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I wanted an expert to discuss what is happening with research at House and to comment on the bright future of implants in general, and I couldn’t think of anyone better qualified. David Landsberger: My father, who was researching influenza virus when I was a kid, probably influenced me. I suppose cochlear implant research seems like a narrow field, but while in the depths of it, it seems very broad. About a month after meeting with Eddington, I found a job in Otolaryngology at the University of Melbourne in Australia doing cochlear implant research. My research investigates new ways of improving both speech in noise and music perception with a cochlear implant. In a cochlear implant there are typically 12 to 22 electrodes implanted in the cochlea where each electrode is used to provide different pitch information.
As a result, even though a cochlear implant is designed to provide different pitches and information with each electrode, the auditory system perceptually fuses the independent information from adjacent electrodes. My research investigates different ways of changing the shapes of the electrical fields to allow more precise electrical stimulation. What other kinds of research are being done at House — especially concerning cochlear implants or hearing aids? Elizabeth Eskridge and John Galvin are researching methods of improving music perception for cochlear implant users. Sandy Oba, John Galvin and Qian-Jie Fu are studying how training can improve speech comprehension in noise and music perception with cochlear implants. Justin Aronoff and Yang-Soo Yoon are each working on projects looking at the advantages and limitations of bilateral cochlear implantation.
Paddy Boyle is examining modifying the automatic gain control of a cochlear implant so that it works differently across different frequencies.
Eric Wilkinson is working on a pediatric auditory brainstem implant project for children with cochlear nerve deficiency, absence of cochlea, or severe ossification.
Sig Soli develops assessment tools to measure performance with cochlear implants, hearing aids, and other devices. Front Row (l to r): Qian-Jie Fu, Bob Shannon, David Landsberger, Ray Goldsworthy, Monica Padilla, Meimei Zhu, You-Ree Shin.
Are there any breakthroughs on the horizon in terms of hearing loss that you can tell us about? The Institute is starting to get involved with a new implant design pioneered by John Middlebrooks and Russ Snyder that actually penetrates the auditory nerve instead of being inserted into the cochlea. Clinical trials in Europe (and hopefully soon at House) are being conducted on implanting patients who are deaf only in one ear who suffer grea tly from tinnitus. And new work with Auditory Brainstem Implants (ABIs) has demonstrated that with new surgical techniques, patients can perform as well as cochlear implant patients.
What do you see as the next big change coming in the area of hearing loss — either a new type of cochlear implant, bone implants, implantable devices, or so on? I expect the use of the Auditory Brainstem Implant (ABI) will become more frequently used and performance will continue to improve quickly.
I also believe that the acquisition of Advanced Bionics by Sonova (the parent company of Phonak) will be excellent for the entire implant industry as it will accelerate the incorporation of all of the cool bells and whistles that are implemented in hearing aids into cochlear implant speech processors. I find subjects sometimes with help from the clinic, but I have found that word of mouth has been the best recruitment tool. Why do I keep going back to help out with research, even though I live more than 50 miles away from House?
I am particularly grateful to the first implant users who spent years plugged into wall-sized machines listening to weird sounds. I encourage all of you who are able and who have time to give to contact David and his colleagues.
RadioRotary interviews Kayo Iwama, Associate Director of the Graduate Vocal Arts Program at Bard College, about music education at the college and the performances open to the public. Rhinebeck Rotarian and District 7210 Governor-Elect for 2016-17 Lou Turpin describes two of the several activities that help fulfill the Rotary Foundation motto of “Doing Good in the World.” In addition to his work for District 7210, Turpin has been instrumental in furthering the work of ShelterBox, perhaps the leading disaster-relief organization in the world. Rhinebeck Rotarian Lou Trapani, Artistic and Managing Director of The Center for the Performing Arts at Rhinebeck, returns to RadioRotary to discuss some of the upcoming performances at the big red barn on Route 308. RadioRotary interviews New York State Senator Sue Serino on efforts to reduce Lyme Disease in the Hudson Valley and to free physicians to treat chronic Lyme Disease with longer courses of intravenous antibiotics. RadioRotary interviews recovering addict Cara Mia Bacchiochi about her street ministry called Hope on a Mission HOAM, a volunteer effort to help women who are homeless because of addiction to drugs or alcohol.
Eliza Bozenski is the development director for the Anderson Center for Autism, a nonprofit educational and therapeutic organization that includes day and residential programs for children and adults as well as diagnostics, training, and consultation for families or schools. RadioRotary interviews Zamir Hassan, founder of The Hunger Van, a volunteer effort to bring food to the hungry homeless. Millbrook Rotarian Joyce Heaton describes this year’s New Year’s Eve Millbrook a community event that is family friendly and alcohol free. Rotary has had a unique role in the United Nations starting even before the UN was founded. The Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP) is a Federal program that operates on a country level, providing vocational training for low-income persons age 55 or older.
Pleasant Valley Rotarian, and 2015 winner of the Jeffrey Keahon Foundation Award, David Kruger describes the work of The Rotary Foundation, the part of Rotary that not only does good in the world away from our communities, but also helps fund many local projects.
Salvation Army Captains Sam and Jenny Alarcon visit RadioRotary to describe some of the many ways that The Salvation Army works to solve problems in Poughkeepsie and the Hudson Valley. Cancer survivor Holly VanDerbeck tells about her experiences with Stage 3 melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Red Hook Rotarian Gale Wolfe is interviewed about her participation in a medical mission to Tibet for this “live from the meeting” RadioRotary interview, recorded during a regular meeting of the Red Hook Rotary Club.
Rotary District 7210 Past District Governor Bill Bassett (Walkill East Rotary Club) describes the history and current success of the effort, started by Rotary in 1979, to completely eradicate the terrible disease poliomyelitis, commonly called polio. The name “Dutchess Outreach” does not tell much about the organization’s mission, which is to meet the basic needs of low-income people when no other resources are readily available. Christina Novak, Communications and Development Coordinator of the Dutchess Country SPCA, visits the RadioRotary studio to describe the work of her organization, which is much more diverse than most persons realize. Rhinebeck Rotarian David Ives is the Executive Director of the Albert Schweitzer Institute, but that is just the tip of the iceberg for Ives’ many activities promoting worldwide peace and health. In recent years, the proliferation of prescription opiate painkillers, such as Percocet, Oxycontin, Vicodin, and others, has spurred an increase in opiate addiction. RadioRotary interviews Marisol Rodriguez, Executive Director of Literacy Connections of the Hudson Valley, a nonprofit using local volunteers to help people to read, write, and reach their potential. RadioRotary interviews Rhinebeck Interact’s Grace Steele and Morgan Rakow, two of the 23 participants in the 2015 edition of that Interact Club’s “Nicaragua Project.” Interact is the high-school service organization sponsored by Rotary. Newburgh Rotarian Doug Sturomski is the unofficial Peace Ambassador for Rotary District 7210, which encompasses the eight counties in the Mid-Hudson Region.
Highland Rotary Club’s Charter Member Steve Laubach and Don Verity, the Highland Rotarian who manages PAMAL Radio, the network for RadioRotary, describe the 11th annual Hudson Valley Ribfest, one of the major summer events in the Hudson Valley and primary fundraiser for their Rotary Club. Since getting my first cochlear implant in 2006, and my second in 2008, I have been a volunteer for numerous research studies at the newly renamed House Research Institute in Los Angeles. The University of Melbourne department is responsible for the original development of what became the Nucleus cochlear implant and still maintains close ties. Unfortunately, when electrical current is applied on a given electrode, the current spreads broadly such that multiple electrodes stimulate the same neural population. We change the shape of electrical stimulation by simultaneously using multiple electrodes to control how the electrical fields interact. Commercial versions of their research software have been released by major manufacturers so that CI users can train at home and at their convenience.
Additionally, he is spearheading a project where we will be giving implants to patients who have deafness in only one ear. This has the potential of providing much more accurate stimulation as the electrodes are placed inside the nerve it wants to stimulate. Early results suggest that implanting single sided deaf patients greatly reduces tinnitus and provides improved localization and spatial hearing.
This is excellent news for patients who cannot use cochlear implants because of damage to the cochlea or the auditory nerve. Second, while some of the tests are a bit boring, the researchers make them enjoyable and pleasant. I owe it to scientists and engineers who spend their lives doing work which may or may not pan out.
I hope one day they will wear improved devices because of what many of us do at House and many other clinics and institutes around the world. Bard has an unusual undergraduate degree program in music because each student must also obtain a degree in another subject, such as mathematics or political science.
Not only has he been a Shelter-Box Ambassador, encouraging the funding of the program throughout the district, but be also serves on the board of ShelterBox USA. Lyme Disease is one of several tick-borne illnesses that are widespread in the Hudson Valley. Working in the city of Poughkeepsie, Bacchiochi and volunteer helpers distribute water and such personal care items as baby wipes to homeless women on a weekly basis. Its hundred-acre walkable campus on the Hudson, where autistic students learn in classes with 6 or fewer other students, is just the most obvious part of the organization. In 2000, Hassan chaperoned a school trip to a local food pantry and was astonished by how many were going hungry in his prosperous New Jersey community. Twelve years earlier, the Rotary Club of Millbrook was seeking a way to help bring the village and environs together as a community.
Each year the United Nations invites more than a thousand Rotarians, members of associated groups such as Rotaract and Interact, and students participating in Rotary international Youth Exchange to come to UN headquarters in New York for panel discussions with Rotary leadership, UN ambassadors, and heads of international nongovernmental organizations. While its most notable success has been the worldwide reduction of polio to a handful of cases in two countries—with complete elimination on the horizon—The Rotary Foundation may have saved even more lives with its projects for clean water, maternal and child health, and peace.
The Salvation Army, founded in London by William Booth in 1865, is a worldwide Christian church that is organized along military lines.
Originally detected as a change in a mole, her cancer showed up later in lymph nodes, but was arrested by a combination of surgery and interferon, a drug that stimulates the immune system to attack cancer.
Polio has a long history as a human disease that often causes lifetime paralysis or even death.
EPIC (Engaging People in Change) gathers high-school students from around NE Dutchess and holds weekly meetings that focus on social justice and leadership skills. The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society funds research that has greatly reduced the death rate from these cancers, and the Society also provides education and support for patients as well as advocacy for better treatments and services. Elsewhere in Vietnam, they have built two more schools, and they have embarked on programs in Jamaica, Honduras, and Ghana as well.
While the letters SPCA stand for Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to animals, most people think of the Dutchess County SPCA largely in terms of pet adoptions (and they do handle this for all kinds of pets, including birds, rabbits, rats, and Guinea pigs, as well as dogs and cats), but there are many other services.


When he was 16, Ives took a trip to Latin America, where he was devastated by the poverty he encountered, and Ives determined to devote his life to helping others. When addicts can no longer obtain their pills, they often turn to heroin, a cheaper street opiate—in fact, it is so cheap that many who could still purchase prescription pills also switch to heroin.
One in five Americans are functionally illiterate, which means that their reading and writing skills are at a sixth-grade level or lower. Each year members of the Rhinebeck Interact Club, some adults (mostly Rhinebeck Rotarians), and some college students travel to the Leon department of Nicaragua where they work for a week on building and improving schools in impoverished rural villages. One of his several projects related to peace is building and placing Peace Poles in parks, high schools, colleges, and various public places around the region. They use their part of the income from the Ribfest to support The Rotary Foundation, ShelterBox, and several local charitable causes, including defibrillators for various locations around Highland (one of which saved a customer having a heart attack at the diner where the Rotary meets). I have worked with more than a dozen researchers and keep going back; I kid that I should bring a sleeping bag. While in Melbourne, I had the honor to get to know Rod Saunders, the very first person to receive a prototype Nucleus implant. Our current work suggests that indeed reshaping the electrical fields can improve the independence of each electrode as well as provide a cleaner sound than the standard techniques. Potential benefits include better speech in noise and music performance as well as greatly improved battery life. However, a discovery that explains how the auditory system works or shows why a specific idea doesn’t work is also successful. Third, I owe it to people: I lead a life I could not dream of living when I started going deaf. The Graduate Vocal Arts Program owes its existence to the renowned soprano Dawn Upshaw, who developed and directs it.
On another front, through his involvement with the Albert Schweitzer Institute at Quinnipiac University, he has participated in several of the Nobel Peace Summits, an annual gathering of winners of the Nobel Peace Prize. Trapani describes the education program at the Center, which includes a touring company that performs The Wizard of Oz, Rip Van Winkle, and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow at local schools. Many believe that when it fails to be cured either by no treatment or inadequate treatment, it becomes chronic Lyme Disease. As with other parts of the United States, Poughkeepsie is undergoing a wave of addiction spurred by the introduction of powerful opiate pain relievers and the availability of cheap heroin. It also encompasses 21 group homes,  three life-learning centers, a clinic, and consulting arrangements with local schools. He says that in his tradition, you are not supposed to go to sleep if your neighbor is hungry, so he began to work on ways to alleviate the problem.
In October of that year, Joyce—who was aware of First Night Celebrations in Boston and elsewhere—proposed that the club sponsor a New Year’s Eve celebration of music and events directed at children.
Also each year since 2009 the RadioRotary team has been there to interview some of the participants. SCSEP counselors Cheryl George, Patsy Kimbrew, Sheila Rock, and Marlene Fredericks describe the program, which provides training in such skills as handling interviews and writing resumes.
It is also the most effective charity because nearly all of every dollar given to The Rotary Foundation is used for its work instead of spent on administration or fundraising.
A basic step to avoid skin cancers is to protect your skin from the ultraviolet components of sunlight and from artificial tanning—hats and other clothing on sunny days and application of sunscreen before exposure are the first lines of defense. Dean Bloch, an obstetrician-gynecologist, and various other medical personnel on a mission to bring aid to a remote village in Tibet.
In the early 1980s a thousand persons per day contracted it and it was endemic in 125 nations. Carleton Harris started with the summer camp run by the Rural and Migrant Ministry, leading him to become involved with the Youth Arts Group, which has much the same mission as the newly formed EPIC.
One way that you can help fund the Society and also increase awareness is to participate in one of the several Light the Light Walks in the Hudson Valley or Connecticut.
RadioRotary gets the details from Joe Conti, President of the Board of Directors, and Brian Riddell, Executive Director of Dutchess Outreach. Today the schools they built in Vietnam have more than 500 students in grades K-6 and, with the help of Rotary District 7210, they are working toward expanding the original school to take in another 500. A low-cost clinic, open to the public, provides routine veterinarian care for all sorts of pets. After a stint in the Peace Corps in Nicaragua, he mixed an academic career with work for nonprofits, including Rotary International. Among the many problems caused by using either kind of opiate is overdose, which frequently leads to death.
Literacy Connections trained volunteers work one-on-one with the functionally illiterate to teach them the specific skills they need for a given goal, such as passing a driver’s test.
Under the supervision of a local foreman, the students bend rebar, mix cement, lay bricks, paint, and perform other basic construction tasks.
Each year the Ribfest brings the best in barbecue to the Ulster County Fairground in New Paltz, along with children’s activities and specialty booths of all kinds. While I was presenting the paper, I realized that there was a huge mistake in the experimental design that caused unintended results and a incorrect conclusion about the experiment. We will soon be investigating whether or not these stimulation optimizations can be used clinically to improve speech in noise and music perception.
I owe it to those whose implants don’t work as well so they can receive better technology. Let’s help each other — and ourselves — to make this a better world for those with hearing loss. Performances by students, faculty, and guest artists occur throughout the year at Bard, some of them free and many at the famed Fisher Center designed by Frank Gehry.
At the most recent summit in Barcelona, Spain, Turpin combined these two aspects of his work by speaking to the meeting about how ShelterBox has been working to aid the refugees from the Syrian Civil War.
These fit will with the Center’s theme for 2016, which is “All-Americana,” featuring plays by American authors such as Kaufman and Hart, Tony Kushner, and Arthur Laurents.
Chronic Lyme Disease, which is not recognized by the Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC),  may affect those afflicted years after the initial infection.
In the late 1980s, Bacchiochi was herself an addict, but in 1990 she entered recovery programs.
This compelling RadioRotary interview tells the listener much about autism and the important place of the Anderson Center in its management.
As he traveled from place to place around the United States, helping to set up food pantries, he realized that many of the hungry homeless lack transportation to get to the food pantries, so he created a volunteer program that would bring healthy food to where the homeless lived, beneath bridges or in doorways.
Retired seniors are placed in jobs that reflect their previous work life or that are based on training received in the program. From its first days it has focused on helping the homeless, addicts and alcoholics, and the hungry. Changes in moles, persistent bleeding, and “floaters” in vision are among the signs that need medical attention. Their whole family took part, as the 14-year-old brought eyeglasses, the 17-year old organized the Tibetan patients, and the 19-year-old and Gale both helped out in the dental clinic, where hundreds of teeth were pulled.
As a result of a partnership led by Rotary, but including the World Health Organization, the U.S. Grace Latino Outreach (GLO) has for the past decade offered programs in English as Second Language as well as aid of all kinds for the immigrant population.
Amanda Harley, a campaign assistant for the Society, visits RadioRotary to describe the walks and provide information about cancers of the blood. The expansion of the original school is estimated to cost $82,000, a sum that 7210 District Governor Nick Constantino has vowed to raise.
There is outreach to schools, humane law enforcement, a pet cemetery and crematorium, and a lost and found service. Susan Salomone’s son Justin, who struggled with opiate addiction for ten years, was among those who died from an overdose, leading Mrs. Sturomski builds are 8-feet high, resembling the Washington Monument, and have the message “May Peace prevail upon the Earth” in 80 languages.
I spent the rest of the semester reproducing the experiment and ended up successfully demonstrating that I had been correct all along. So when I finished my degree, I spent a few months knocking on the doors of various auditory researchers in the Boston area asking each of them what they did and what other people in the field did that might be of interest to me.
Every two years, the Vocal Arts Program mounts an opera for the public, complete with a full orchestra accompaniment. Among the unusual attractions will be a new opera (Godfather Death) and pairing the Hudson Valley Shakespeare Festival’s Romeo and Juliet with West Side Story. Symptoms can include arthritis, fatigue, mental fogginess, and impaired vision.  The black-legged ticks that carry the disease from other mammals, such as deer and white-footed mice, often attach themselves to human hosts in the nymph stage, when they are about the size of a sesame seed. With the help of her church, she hope someday to open a storefront that would make it easier to carry out her mission. Some of the music acts from that first occasion—jazz pianist Larry Ham and the Handman Family strings—have been featured every year since, while other popular favorites such as the Bindlestiff Family Cirkus, Metropolitan Klezmer, and ragtime-and-blues piano scholar Peter Muir, have been present many times. Many may know it from collecting money outside store entrances at holiday time—the bell ringers in uniform are Salvationists, while many others are volunteers. The team, housed in a Tibetan nunnery as arranged by a monk from the Red Hook Buddhist center, helped nearly a thousand Tibetans during the week-long mission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and UNICEF, the number of cases has been reduced to about 150 per year and it is endemic only in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Salomone to start “Drug Crisis in Our Backyard,” a community action organization that provides resources for dealing with addiction.
Before a learner enters the program—which is free—they are evaluated by certified testers to determine the specific source of their difficulties.
Another project is the Peace Bell, related to the Peace Bell permanently placed in Hiroshima, Japan.
That project got me excited about research and started me on the path towards being a scientist.
Eventually, I ended up in the office of Don Eddington at MIT, who is one of the pioneers of cochlear implants. Bard actually hosts three orchestras, including the American Symphony Orchestra conducted by Leon Botstein. In about a quarter of the infections, a characteristic “bulls-eye” rash forms at the site of the infection. In the meantime, Hope on a Mission HOAM could use help in the form of donations and volunteers.
A popular feature of New Year’s Eve Millbrook are the lighted buttons designed by local students. The Alarcons describe various Salvation Army projects from after school for children to centers for seniors.


This effort has been aided by hundreds of millions of dollars from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation put forth as matching challenges for The Rotary Foundation, currently a two-for-one match to every Rotary dollar up to $35 million per year.
Learn about this and more, as well as how to become one of the more than 200 volunteers that make the Dutchess SPCA work. From his Nicaragua connection, he helped start the major commitment that Rhinebeck’s Interact Club has made to schools, pure water, and other improvements in rural Leon Province.
Listen to these two enthusiastic girls tell about their work and their other Nicaraguan adventures. Rotary, which has Peace as one of its six areas of service, has over 500 different ways to symbolize Peace, and among the examples are over 200,000 Peace Poles worldwide. The annual event is free, since it is supported completely by contributions from local foundations, businesses, and individuals.
Additionally, I was excited by the prospect of doing something that was not only intellectually challenging but also made a difference in people’s lives. It is not a fundraiser for the Rotary club; every dollar raised is spent on making the event joyful for all participants. 689-692 (1962)A Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energyby Allan Frey, Science, Vol. Baker, Youth Action Newsletter, Dec 1994.A "A nation can survive its' fools, and even the ambitious.
An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and he carries his banners openly. But the traitor moves among those within the gate freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the galleys, heard in the very hall of government itself. For the traitor appears not a traitor--He speaks in the accents familiar to his victims, and wears their face and their garment, and he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men. He rots the soul of a nation--he works secretly and unknown in the night to undermine the pillars of a city--he infects the body politic so that it can no longer resist. The CIA also claims it is not obligated to provide the veterans with medical care for side effects of the drugs. Its the CIAs third attempt to get the case dismissed.In a 2009 federal lawsuit, Vietnam Veterans of America claimed that the Army and CIA had used at least 7,800 soldiers as guinea pigs in Project Paperclip. They were given at least 250 and as many as 400 types of drugs, among them sarin, one of the most deadly drugs known to man, amphetamines, barbiturates, mustard gas, phosgene gas and LSD.Among the projects goals were to control human behavior, develop drugs that would cause confusion, promote weakness or temporarily cause loss of hearing or vision, create a drug to induce hypnosis and identify drugs that could enhance a persons ability to withstand torture.
The suit was filed in federal court in San Francisco against the Department of Defense and the CIA. The plaintiffs seek to force the government to contact all the subjects of the experiments and give them proper health care.
Department of Veterans Affairs released a pamphlet said nearly 7,000 soldiers had been involved and more than 250 chemicals used on them, including hallucinogens such as LSD and PCP as well as biological and chemical agents. According to the lawsuit, some of the volunteers were even implanted with electrical devices in an effort to control their behavior.
Rochelle, 60, who has come back to live in Onslow County, said in an interview Saturday that there were about two dozen volunteers when he was taken to Edgewood. They were told that the experiments were harmless and that their health would be carefully monitored, not just during the tests but afterward, too.
The doctors running the experiments, though, couldnt have known the drugs were safe, because safety was one of the things they were trying to find out, Rochelle said.
The veterans say they volunteered for military experiments as part of a wide-ranging program started in the 1950s to test nerve agents, biological weapons and mind-control techniques, but were not properly informed of the nature of the experiments.
They blame the experiments for poor health and are demanding the government provide their health care. In virtually all cases, troops served in the same capacity as laboratory rats or guinea pigs, the lawsuit states.
The suit contends that veterans were wrongfully used as test subjects in experiments such as MK-ULTRA, a CIA project from the 1950s and 60s that involved brainwashing and administering experimental drugs like LSD to unsuspecting individuals. The project was the target of several congressional inquiries in the 1970s and was tied to at least one death. Harf said that MK-ULTRA was thoroughly investigated and the CIA fully cooperated with each of the investigations. The plaintiffs say many of the volunteers records have been destroyed or remain sealed as top secret documents. They also say they were denied medals and other citations they were promised for participating in the experiments. They are not seeking monetary damages but have demanded access to health care for veterans they say were turned away at Department of Veterans Affairs facilities because they could not prove their ailments were related to their military service. It grew out of the Agencys Operation BLACKBIRD and was a forerunner to the Agencys MKULTRA. Project ARTICHOKE also known as Operation ARTICHOKE was run by the CIAs Office of Scientific Intelligence. ARTICHOKE offensive mind control techniques experiments attempted to induce amnesia and highly suggestive states in its subjects. ARTICHOKE focused on the use of hypnosis, forced morphine addiction, forced morphine addiction withdrawal, along with other drugs, chemicals, and techniques. The main focus of the program was summarized in a January 1952 CIA memo, Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature, such as self-preservation?One program experiment attempted to see if it was possible to produce a Manchurian Candidate. In Richard Condons 1959 novel The Manchurian Candidate an American soldier, who has been placed into a hypnotic state by Communist forces, returns home to assassinate on command.
A January 1954 CIA report asks the question, Can an individual of [redacted] descent be made to perform an act of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE?
Argued December 4, 1984 Decided April 16, 1985 .Between 1953 and 1966, the Central Intelligence Agency financed a wide-ranging project, code-named MKULTRA, concerned with the research and development of chemical, biological, and radiological materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control human behavior. 159, 162] program consisted of some 149 subprojects which the Agency contracted out to various universities, research foundations, and similar institutions. Because the Agency funded MKULTRA indirectly, many of the participating individuals were unaware that they were dealing with the Agency.MKULTRA was established to counter perceived Soviet and Chinese advances in brainwashing and interrogation techniques. Over the years the program included various medical and psychological experiments, some of which led to untoward results.
These aspects of MKULTRA surfaced publicly during the 1970's and became the subject of executive and congressional investigations. Argued April 21, 1987 Decided June 25, 1987 Respondent, a serviceman, volunteered for what was ostensibly a chemical warfare testing program, but in which he was secretly administered lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) pursuant to an Army plan to test the effects of the drug on human subjects, whereby he suffered severe personality changes that led to his discharge and the dissolution of his marriage. Upon being informed by the Army that he had been given LSD, respondent filed a Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) suit.
The District Court granted the Government summary judgment on the ground that the suit was barred by the doctrine of Feres v. 135 , which precludes governmental FTCA liability for injuries to servicemen resulting from activity incident to service.
Although agreeing with this holding, the Court of Appeals remanded the case upon concluding that respondent had at least a colorable constitutional claim under the doctrine of Bivens v. 388 , whereby a violation of constitutional rights can give rise to a damages action against the offending federal officials even in the absence of a statute authorizing such relief, unless there are special factors counselling hesitation or an explicit congressional declaration of another, exclusive remedy.
Respondent then amended his complaint to add Bivens claims and attempted to resurrect his FTCA claim. Although dismissing the latter claim, the District Court refused to dismiss the Bivens claims, rejecting, inter alia, the Governments argument that the same considerations giving rise to the Feres doctrine should constitute special factors barring a Bivens action.In February 1958, James B. Stanley, a master sergeant in the Army stationed at Fort Knox, Kentucky, volunteered to participate in a program ostensibly designed to test the effectiveness of protective clothing and equipment as defenses against chemical warfare. He was released from his then-current duties and went to the Armys Chemical Warfare Laboratories at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Maryland. Four times that month, Stanley was secretly administered doses of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), pursuant to an Army plan to study the effects of the drug on human subjects. According to his Second Amended Complaint (the allegations of which we accept for purposes of this decision), as a result of the LSD exposure, Stanley has suffered from hallucinations and periods of incoherence and memory loss, was impaired in his military performance, and would on occasion awake from sleep at night and, without reason, violently beat his wife and children, later being unable to recall the entire incident.
One year later, his marriage dissolved because of the personality changes wrought by the LSD.
December 10, 1975, the Army sent Stanley a letter soliciting his cooperation in a study of the long-term effects of LSD on volunteers who participated in the 1958 tests. 669, 672] This was the Governments first notification to Stanley that he had been given LSD during his time in Maryland.
2671 et seq., alleging negligence in the administration, supervision, and subsequent monitoring of the drug testing program. Ewen Cameron): The man who I had thought cared about what happened to me didnt give a damn. Ewen Cameron conducted CIA-funded experiments on troubled Canadian patients he was meant to help MacIntyre: the CIA caved in the day before the trial was to begin. They settled out of court for $750,000 at the time it was the largest settlement the CIA had ever awarded.
28, 1984 (digital clip) It sounds like a science fiction plot or a horror movie: A front organization for the American CIA sets up shop in Canada to engage in mind control experiments. But its no fiction, its the discussion on the floor of the House of Commons and among lawyers for the Department of External Affairs. Canadians caught up in the research, including a member of Parliaments wife, may finally get some action from the government in their pursuit of answers and compensation. Recruited Ex-Nazis By SAM ROBERTS December 11, 2010 After World War II, American counterintelligence recruited former Gestapo officers, SS veterans and Nazi collaborators to an even greater extent than had been previously disclosed and helped many of them avoid prosecution or looked the other way when they escaped, according to thousands of newly declassified documents.
Men who were classified as ardent Nazis were chosen just weeks after Hitlers defeat to become respectable U.S. Reinhard Gehlen (middle) and his SS united were hired, and swiftly became agents of the CIA when they revealed their massive records on the Soviet Union to the US.
The men designed the CIAs interrogation program and also personally took part in the waterboarding sessions. But to do the job, the CIA had to promise to cover at least $5 million in legal fees for them in case there was trouble down the road, former U.S. For the simple reason that it would inexorably lead to the covert biological war programmes of the 1950's. According to CIA documents, K indicates both knockout and kill, depending upon the circumstances under which researched biological products were employed by CIA operatives in the field operations conducted under Project Artichoke and later programs.




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