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Author: admin | 27.02.2016 | Category: Ear Drops For Tinnitus

Each day infants are discharged form the hospital at birth without receiving an initial hearing screening.
Approximately 33 babies are born every day with a significant hearing loss in the United States.
Hearing loss among newborns is 20 times more prevalent than phenlyketonuria (PKU), a condition for which all newborns are screened for.
The average age that children with hearing loss are initially diagnosed, ranges from 12 to 25 months.
Research has confirmed that treatment has the best results when infant hearing loss is identified and intervention begins before the child reaches six months of age.
The National Institute of Health, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Audiology, the Joint committee on Infant Hearing, and the Healthy People 2000 Report recommend that children with congenital hearing loss be identified before six months of age.
Infants identified with hearing loss may be fit with hearing amplification as young as four weeks of age. Prenatal damage to the cochlear may be due to the partial or lack of cochlear development (inner ear), viral or parasitical invasion, spontaneous malformations or inherited syndromes.
The North Dakota Early Hearing Detection and Intervention program is a North Dakota Center for Persons with Disabilities Program. MIXED HEARING LOSS Whenever the hearing loss of a patient includes a mixture of both conductive and sensorineural characteristics, is said to have a mixed hearing loss. Superior ventral cochlear nucleus (SVCN) Erythroblastosis typically causes hearing loss that centers around 3000–4000 Hz.
Central Auditory Processing Disorders (CAPD) CAPD characterized by decreased understanding of speech in the presence of background noise. FUNCTIONAL HEARING LOSS Functional or psychogenic hearing loss is the customary diagnosis when there is no organic basis for the patients apparent deafness.
Functional Overlay It is entirely possible for hearing loss of functional origin to be superimposed on true organic hearing impairment. History: A 34-year-old woman with otosclerosis and hearing loss for over 10 years Refuse to use hearing aids She often says, What? Audiometric Patterns in Functional Hearing Loss There is no characteristic audiometric pattern in functional hearing loss, but the consistent inconsistencies serve to alert the physician. Malingering Malingering is the deliberate fabrication of symptoms that the patient knows do not exist. Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Develops when the auditory nerve or hair cells in the inner ear are damaged. An initial hearing loss manifests when people begin to notice a reduction in their hearing ability.
By missing these critical opportunities, infant hearihng loss goes undectected for several years in nearly half of the cases.
Nearly 50% of newborns with hearing loss are not diagnosed until at least the second year of life. Studies have shown that when hearing loss is detected later, an important time frame for developing speech and language skills has passed. Even children with a hearing loss in one ear are ten times as likely to be held back by a grade as compared to children with normal hearing in both ears.
Appropriate and comprehensive early intervention helps these children develop with better language, cognitive, and social skills. Hearing deficiency may have started originally as a conductive failure (otosclerosis) and later developed a superimposed sensorineural component. In clinical practice, most cases with an original sensorineural etiology remain in that classification without an added conductive element. In chronic otitis media some toxic inflammatory metabolite produces a cochleitis or labyrinthitis.


This example a warning to physicians to avoid assuring any patient that his hearing loss can be corrected merely by removing cerumen, because mixed hearing loss may be found subsequently. In every case of mixed hearing loss one should determine how much of the deficit is conductive and how much is sensorineural. If the patient does not understand any better with a hearing aid or when the voice is raised, hearing is not improved even if the conductive portion of the mixed hearing loss is corrected. 17 The auditory pathway consists of a series of transducers that repeatedly change the speech stimulus so that it can be handled effectively by the cortex. Characteristic Features of central hearing loss : Hearing tests do not indicate peripheral hearing impairment. This may be caused by injury to SVCN spheroid cells, the second-order neurons of the ascending auditory pathway, even in the presence of normal hair cells in the organ of Corti. Common complaints include inability to study or read in the presence of noise, slowing of reading speed caused by noise(vacuum cleaners or air conditioners ) and suspicion by family members that the patient has a hearing loss. The inability to hear results entirely or mainly from psychological or emotional factors, and the peripheral hearing mechanism may be essentially normal. Psychogenically induced hearing loss usually is a uniform flat- tone loss in all frequencies, suggestive of a well-marked conductive impairment. Usually, the hearing impairment is bilateral, and the bone conduction level is the same as the air conduction level. The source may be located in the inner ear, the nerve from the inner ear to the brain, or in the brain.
Sensory hearing loss refers to loss caused by abnormalities in the cochlea, such as by damage from noise trauma, viral infection, drug toxicity, or Meniere’s disease.
It becomes difficult to understand what is being said, when three or more people are talking together.
Other sounds, such as bird song, doorbells or a ringing telephone, can recede or simply disappear. Consequently, these children miss out on early intervention to increase their language, cognitive, and social skills, and their overall development is severely delayed. As a result, speech and language development is delayed and academic and social skills may be adversely affected. The difficulty may have been sensorineural in the beginning ( presbycusis ), and a conductive defect (middle-ear infection ) may have developed subsequently. In contrast, most cases that start as conductive hearing impairment later develop some sensorineural involvement. The sensorineural deficit may be caused by penetration of the oval window with exposure of the perilymph. Prognosis: In mixed hearing loss the prognosis depends on the relative proportion of conductive and sensorineural pathology. There is no characteristic audiometric pattern, except that the disparity between the hearing level and the speech interpretation is quite marked. Central pathology must be included in the differential diagnosis of the hearing loss producing a 4000-cycle dip on the audiogram. If people talk to a person with CAPD while he or she is involved in auditory concentration such as listening to a television program, the person will often not hear.
The basis for functional hearing loss in most patients is psychogenic, the product of emotional conflict, ( neurotic anxiety ). Hysterical blindness and paralysis are other examples of the same type of somatization or conversion reaction.
In a patient with unilateral functional deafness there may be complete absence of bone conduction on the side of the bad ear, though the good ear has normal acuity. If the patient claims he has one good and one bad ear, and the examiner obstructs his good ear with a finger, then shouts into it loudly enough to be heard easily by bone conduction alone, the malingerer claims he hears nothing.


Neural loss stems from problems in the auditory (eighth cranial) nerve, such as tumors or neurologic disorders. In some cases the conductive and the sensorineural elements may have started simultaneously ( severe head injury affecting both the inner ear and the middle ear ). Despite meticulous surgical care, the inner ear also can be traumatized readily and made more susceptible to infection. The best way to approximate the conductive and the sensorineural components of a hearing loss is to perform all possible tests for estimating the patients sensorineural potential or cochlear reserve.
If the sensorineural component is slight, the surgical prognosis is good, and under favorable circumstances the hearing may approximate the level of the bone conduction. In certain cases, central hearing loss may mimic peripheral causes of deafness, including occupational deafness.
However, if one gets the persons attention by calling his or her name before speaking, the first sentence will not be missed, and hearing is normal. Tinnitus is a characteristic feature of hysterical deafness, and patients often claim that the noise is unbearable.
Too spectacular an improvement with a hearing aid, especially when the patient has set the controls at minimal amplification, or a sudden disproportionate improvement in hearing after a simple procedure such as drum massage or insufflating the eustachian tube.
Such a patient even may deny hearing shouts directed at the bad ear in spite of the good hearing in the opposite ear.
Tumors such as acoustic neuromas can lead to sensorineural hearing losses, as can viral infections, Meniere’s disease and meningitis. Pendred's syndrome is a recessive endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by goiter formation and results in a moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss that is usually progressive in nature. In surgical trauma to the inner ear, high-frequency hearing loss often falls below the preoperative level, and the patient may complain of reduced discrimination though his pure-tone threshold is improved. However, the discrimination is not improved much, even after correction of the conductive defect. The chief function of the auditory cortex is to interpret and to integrate these impulses and to provide the listener with the exact meaningful information intended by the speaker, or to permit the listener to react appropriately to the actual implication of the sound. The spheroid cells of the superior ventral cochlear nucleus (SVCN) show an anatomical frequency gradient, low ventral to high dorsal. Treatment : altering the listening environment to obtain the best possible signal-to-noise ratio. Hearing acuity usually varies, depending on the patients emotional state at the time of testing. In complete deafness the presence of cochlear nerve reflexes with loud noises indicates either malingering or hysteria.
Sensorineural hearing loss can also be the result of repeated, continuous loud noise exposure, certain toxic medications, or as an inherited condition. If the patient hears and discriminates well when speech is made louder, then the conductive element probably is a major cause of the hearing difficulty, and there is a good chance that surgery will improve the hearing. A similar adverse effect is noted in the ear opposite the tumor when certain words are interrupted periodically or accelerated.
Labyrinthitis Otosclerosis was at one time thought to retain its purely conductive character for years; today it is recognized that this condition develops sensorineural impairment in same cases.



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