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AFRICA has been the last of the large continents to be invaded and explored by our modern civilization. FIG 39 These members of the Masai tribe illustrate the splendid nutrition provided by their diet of cattle products namely: meat, milk and blood. It has one of the largest native populations still living in accordance with inherited traditions. Our route took us through the Red Sea and down the Indian Ocean to enter the African continent at Mombasa below the equator and then across Kenya and Uganda into Eastern Belgian Congo, and thence about 4,000 miles down the long stretch of the Nile through Sudan to the modernized civilization of Egypt.
Special attention was given to the foods, samples of which were obtained for chemical analysis.
Dysentery epidemics were so severe and frequent that we scarcely allowed ourselves to eat any food that had not been cooked or that we had not peeled ourselves. Anderson who is in charge of a splendid government hospital in Kenya, assured me that in several years of service among the primitive people of that district he had observed that they did not suffer from appendicitis, gall bladder trouble, cystitis and duodenal ulcer.
If we refer to an ethnographic map of African races we find there is evidence of a great movement northward from South Africa. I was told that a reindeer calf could be dropped in a foot of snow and almost immediately it could run with such speed that the predatory animals, including wolves, could not catch it. The lions live on the large grazing animals, particularly the cattle, from which they select the strongest. They seemed to be preserved for the numerous lions which occasionally become very bold since they have an abundance of food and no enemies. These had a total of ten carious teeth, or only 0.4 per cent of the teeth attacked by tooth decay. In contrast with the Masai, the Kikuyu tribe, which inhabits a district to the west and north of the Masai, are characterized by being primarily an agricultural people. Like many of the central African tribes, they remove some lower incisors at the time these permanent teeth erupt. Their practice has been to burn down a section of forest in order to get new lands for planting.
This is a native suburb of Nairobi, and there the people have come under the influence of recent European contact.
This is a very interesting tribe living on the east of Lake Kivu, one of the headwaters of the West Nile in Ruanda which is a Belgian Protectorate.
Physically they are not as well built as either the tribes using dairy products liberally or those using fish from the fresh water lakes and streams. A unique obstruction to navigation has developed due to the fact that the Nile runs underground for a considerable distance. These people are said to have originally lived in the trees and they were exceedingly shy and difficult to contact. This mission is located west of Lake Albert and includes members of the Bahema and Balendu tribes. These natives were members of several tribes surrounding this district who were for the most part temporary residents as laborers. This district lies south of Uganda and east of Belgian Congo proper, northwest of Tanganyika. It is significant that all of these carious teeth were in the mouth of one individual, the cook. They have maintained a particularly bitter warfare against the Arab slave dealers who have come across from the Red Sea coast to carry off the women and children. The Neurs at Malakal on the Nile River are a unique tribe because of their remarkable stature.
The individuals studied in this institution were from quite remote areas distributed through Sudan.
This is a native school in which the individuals are comparable in many respects to those in the native schools at Khartoum and Omdurman.
The purpose of these studies has included the obtaining of data which will throw light also on the etiology of deformities of the dental arches and face, including irregularity of position of the teeth. This variation could be directly associated with the nutrition rather than with the tribal pattern.
One of the simplest forms, and one which corresponds with a very common deformity pattern in the United States, involves the dropping inward of the laterals with narrowing of the upper arch making the incisors appear abnormally prominent and crowding the cuspids outside the line of the arch. It is nutritious, and in much of the desert country constitutes the mainstay of the nomads for months at a time. Hrdlicka has called attention to the occasional development in several racial stocks of individuals who travel on all fours instead of upright. From their temper and sympathetic attitude for the oppressed Ethiopians, it would not be surprising if sympathizers pass over the border into that country to support their crushed neighbors.
He said there was no single question asked them so often by the native boys in their school as why it is that those families that have grown up in the mission or government schools were physically not so strong as those families who had never been in contact with the mission or government schools. A mining prospector who had spent two decades studying the mineral deposits of Uganda was quoted to me as stating that if he could have the heaven of his choice in which to spend all eternity it would be to live in Uganda as the natives of Uganda had lived before modern civilization came to it. As in the primitive racial stocks previously studied and reported, we found that modernizing forces were often associated with a very marked increase of the death rate over the birth rate.
It can be said with fair accuracy that among the tribes with which we have been dealing there is, in their uncontaminated society, no pauperism, no paid prostitution, very little serious drunkenness, and on the whole astonishingly little crime; while practically everyone has enough to eat, sufficient clothing, and an adequate dwelling, according to the primitive native standard. If we think of Nature's calendar as one in which centuries are days and civilizations are years, the part current events are playing in the history of a great continent like Africa may be mere incidents.
These are the fundamental truths of life that have put them in harmony with Nature through obeying her nutritional laws. Accordingly, it provides a particularly favorable field for studying primitive racial stocks. The inhabitants of the interior of a continent, however, have not access to liberal supplies of various forms of animal life of the sea.
This journey covered most of the country around Ethiopia and gave us contact with several of the most primitive racial stocks of that country.
These people had some things in common with the Melanesians and Polynesians of the South Pacific whom we studied the year previously.
This Masai belle wears the customary decorations of coils of copper wire bracelets and anklets which largely constitute the attire of the girls. A valuable cow was not eating properly, and I observed them taking a thorn out of the inside of her mouth.
An important source of fat soluble vitamins during the drought period is the blood of the steers which is drawn about every thirty days. And, moreover, that these fawns would go almost immediately after their birth with a herd on a stampede and never be knocked down. In driving over the veldt we frequently saw one or two men or boys guarding an entire herd with only their spears. Timber and shrubbery are so scarce in this vicinity that the dwellings are built of clay mixed with cow dung which is plastered over a framework of twigs. Recently the local government authorities found it necessary to shoot off eighty of the lions in a particular district because of their aggressiveness. Their chief articles of diet are sweet potatoes, corn, beans, and some bananas, millet, and Kafir corn, a variety of Indian millet. This custom is reported to have been established for the purpose of feeding the individuals in case of lock-jaw. As soon as the virgin fertility is exhausted, which is usually in three to five years, they burn down another section of forest. Through him as interpreter I asked that all boys who had ever had toothache hold up their hands, and nineteen did so.
It is an institution where young married couples are trained in domestic science, agriculture, and similar subjects.
They, like the Masai, are primarily a cattle raising people and live on milk, blood and meat. The reward of obeying nature's laws of nutrition is illustrated in this west Nile tribe in Belgian Congo.
In this district vegetation is rank and prolific, including large quantities of water plants which form islands that are often attached temporarily to the shore.
We will consider the representatives of these different tribes collectively since they live largely on a common dietary consisting chiefly of cereals. While the Bahema tribe originally lived very largely on cattle products, milk, blood and meat, in this district, the herds were small and they were using a considerable quantity of cereals, chiefly corn and beans, some sweet potatoes and bananas.
The people had been living largely on a cereal diet and now during their temporary residence at the port had had fish.
Wherever the Africans have aidopted the foods of modern commerce, dental caries was active, thus destroying large numbers of the teeth and causing great suffering. There are several tribes living along this great waterway, which are of special interest now owing to their close proximity to Ethiopia. Many of the women are six feet tall and the men range from six feet to seven and a half feet in height. Omdurman on the west bank of the White Nile opposite Khartoum is the largest purely Arab city in the world.
This represents a total of 1,002 individuals examined, of whom 300 had one or more carious teeth, or had lost teeth by caries, making 29.9 per cent of the individuals with dental caries. The lowest percentage of irregularity occurred in the tribes living very largely on dairy products and marine life. In the new generations, born after the parents had adopted typical modernized diets of Europeans, there was a marked change in the facial and dental arch forms of the adolescent children.


As in our civilization, even the first generation, after the adoption of modernized foods may show gross deformities.
A very frequent injury apearing in the offspring after the adoption of less efficient foods often involves a marked depression of the middle third of the face as illustrated in the three boys in this view. In the hot desert countries of Asia and Africa camel's milk is an important item of human nutrition.
Both girls and boys in the modernized colonies in Cairo showed typical deformity patterns in faces and dental arches.
I saw several individuals of this type in Africa scooting around about as rapidly as the dogs. These two native African children scooted around on all fours so swiftly that it was difficult to take their pictures. For many of these primitive tribes a new suit of clothes could formerly be had every day with no more trouble than cutting a new banana leaf. The problem is accordingly very much larger than the interest of some particular foreign power. It was important, therefore, in the interest of the inhabitants of the United States, Canada, Europe, and other large continental interiors, to study primitive people living under environments similar to theirs. If any one impression of our experiences were to be selected as particularly vivid, it would be the contrast between the health and ruggedness of the primitives in general and that of the foreigners who have entered their country. We dared not allow our bare feet to touch a floor of the ground for fear of jiggers which burrow into the skin of the feet. Where the members of these same tribes had adopted modern civilization many cases of tooth decay were found. Their skill in killing a lion with a spear is one of the most superb of human achievements. One of the striking tribal customs is the making of large perforations in the ears in which they carry many metal ornaments. They occupy the territory to the east of the Masai, who in past centuries have driven themselves as a wedge between the Kikuyu and the Wakamba tribes. They live within easy reach of Lake Victoria from which they obtain large quantities of fish which constitutes an important part of their diet, together with cereals and sweet potatoes. The district in which they live is to the east of Lake Edward and the Mountains of the Moon.
Their faces differ markedly from those of other tribes, and they boast a very noble inheritance. Uganda has been called the Garden of Eden of Africa because of its abundance of plant foods, chiefly bananas and sweet potatoes, and because of its abundance of fresh water fish and animal life.
They are much sought for in industrial enterprises and are often moved in groups for a considerable distance. The water carries large quantities of alluvia which furnish an abundance of nutriment to the floating plant life. They break the banana trees over or pull them up by the roots and eat the succulent heart as well as the fruits. The two young men in the center above have slain single handed the large bull elephant whose tusks they are holding. We found them very well disposed through the confidence that has been established by the mission workers. The natives of Africa know that certain insects are very rich in special food values at certain seasons, also that their eggs are valuable foods.
When we learn that Lake Kivu was only discovered in 1894, even though it is one of the important sources of the Nile waters, we realize the primitiveness of the people of this and adjoining districts.
The cases shown here are typical of workers on plantations which largely use imported foods. We were told that in one district adjoining Ethiopia all light skinned people are in danger and cannot safely enter that territory without a military escort.
Their food consists very largely of animal life of the Nile, dairy products, milk and blood from the herds. Of this total number of individuals studied in twenty-seven groups, there were several groups with practically complete immunity to dental caries, while other groups had relatively high incidence of that disease. For example, among the Masai living on milk, blood and meat, only 3.4 per cent had irregularities. Note the narrowing of the nostrils and dental arches and the crowding of the teeth in these four typical young men.
In the upper left the upper arch is much too small for the lower and nearly goes inside it. Note the extreme protrusion of the upper teeth with shortening of the lower jaw in the upper pictures and the marked narrowing with lengthening of the face in the lower views.
Even the horses ridden by the Arab chiefs in moving their camel herds across the desert are often dependent, sometimes for as long as three months, upon the milk of the camels for their nutrition. The health of these groups is not comparable to that of those living on the native dietaries. It deals directly with the future course of events and the attitude of the African natives in general toward foreign domination. I was even asked several times by them whether or not I thought that the native Africans must go the way of the Red Indians of America.
Was there in the distant past a world civilization that was better attuned to Nature's laws and have these remnants retained that knowledge? Africa is one of the few countries that can provide both primitive living conditions and the modern life of the plains and plateau country in the interior. Since the various tribes speak different languages and are under different governments, it was necessary to organize our safari in connection with the local government officials in the different districts.
That their superior ruggedness was not racial became evident when through contact with modern civilizations degenerative processes developed.
Scarcely ever when below 6,000 feet were we safe after sundown to step from behind mosquito netting or to go out without thorough protection against the malaria pests. In the next generation following the adoption of the European dietaries dental arch deformities frequently developed. While there are many tribes existing today, it is of significance that they each possess some identifying characteristics of language, dress and food habits. These primitive native stocks can be largely identified on the basis of their habits and methods of living.
It is interesting to study the methods of living and observe the accumulated wisdom of the Masai.
The wound was treated by rubbing it with the ashes of a plant that acted as a very powerful styptic. If the animal is wild it is hobbled as shown below where the stream of blood is seen spurting into the gourd. I was interested to learn that they much prefer their locally made spears to those that are manufactured outside and brought in, because of their certainty that they will not break, will withstand straightening regardless of how much they are bent and because due to the process of manufacture will take a very sharp edge. The girls in this tribe, as in several others, are placed on a special diet for six months prior to marriage.
The Masai until checked carried on a relentless warfare, consisting largely of raids, in which they slaughtered the men and carried off the women and children and drove away the cattle or goats.
According to legend, a Roman military expedition penetrated into central Africa at the time of Anthony and Cleopatra. They are said not to have been conquered in warfare when they could take the warfare to the water. Accordingly, in many of these floating islands a large quantity of soil is enmeshed in the plant roots. Their shyness, however, together with the difficulty of making them understand through two transfers of languages, made an examination of their teeth very difficult.
A fly that hatches in enormous quantities in Lake Victoria is gathered and used fresh and dried for storage.
This group lives largely on dairy products from cattle and goats, together with sweet potatoes, cereals and bananas. This jungle of rank marsh growth swarms with a wide variety of animal life, large and small.
Khartoum, on the contrary, just across the river from Omdurman and the capital of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, has districts which are typically modern. Where the nutritional deficiency is very severe, as at Mombasa on the coast, more severe changes in facial form are found.
In the girl at the upper left, the upper arch tends to go inside the lower arch all around.
The native African is not only chafing under the taxation by foreign overlords, but is conscious that his race becomes blighted when met by our modern civilization.
If this is not the explanation, it must be that these various primitive racial stocks have been able through a superior skill in interpreting cause and effect, to determine for themselves what foods in their environment are best for producing human bodies with a maximum of physical fitness and resistance to degeneration.
The great plateau of eastern and central Africa has nurtured a score of tribes with superb physiques and much accumulated wisdom. Very few of the many Europeans with whom we came in contact had lived in central Africa for as much as two years without serious illness or distinct evidence of physical stress. The Nilotic tribes have been chiefly herders of cattle and goats and have lived primarily on dairy products, including milk and blood, with some meat, and with a varying percentage of vegetable foods. They are reported to have known for over two hundred years that malaria was carried by mosquitoes, and further they have practiced exposing the members of their tribes who had been infected with syphilis by the Arabs to malaria to prevent the serious injuries resulting from the spirochetal infection. They nurse their children for three harvests and precede each pregnancy with special feeding.


The Wakambas are intellectually superior to the Kikuyus and have distinct artistic skill in the carving of art objects. In a study of 312 teeth of eleven individuals, only one tooth was found to have been attacked by tooth decay, or 0.3 per cent. While the Masai raise chiefly the hump-backed cattle, the herds of this Muhima or Anchola tribe are characterized by their large wide-spread horns. They have a king and a native parliament which the British Government recognizes and entrusts with local administrative affairs.
At some period in the past the river became bridged across in upper Sudan near its southern border. The only people in the districts who are permitted to kill the elephants without license are the pygmies. The shores of the Nile for nearly a thousand miles in this district are lined with papyrus and other water plants to a depth of from several hundred yards to a few miles. This girl is of the first generation, in a mission in Nairobi, following the adoption of the modernized foods by the parents. They must pay an excessive charge due to the long transportation cost for the imported goods, a charge which often exceeds the original cost in the European or American markets by several fold. I found them well aware of the fact that those of their tribes who had adopted European methods of living and foods not only developed rampant tooth decay, but other degenerative processes.
We are concerned to know how they have accomplished this, and whether they or any other people can survive in that environment after adopting the formulas of our modern civilizations. That the cause was not the severity of the climate, but something related to the methods of living, was soon apparent. It was most interesting to observe that in every instance these cattle people dominated the surrounding tribes.
Yet modern medicine boasts of being the discoverers of this great principle of using malaria to prevent or relieve syphilitic infections of the spinal cord and brain. They took wives from the native tribes and passed laws that thereafter no marriage could take place outside their group. With the progressive addition of new material a large natural bridge has been raised on which trees are now growing, and across which are elephant trails. In the native Arab school at Omdurman, among the pupils living almost entirely according to the native customs of selection and preparation of foods, 6.4 per cent had irregularities, while in the native school at modernized Khartoum 17 per cent had irregularities. In order to pay their head tax they are frequently required to carry such products as can be used by the government officials, chiefly foods, over long distances and for part of each year. Considering that the most universal scourge of modern civilization is dental caries, though it is only one of its many degenerative processes, it is important that we study these people to note how they have solved the major problems of living in so severe and disciplining an environment as provided in Africa. In all the districts it was recognized and expected that the foreigners must plan to spend a portion of every few years or every year outside that environment if they would keep well.
We were advised that the most dangerous places for becoming infected were the public eating houses, since the mosquitoes hide under the tables and attack the diner's ankles if they are not adequately protected. They were characterized by superb physical development, great bravery and a mental acumen that made it possible for them to dominate because of their superior intelligence.
They apparently knew the cause and proceeded to treat her as modern veterinaries might do in order to overcome her difficulties. They defend their herds and their families from lions and leopards with their primitive spears. An examination of 664 teeth of twenty-one individuals revealed only three teeth with caries, or 0.4 per cent. These tribes, therefore, use milk, blood and meat from cattle and large quantities of animal life from the Nile River.
This makes possible a comparative study of similar groups in the two cities-modernized Khartoum and primitive Omdurman. These foods are often those which not only the adults, but particularly the growing children sorely need for providing body growth and repair. Children born in that country to Europeans were generally expected to spend several of their growing years in Europe or America if they would build even relatively normal bodies. These great racial movements have met in the Upper Nile region of Eastern Africa near the equator, and have swayed back and forth with successive obliteration or absorption of those tribes that were least sturdy. Among these Nilotic tribes the Masai forced their way farthest south and occupy a position between two of the great Bantu tribes, the Kikuyu and the Wakamba. For their food throughout the centuries they have depended very largely on milk, meat and blood, reinforced with vegetables and fruits. In a group of 190 boys who had been gathered into a government school near the east coast of Lake Victoria only one boy was found with dental caries, and two of his teeth had been affected.
Their skill with spears is remarkable and they are able to kill an elephant while the animal remains unaware of his danger.
This naturally has produced a current of acute unrest and a chafing under the foreign domination. Disease-carrying ticks were so abundant in the grass and shrubbery that we had to be on guard constantly to remove them from our clothing before they buried themselves in our flesh. It takes them one to two days to hamstring an elephant by working stealthily from behind, always keeping out of the elephant's sight.
The women are often six feet or over, and the men seven feet, some of them reaching seven and a half feet in height. They were exposed to the aggression and oppression of these two great racial movements, resulting often in intermingling in various proportions of racial bloods.
Although an elephant can scent a human for a long distance, these pygmies can disguise themselves so completely that the elephant is unaware of their presence. I was particularly interested in their food habits both because of their high immunity to dental caries which approximated one hundred per cent, and because of their physical development.
We had to be most careful not to touch the hides with which the natives protected their bodies from the cold at night and from the sun in the daytime without thorough sterilization following any contact. 40 we see a native Masai with his bow and arrow, the latter tipped with a sharp knife which is guarded by a shoulder to determine the depth to which the arrow may enter the vein.
After disabling him by cutting the tendons of both hind legs, they attack him openly and, while one attracts his attention, the other slowly but progressively hacks off his trunk. I learned that they have a belief which to them is their religion, namely, that every man and woman has a soul which resides in the liver and that a man's character and physical growth depend upon how well he feeds that soul by eating the livers of animals.
We dared not enter several districts because of the dreaded tsetse fly and the sleeping sickness it carries. It is accordingly always handled with their spear or saber, or with specially prepared forked sticks. One wonders at the apparent health of the natives until he learns of the unique immunity they have developed and which is largely transmitted to the offspring. In this figure the stream of blood may be seen spurting from the jugular vein into a gourd which holds about a gallon.
While we were in one of the pygmy colonies two of them brought in the tusks of an elephant they had just killed. In several districts we were told that practically every living native had had typhus fever and was immune, though the lice from their bodies could transmit the disease. We had the rare opportunity of witnessing the celebration in the colony, which included the special reproduction in pantomime of the attack and method of killing the elephant. One also wonders why people with such resistance to disease are not able to combat the degenerative diseases of modern civilization. The animals did not even flinch when struck by the arrow, the operation is done so quickly and skillfully. When they adopt modern civilization they then become susceptible to several of our modern degenerative processes, including tooth decay. When sufficient blood was drawn, the torque was removed and the blood immediately stopped flowing. This rugged, though small, woman is the mother of five grown men, two of whom are shown in Fig.
When available, each growing child receives a day's ration of blood as does each pregnant or lactating woman.
Their arrows are tipped with iron of their own manufacture and have receptacles for carrying drugs which they extract from plants. These three sources, milk, blood and meat provide them with liberal supplies of body-building minerals and the special vitamins, both fat-soluble and water soluble.
For animals which they wish to destroy the arrows carry a poison which rapidly produces death.
They judge the value of a cow for keeping in their herd by the length of time it takes her calf to stand on its feet and run after it is born, which is only a very few minutes. This is in striking contrast with the practice of our modern dairymen who are chiefly concerned with the quantity of milk and quantity of butter fat rather than with its value as a source of special factors for nutrition. Many of the calves of the modern high-production cows of civilized countries are not able to stand for many hours after birth, frequently twenty-four.
This stealthy night prowler is one of the most difficult animals to combat and probably has been one of the reasons the pygmies build cabins in the trees. This ability to stand is very important in a country infested with predatory animals; such as lions, leopards, hyenas, jackals and vultures. They consist of low shelters covered with banana leaves and other plants, built over a frame work.




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