaporator and replace the defrost timer.If the frost doesnotstart to melt, then your defrost solenoid is probably bad. Fortunately, the defrost solenoid is usually designed so the electrical coil can be replaced without cutting into the sealed system.
Trace the Freon tubing until you find electrical wires joining the tubing at a certain point.
UNEVEN FROST PATTERNS, OR NO FROST AT ALLThe evaporator should be bitterly cold to the touch.
If the evaporator is either slightly cool or not cold at all, and your compressor is runningconstantly(not short-cycling; see section 4-9) you have a more serious problem. The same diagnosis applies if just the first coil or two in the evaporator is (are) frosted and the rest are relatively free of ice or perhaps even lukewarm.What's happening is that the Freon is not getting compressed enough in the compressor. This could be due to two causes: either the amount of Freon in the system is low, or the compressor is worn out. Itmayonly require recharging the Freon system, which, depending on the refrigerant used, may cost you a little, or a LOT. I have only seen one exception to this diagnosis, and this is described in section 7-2.Don't let the age of the refrigerator affect your diagnosis.
Not too long ago, one of the largest appliance companies put out a series of refrigerators with compressors that were either poorly designed or poorly constructed; I never did find out which. These were their giant, 20 to 25 cubic-foot flagship models, with techno-marvelous gadgets like digital self-diagnosis and ice and water in the door, and they were built with compressors that wore out within 2 years.Fortunately, the biggest and best companies warrant their refrigerators for five years or more, so these refrigerators were still covered under warranty.
COLD CONTROLIf your refrigerator is cold but not as cold as usual, and you cannot trace it to any of the other problems in this chapter, your cold control may be defective.
To test its cut-in and cut-out temperatures, you can try putting the capillary bulb in ice water and measuring the temperature with a thermometer, but it's a wet, messy, job and it's difficult to control the temperatures. The capillary tube is the liquid-filled temperature-sensing element of the cold control, and operates in the same manner as a thermometerbulb; in fact, the end of the capillary tube may have a bulb. The tube and bulbmaybe coiled right next to the cold control, or they may be led away to another part of the compartment.If you are justtesting(electrically) the cold control, you can jumper directly from one wire lead to the other. By doing this, you are closing the switch manually, and assuming the machine is not in the defrost mode, the compressor should start.If you arereplacingthe cold control, it will be necessary to trace where the capillary tube goes, and remove the whole tubewiththe cold control.



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