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Hahnemann believed the underlying causes of disease were phenomena that he termed ''miasms'', and that homeopathic preparations addressed these.
Homeopathy is not a plausible system of treatment, as its dogmas about how drugs, illness, the human body, liquids and solutions operate are contradicted by a wide range of discoveries across biology, psychology, physics and chemistry made in the two centuries since its invention.UK Parliamentary Committee Science and Technology Committee - Although some clinical trial+s produce positive results, multiple systematic review+s have indicated that this is because of chance, flawed research methods, and reporting bias+. Assessments by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council+, the British National Health and Medical Research Council+, and the Swiss Federal Health Office+ have each concluded that homeopathy is ineffective, and recommended against the practice receiving any further funding.
Homeopaths claim that Hippocrates+ may have originated homeopathy around 400 BC, when he prescribed a small dose of mandrake root+ to treat mania, knowing it produces mania in much larger doses. In the late 18th and 19th centuries, mainstream medicine used methods like bloodletting+ and purging, and administered complex mixtures, such as Venice treacle+, which was made from 64 substances including opium, myrrh, and viper's flesh.
Hahnemann conceived of homeopathy while translating a medical treatise by the Scottish physician and chemist William Cullen+ into German. Subsequent scientific work showed that cinchona cures malaria because it contains quinine+, which kills the ''Plasmodium falciparum+'' parasite that causes the disease; the mechanism of action is unrelated to Hahnemann's ideas. Hahnemann began to test what effects substances produced in humans, a procedure that would later become known as "homeopathic proving".
Because Hahnemann believed that large doses of drugs that caused similar symptoms would only aggravate illness, he advocated extreme dilutions of the substances; he devised a technique for making dilutions that he believed would preserve a substance's therapeutic properties while removing its harmful effects. He gathered and published a complete overview of his new medical system in his 1810 book, ''The Organon of the Healing Art+'', whose 6th edition, published in 1921, is still used by homeopaths today.
In ''The Organon of the Healing Art+'', Hahnemann introduced the concept of "miasms" as "infectious principles" underlying chronic disease. Hahnemann’s hypotheses+ for the direct or remote cause of all chronic diseases (miasms) originally presented only three, psora (the itch), syphilis (venereal disease) or sycosis (fig-wart disease). Since Hahnemann's time, other miasms have been proposed, some replacing one or more of psora's proposed functions, including tuberculosis+ and cancer+ miasms. The law of susceptibility implies that a negative state of mind can attract hypothetical disease entities called "miasms" to invade the body and produce symptoms of diseases. Also 6th edition, 1921 Hahnemann coined the expression "allopathic medicine+", which was used to pejoratively refer to traditional Western medicine. Hahnemann's miasm theory remains disputed and controversial within homeopathy even in modern times. One reason for the growing popularity of homeopathy was its apparent success in treating people suffering from infectious disease epidemics.
During 19th-century epidemics of diseases such as cholera+, death rates in homeopathic hospitals were often lower than in conventional hospitals, where the treatments used at the time were often harmful and did little or nothing to combat the diseases. 19th-century American physician and author Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.+ was also a vocal critic of homeopathy and published an essay in 1842 entitled ''Hom?opathy and Its Kindred Delusions+''.
According to Paul Ulrich Unschuld+, the Nazi+ regime in Germany was fascinated by homeopathy, and spent large sums of money on researching its mechanisms, but without gaining a positive result. In the United States, the ''Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act'' of 1938 (sponsored by Royal Copeland+, a Senator+ from New York+ and homeopathic physician) recognized homeopathic preparations as drugs. Some homeopaths give credit for the revival to Greek homeopath George Vithoulkas+, who performed a "great deal of research to update the scenarios and refine the theories and practice of homeopathy", beginning in the 1970s, but Ernst and Singh consider it to be linked to the rise of the New Age movement+. Bruce Hood+ has argued that the increased popularity of homeopathy in recent times may be due to the comparatively long consultations practitioners are willing to give their patients, and to an irrational preference for "natural" products+ which people think are the basis of homeopathic preparations. Homeopathy uses animal, plant, mineral, and synthetic substances in its preparations, generally referring to them using Latin+ or faux-Latin names. Some homeopaths use so-called "'''nosodes'''" (from the Greek ''nosos'', disease) made from diseased or pathological products such as fecal, urinary, and respiratory discharges, blood, and tissue.
Some modern homeopaths use preparations they call "imponderables" because they do not originate from a substance but some other phenomenon presumed to have been "captured" by alcohol or lactose+.and sunlight+. Other minority practices include paper preparations, where the substance and dilution are written on pieces of paper and either pinned to the patients' clothing, put in their pockets, or placed under glasses of water that are then given to the patients, and the use of radionics+ to manufacture preparations.
Hahnemann found that undiluted doses caused reactions, sometimes dangerous ones, so specified that preparations be given at the lowest possible dose. The process of dilution and succussion is termed "dynamisation" or "potentisation" by homeopaths. Serial dilution is achieved by taking an amount of the mixture and adding solvent, but the "Korsakovian" method may also be used, whereby the vessel in which the preparations are manufactured is emptied, refilled with solvent, and the volume of fluid adhering to the walls of the vessel is deemed sufficient for the new batch. A 2C dilution requires a substance to be diluted to one part in 100, and then some of that diluted solution diluted by a further factor of 100. In homeopathy, a solution that is more dilute is described as having a higher "potency", and more dilute substances are considered by homeopaths to be stronger and deeper-acting. There is also a decimal potency scale (notated as "X" or "D") in which the preparation is diluted by a factor of 10 at each stage.
Hahnemann advocated 30C dilutions for most purposes (that is, dilution by a factor of 1060).
Hahnemann regularly used potencies up to 300C but opined that "there must be a limit to the matter, it cannot go on indefinitely". In Hahnemann's time, it was reasonable to assume the preparations could be diluted indefinitely, as the concept of the atom or molecule as the smallest possible unit of a chemical substance was just beginning to be recognized.
The greatest dilution reasonably likely to contain even one molecule of the original substance is 12C. Critics and advocates of homeopathy alike commonly attempt to illustrate the dilutions involved in homeopathy with analogies.For further discussion of homeopathic dilutions and the mathematics involved, see Homeopathic dilutions+.
Hahnemann is reported to have joked that a suitable procedure to deal with an epidemic would be to empty a bottle of poison into Lake Geneva+, if it could be succussed 60 times. Another example given by a critic of homeopathy states that a 12C solution is equivalent to a "pinch of salt in both the North and South Atlantic Oceans", which is approximately correct. One-third of a drop+ of some original substance diluted into all the water on earth would produce a preparation with a concentration of about 13C.
The high dilutions characteristically used are often considered to be the most controversial and implausible aspect of homeopathy. Those favoring low dilutions stressed pathology+ and a stronger link to conventional medicine, while those favoring high dilutions emphasised vital force, miasms and a spiritual+ interpretation of disease. Some products with such relatively lower dilutions continue to be sold, but like their counterparts, they have not been conclusively demonstrated to have any effect beyond that of a placebo+.
A homeopathic "proving" is the method by which the profile of a homeopathic preparation is determined.
At first Hahnemann used undiluted doses for provings, but he later advocated provings with preparations at a 30C dilution, and most modern provings are carried out using ultradilute preparations in which it is highly unlikely that any of the original molecules remain.
The volunteers were observed for months at a time and made to keep extensive journals detailing all of their symptoms at specific times throughout the day. After the experiments were over, Hahnemann made the volunteers take an oath swearing that what they reported in their journals was the truth, at which time he would interrogate them extensively concerning their symptoms. Provings are claimed to have been important in the development of the clinical trial+, due to their early use of simple control groups, systematic and quantitative procedures, and some of the first application of statistics+ in medicine.
The first recorded provings were published by Hahnemann in his 1796 ''Essay on a New Principle''. His ''Fragmenta de Viribus'' (1805) contained the results of 27 provings, and his 1810 ''Materia Medica Pura'' contained 65. For James Tyler Kent+'s 1905 ''Lectures on Homoeopathic Materia Medica'', 217 preparations underwent provings and newer substances are continually added to contemporary versions. Though the proving process has superficial similarities with clinical trials, it is fundamentally different in that the process is subjective, not blinded+, and modern provings are unlikely to use pharmacologically active levels of the substance under proving. Homeopaths generally begin with detailed examinations of their patients' histories, including questions regarding their physical, mental and emotional states, their life circumstances and any physical or emotional illnesses. From these symptoms, the homeopath chooses how to treat the patient using ''materia medica'' and repertories. Homeopathic pills are made from an inert substance (often sugars, typically lactose), upon which a drop of liquid homeopathic preparation is placed and allowed to evaporate. The process of homeopathic dilution results in no objectively detectable active ingredient in most cases, but some preparations (e.g.
Isopathy is a therapy derived from homeopathy, invented by Johann Joseph Wilhelm Lux in the 1830s. Flower preparations can be produced by placing flowers in water and exposing them to sunlight. The idea of using homeopathy as a treatment for other animals, termed "veterinary homeopathy", dates back to the inception of homeopathy; Hahnemann himself wrote and spoke of the use of homeopathy in animals other than humans. The use of homeopathy in veterinary medicine is controversial; the little existing research on the subject is not of a high enough scientific standard to provide reliable data on efficacy. The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs+ (Defra) has adopted a robust position against use of "alternative" pet preparations including homeopathy. Electrohomeopathy is a treatment devised by Count Cesare Mattei (1809–1896), who proposed that different "colors" of electricity could be used to treat cancer.

The use of homeopathy as a preventive for serious infectious diseases is especially controversial, in the context of ill-founded public alarm over the safety of vaccines stoked by the anti-vaccination movement+.
The low concentration of homeopathic preparations, which often lack even a single molecule+ of the diluted substance, has been the basis of questions about the effects of the preparations since the 19th century.
James Randi+ and the 10:23 campaign+ groups have highlighted the lack of active ingredient+s in most homeopathic products by taking large 'overdoses'.
Outside of the alternative medicine+ community, scientists have long considered homeopathy a sham or a pseudoscience, and the mainstream medical community regards it as quackery+.
Abstract concepts within theoretical physics have been invoked to suggest explanations of how or why preparations might work, including quantum entanglement+, quantum nonlocality+, Several of the key concepts of homeopathy conflict with fundamental concepts of physics and chemistry. The proposed mechanisms for homeopathy are precluded from having any effect by the laws of physics and physical chemistry.
A number of speculative mechanisms have been advanced to counter this, the most widely discussed being water memory+, though this is now considered erroneous since short-range order in water only persists for about 1 picosecond+.
Homeopaths contend that their methods produce a therapeutically active preparation, selectively including only the intended substance, though critics note that any water will have been in contact with millions of different substances throughout its history, and homeopaths have not been able to account for a reason why only the selected homeopathic substance would be a special case in their process.
Practitioners of homeopathy hold that higher dilutions?described as being of higher ''potency''?produce stronger medicinal effects.
BEGIN DIRECT QUOTE -->"since the least amount of a substance in a solution is one molecule, a 30C solution would have to have at least one molecule of the original substance dissolved in a minimum of 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 [or 1060] molecules of water. Park is also quoted as saying that, "to expect to get even one molecule of the 'medicinal' substance allegedly present in 30X pills, it would be necessary to take some two billion of them, which would total about a thousand tons of lactose plus whatever impurities the lactose contained". The laws of chemistry state that there is a limit to the dilution that can be made without losing the original substance altogether. No individual preparation has been unambiguously shown by research to be different from placebo.
Government-level reviews have been conducted in recent years by Switzerland (2005), the United Kingdom (2009) and Australia (2015). The Swiss ''programme for the evaluation of complementary medicine'' (PEK) resulted in the peer-reviewed Shang publication (see ''Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of efficacy'') and a controversial competing analysis by homeopaths and advocates led by Gudrun Bornhoft and Peter Matthiessen, which has misleadingly been presented as a Swiss government report by homeopathy proponents, a claim that has been repudiated by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council+ completed a comprehensive review of the effectiveness of homeopathic preparations in 2015, in which it concluded that "there were no health conditions for which there was reliable evidence that homeopathy was effective. The fact that individual randomized controlled trials have given positive results is not in contradiction with an overall lack of statistical evidence of efficacy.
A related issue is publication bias+: researchers are more likely to submit trials that report a positive finding for publication, and journals prefer to publish positive results. Positive results are much more likely to be false if the prior probability of the claim under test is low. Both meta-analyses+, which statistically combine the results of several randomized controlled trials, and other systematic review+s of the literature are essential tools to summarize evidence of therapeutic efficacy. The evidence of bias [in the primary studies] weakens the findings of our original meta-analysis. Subsequent work by John Ioannidis+ and others has shown that for treatments with no prior plausibility, the chances of a positive result being a false positive are much higher, and that any result not consistent with the null hypothesis+ should be assumed to be a false positive. In 2002, a systematic review of the available systematic reviews confirmed that higher-quality trials tended to have less positive results, and found no convincing evidence that any homeopathic preparation exerts clinical effects different from placebo. In 2005, ''The Lancet+'' medical journal published a meta-analysis of 110 placebo-controlled homeopathy trials and 110 matched medical trials based upon the Swiss government+'s Program for Evaluating Complementary Medicine+, or PEK. Other meta-analyses include homeopathic treatments to reduce cancer therapy+ side-effects following radiotherapy+ and chemotherapy+, allergic rhinitis+, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and childhood diarrhea, adenoid vegetation, asthma, upper respiratory tract infection in children, insomnia+, fibromyalgia+, psychiatric conditions and Cochrane Library+ reviews of homeopathic treatments for asthma, dementia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, induction of labor, and irritable bowel syndrome+.
The results of these reviews are generally negative or only weakly positive, and reviewers consistently report the poor quality of trials. Some clinical trials have tested individualized homeopathy, and there have been reviews of this, specifically. Health organisations such as the UK's National Health Service+, the American Medical Association+, the FASEB+, and the National Health and Medical Research Council+ of Australia, have issued statements of their conclusion that there is "no good-quality evidence that homeopathy is effective as a treatment for any health condition".
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The preparations are manufactured using a process of homeopathic dilution+, in which a chosen substance is repeatedly diluted in alcohol or distilled water, each time with the containing vessel being bashed against an elastic material, (commonly a leather-bound+ book). Continued homeopathic practice, despite the evidence that it does not work, has been criticized as unethical because it discourages the use of effective treatments, with the World Health Organisation+ warning against using homeopathy to try to treat severe diseases such as HIV+ and malaria+. In the 16th century, the pioneer of pharmacology Paracelsus+ declared that small doses of "what makes a man ill also cures him". Being skeptical of Cullen's theory concerning cinchona+'s use for curing malaria+, Hahnemann ingested some bark specifically to investigate what would happen. These tests required subjects to test the effects of ingesting substances by clearly recording all of their symptoms as well as the ancillary conditions under which they appeared. Hahnemann believed that this process aroused and enhanced "the spirit-like medicinal powers of the crude substances". Hahnemann associated each miasm with specific diseases, and thought that initial exposure to miasms causes local symptoms, such as skin or venereal diseases.
Of these three the most important was ''psora'' (Greek for "itch"), described as being related to any itching diseases of the skin, supposed to be derived from suppressed scabies+, and claimed to be the foundation of many further disease conditions. The theory of miasms has been criticized as an explanation developed by Hahnemann to preserve the system of homeopathy in the face of treatment failures, and for being inadequate to cover the many hundreds of sorts of diseases, as well as for failing to explain disease predispositions, as well as genetics+, environmental factors, and the unique disease history of each patient. Because medical practice of the time relied on ineffective and often dangerous treatments, patients of homeopaths often had better outcomes than those of the doctors of the time. Sir John Forbes+, physician to Queen Victoria+, said in 1843 that the extremely small doses of homeopathy were regularly derided as useless, "an outrage to human reason".
The members of the French Homeopathic Society observed in 1867 that some leading homeopathists of Europe not only were abandoning the practice of administering infinitesimal doses but were also no longer defending it.
Unschuld further argues that homeopathy never subsequently took root in the United States+, but remained more deeply established in European thinking. Whichever is correct, mainstream pharmacy chains recognized the business potential of selling homeopathic preparations. Practitioners rely on two types of reference when prescribing: ''materia medica+'' and repertories.
Examples include ''arsenicum album+'' (arsenic oxide), ''natrum muriaticum'' (sodium chloride+ or table salt), ''Lachesis muta+'' (the venom of the bushmaster snake+), ''opium+'', and ''thyroidinum'' (thyroid hormone+). Such practices have been strongly criticised by classical homeopaths as unfounded, speculative, and verging upon magic and superstition.
The Korsakovian method is sometimes referred to as K on the label of a homeopathic preparation, e.g. There are differences of opinion on the number and force of strikes, and some practitioners dispute the need for succussion at all while others reject the Korsakovian and other non-classical preparations.
Hahnemann created the "centesimal" or "C scale", diluting a substance by a factor of 100 at each stage.
The end product is often so diluted as to be indistinguishable from the diluent (pure water, sugar or alcohol). A popular homeopathic treatment for the flu+ is a 200C dilution of duck liver, marketed under the name Oscillococcinum+.
Preparations at concentrations below 4X are considered an important part of homeopathic heritage. During the proving process, Hahnemann administered preparations to healthy volunteers, and the resulting symptoms were compiled by observers into a "drug picture". They were forbidden from consuming coffee, tea, spices, or wine for the duration of the experiment; playing chess was also prohibited because Hahnemann considered it to be "too exciting", though they were allowed to drink beer and encouraged to exercise in moderation. The lengthy records of self-experimentation+ by homeopaths have occasionally proven useful in the development of modern drugs: For example, evidence that nitroglycerin+ might be useful as a treatment for angina+ was discovered by looking through homeopathic provings, though homeopaths themselves never used it for that purpose at that time. As early as 1842, Holmes noted the provings were impossibly vague, and the purported effect was not repeatable among different subjects. In classical homeopathy, the practitioner attempts to match a single preparation to the totality of symptoms (the ''simlilum''), while "clinical homeopathy" involves combinations of preparations based on the various symptoms of an illness.
Isopathy differs from homeopathy in general in that the preparations, known as "nosodes", are made up either from things that cause the disease+ or from products of the disease, such as pus+. The most famous of these are the Bach flower remedies+, which were developed by the physician and homeopath Edward Bach+. Other studies have also found that giving animals placebos can play active roles in influencing pet owners to believe in the effectiveness of the treatment when none exists. Popular in the late nineteenth century, electrohomeopathy has been described as "utter idiocy". Promotion of homeopathic alternatives to vaccines has been characterised as dangerous, inappropriate and irresponsible.
Modern advocates of homeopathy have proposed a concept of "water memory+", according to which water "remembers" the substances mixed in it, and transmits the effect of those substances when consumed.

There is an overall absence of sound statistical evidence of therapeutic efficacy, which is consistent with the lack of any biologically plausible+ pharmacological agent+ or mechanism.
The use of quantum entanglement to explain homeopathy's purported effects is "patent nonsense", as entanglement is a delicate state which rarely lasts longer than a fraction of a second. The extreme dilutions used in homeopathic preparations usually leave none of the original substance in the final product. No evidence of stable clusters of water molecules was found when homeopathic preparations were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance+, and many other physical experiments in homeopathy have been found to be of low methodological quality, which precludes any meaningful conclusion.
This idea is also inconsistent with observed dose-response relationships, where effects are dependent on the concentration of the active ingredient in the body.
This limit, which is related to Avogadro's number+, is roughly equal to homeopathic dilutions of 12C or 24X (1 part in 1024). The methodological+ quality of the primary research+ was generally low, with such problems as weaknesses in study design+ and reporting, small sample size+, and selection bias+. A small proportion of randomized controlled trials inevitably provide false-positive outcomes due to the play of chance: a "statistically significant"+ positive outcome is commonly adjudicated when the probability of it being due to chance rather than a real effect is no more than 5%?a level at which about 1 in 20 tests can be expected to show a positive result in the absence of any therapeutic effect.
Publication bias has been particularly marked in alternative medicine+ journals, where few of the published articles (just 5% during the year 2000) tend to report null result+s. Since we completed our literature search in 1995, a considerable number of new homeopathy trials have been published.
The study concluded that its findings were "compatible with the notion that the clinical effects of homeopathy are placebo effects". Other reviews covered osteoarthritis+, migraine+s delayed-onset muscle soreness+, or eczema+ and other dermatological conditions. A 1998 review found 32 trials that met their inclusion criteria, 19 of which were placebo-controlled and provided enough data for meta-analysis. In 2009, World Health Organization+ official Mario Raviglione+ cricitized the use of homeopathy to treat tuberculosis+; similarly, another WHO spokesperson argued there was no evidence homeopathy would be an effective treatment for diarrhea+. Dilution typically continues well past the point where no molecule+s of the original substance remain.
The continued practice of homeopathy, despite a lack of evidence of efficacy+, has led to it being characterized within the scientific and medical communities as nonsense, quackery+, and a sham.
Samuel Hahnemann+ (1755–1843) gave homeopathy its name and expanded its principles in the late 18th century. He experienced fever, shivering and joint pain+: symptoms similar to those of malaria itself. He published a collection of provings in 1805, and a second collection of 65 preparations appeared in his book, ''Materia Medica Pura'', in 1810.
If, however, these symptoms were suppressed by medication, the cause went deeper and began to manifest itself as diseases of the internal organs. Hahnemann believed psora to be the cause of such diseases as epilepsy+, cancer+, jaundice+, deafness+, and cataracts+. The first homeopathic school in the US opened in 1835, and in 1844, the first US national medical association, the American Institute of Homeopathy+, was established. Homeopathic preparations, even if ineffective, would almost surely cause no harm, making the users of homeopathic preparations less likely to be killed by the treatment that was supposed to be helping them.
However, by the mid to late 1970s, homeopathy made a significant comeback and sales of some homeopathic companies increased tenfold. The Food and Drug Administration+ held a hearing April 20 and 21, 2015, requesting public comment on regulation of homeopathic drugs. A homeopathic ''materia medica'' is a collection of "drug pictures", organised alphabetically. A common explanation for his settling on this process is said to be that he found preparations subjected to agitation in transit, such as in saddle bags or in a carriage, were more "potent". There are no laboratory assays and the importance and techniques for succussion cannot be determined with any certainty from the literature.
As there are only about 1080 atoms in the entire observable universe+, a dilution of one molecule in the observable universe would be about 40C. Although the proponents of these preparations share homeopathy's vitalist world-view and the preparations are claimed to act through the same hypothetical "vital force" as homeopathy, the method of preparation is different. The British Veterinary Association's position statement on alternative medicines says that it "cannot endorse" homeopathy, and the Australian Veterinary Association includes it on its list of "ineffective therapies". In December 2014, Australian homeopathy supplier Homeopathy Plus!+ were found to have acted deceptively in promoting homeopathic alternatives to vaccines.
This concept is inconsistent with the current understanding of matter, and water memory has never been demonstrated to have any detectable effect, biological or otherwise.
While entanglement may result in certain aspects of individual subatomic particles acquiring linked quantum state+s, this does not mean the particles will mirror or duplicate each other, nor cause health-improving transformations. Existence of a pharmacological effect+ in the absence of any true active ingredient is inconsistent with the law of mass action+ and the observed dose-response relationship+s characteristic of therapeutic drugs (whereas placebo effects are non-specific and unrelated to pharmacological activity). This dose-response relationship has been confirmed in myriad experiments on organisms as diverse as nematodes, rats, and humans. Since better quality trials have become available, the evidence for efficacy of homeopathy preparations has diminished; the highest-quality trials indicate that the preparations themselves exert no intrinsic effect. Regarding the way in which homeopathy is represented in the medical literature, a systematic review found signs of bias in the publications of clinical trials (towards negative representation in mainstream medical journals, and ''vice versa'' in alternative medicine journals), but not in reviews. This was accompanied by an editorial pronouncing "The end of homoeopathy", which was denounced by the homeopath Peter Fisher+. From this, Hahnemann came to believe that all effective drugs produce symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those of the diseases that they treat, in accord with the "law of similars" that had been proposed by ancient physicians. Homeopathy maintains that treating diseases by directly alleviating their symptoms+, as is sometimes done in conventional medicine, is ineffective because all "disease can generally be traced to some latent, deep-seated, underlying chronic, or inherited tendency". The relative success of homeopathy in the 19th century may have led to the abandonment of the ineffective and harmful treatments of bloodletting and purging and to have begun the move towards more effective, science-based medicine.
Oscillococcinum would thus require 10320 more universes to simply have one molecule in the final substance. Zicam also listed several normal homeopathic potencies as "inactive ingredients", including ''galphimia+ glauca'', histamine dihydrochloride (homeopathic name, ''histaminum hydrochloricum''), ''luffa operculata+'', and sulfur+. Bach flower preparations are manufactured in allegedly "gentler" ways such as placing flowers in bowls of sunlit water, and the preparations are not succussed. Animals may be treated only by qualified veterinary surgeons in the UK and some other countries. Pharmacological+ research has found instead that stronger effects of an active ingredient come from higher+, not lower doses. Some homeopaths contend that the phenomenon of hormesis+ may support the idea of dilution increasing potency, but the dose-response relationship outside the zone of hormesis declines with dilution as normal, and nonlinear pharmacological effects do not provide any credible support for homeopathy.
The authors concluded that "the results of the available randomized trials suggest that individualized homeopathy has an effect over placebo.
The underlying imputed miasm still remains, and deep-seated ailments can be corrected only by removing the deeper disturbance of the vital force. A homeopathic repertory is an index of disease symptoms that lists preparations associated with specific symptoms.
There is no convincing scientific or clinical evidence for flower preparations being effective. Internationally, the body that supports and represents homeopathic veterinarians is the International Association for Veterinary Homeopathy.
In a systematic review of the methodological quality of randomized trials in three branches of alternative medicine, Linde ''et al.'' highlighted major weaknesses in the homeopathy sector, including poor randomization. It seems, therefore, likely that our meta-analysis at least overestimated the effects of homeopathic treatments. The evidence, however, is not convincing because of methodological shortcomings and inconsistencies." Jay Shelton, author of a book on homeopathy, has stated that the claim assumes without evidence that classical, individualized homeopathy works better than nonclassical variations. If you believe that you may have a disease condition, please consult your healthcare practitioner before using any dietary supplement product.
A separate 2001 systematic review that assessed the quality of clinical trials of homeopathy found that such trials were generally of lower quality than trials of conventional medicine. A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials of individualised homeopathy published in December 2014 concluded that individualised homeopathy may have small effects, but that caution was needed in interpreting the results because of study quality issues – no study included was assessed as being at low risk of bias.
The first homeopathic repertory was Georg Jahr's ''Symptomenkodex'', published in German in 1835, and translated into English as the ''Repertory to the more Characteristic Symptoms of Materia Medica'' by Constantine Hering in 1838.

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