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There was once a little Kid whose growing horns made him think he was a grown-up Billy Goat and able to take care of himself.
The Wolf liked the idea of a little music before eating, so he struck up a merry tune and the Kid leaped and frisked gaily. But as he opened his mouth to say these foolish words he lost his hold on the stick, and down he fell to the ground, where he was dashed to pieces on a rock. A Dog and a Cock, who were the best of friends, wished very much to see something of the world. At nightfall the Cock, looking for a place to roost, as was his custom, spied nearby a hollow tree that he thought would do very nicely for a night's lodging.
The hungry but unsuspecting Fox, went around the tree as he was told, and in a twinkling the Dog had seized him. The Mice once called a meeting to decide on a plan to free themselves of their enemy, the Cat.
An Eagle, swooping down on powerful wings, seized a lamb in her talons and made off with it to her nest. The farmer climbed down from his seat and stood beside the wagon looking at it but without making the least effort to get it out of the rut.
And when the farmer put his shoulder to the wheel and urged on the horses, the wagon moved very readily, and soon the Farmer was riding along in great content and with a good lesson learned. A frisky young Kid had been left by the herdsman on the thatched roof of a sheep shelter to keep him out of harm's way. After the meal the friends had a long talk, or rather the Town Mouse talked about her life in the city while the Country Mouse listened.
When they reached the mansion in which the Town Mouse lived, they found on the table in the dining room the leavings of a very fine banquet. The Country Mouse stopped in the Town Mouse's den only long enough to pick up her carpet bag and umbrella. A Fox one day spied a beautiful bunch of ripe grapes hanging from a vine trained along the branches of a tree. One day when the quarreling had been much more violent than usual and each of the Sons was moping in a surly manner, he asked one of them to bring him a bundle of sticks. DESCRIPTION: This 'atlas' was the work of a family of Catalonian Jews who worked in Majorca at the end of the 14th century and was commissioned by Charles V of France at a time when the reputation of the Catalan chart makers was at its peak. The title of the Atlas shows clearly the spirit in which it was executed and its content: Mappamundi, that is to say, image of the world and of the regions which are on the earth and of the various kinds of peoples which inhabit it. Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.a€?The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth.
The Catalan Atlas is actually a world map built up around a portolan chart, thus combining aspects of the nautical chart by employing loxodromes and coastal detail with the medieval mappaemundi exemplified by its legends and illustrations. We know in unusual detail the circumstances in which the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (the date of the calendar which accompanies it) was produced and the career of the cartographer who compiled it. The patrons of Cresques, King Peter III of Aragon and his son, in addition to their scientific interests, were keenly interested in reports of Eastern lands, in relation to their forward economic policy, and were at special pains to secure manuscript copies of Marco Polo's Description of the World, the travels of Odoric of Pordenone Description of Eastern Regions and, what may surprise the modern reader, the Voiage of Sir John Mandeville. In the interior the position, extent, chief divisions, towns and rivers of China and the Mongol Empire are approximately represented.
On the southern portion of the Cathay coast, the general uniformity of the coast is broken by three bays, and it is significant that these are associated with three great ports, Zayton [near Changchow], Cansay [Hangchow, better known in medieval records as Quinsay ] and Cincolam [Canton]. Quite a number of harbors are indicated on the eastern coast of India, a few of them still identifiable, while a sailing junk testifies to trading activity, especially with the island of Iana (?), which is here associated with the legendary isle of the Amazons (regio femarum [sic]) and symbolized by its queen.
In mainland India, King Stephen has been represented: the text beside him indicates that this Christian ruler is a€?looking towards the town of Butifilis,a€? Marco Polo's kingdom of Mutifilis. The people of Gog and Magog following their monarch, bearing banners with the emblem of the devil, detail of the map of Asia.
Sources other than those embodied in Polo have also been used for the portion of the Indian Ocean included in the map.
If the map is stripped of its legends and drawings of the older tradition, it is apparent that the main interest of the compiler is concentrated in a central strip across Asia. In the west is the Organci [Oxus] river shown, as on most contemporary maps, flowing into the Caspian, and alongside it the early stages of the traditionally used overland route, from Urganj [the medieval Khiva] through Bokhara and Samarcand to the sources of the river in the mountains of Amol, on the eastern limits of Persia. This description, with several omissions, was in outline the route followed by Maffeo and Nicolo Polo (Marco Polo's father and uncle) on their journey to the Great Khan's court. Scarcely less valuable, and certainly of special interest for the student of geographical theory, are the Catalan speculations concerning the unexplored territories of the earth. Hardly any place on the west coast of Africa is identified only one name, perhaps a mythical spot, is found south of Cape Bojador in the former Spanish Sahara, but we are told that Africa, land of ivory, starts at this point and that by traveling due south one reaches Ethiopia.
East of the Sultan of Mali appears the King of Organa, in turban and blue dress, holding an oriental sword and a shield.
In northeast Africa, a knowledge of the Nile valley as far south as Dongala, where there was a Catholic mission early in the 14th century, is apparent.
On one matter, however, the mapmaker Cresques could hardly refrain from speculating, for the following reason: land exploration had, for a long time now, outrun oceanic discovery, and so, concerning Africa, much more was known of the Sudan by the end of the 14th century than was known of the oceanic fringe area in the same latitudes. In Asia the Red Sea stands out, being shown as red, a characteristic that derives, we are told less from the color of the water than from that of the sea bed. Moslem traders from cities along the Barbary Coast of North Africa began to cross the Sahara in the Middle Ages in an effort to bring back gold, rumored to be in great supply in the Sudan. Within the means of cartographic representations on this Atlas there appears to be no specialities, those symbols and other graphics used by Cresques correspond to those commonly used in the Middle Ages.
The compiler of the prototype used by Cresques for the Catalan Atlas had recourse to different, sometimes even contradictory sources. In summary, the merit of the Catalan Atlas lay in the skill with which Cresques employed the best available contemporary sources to modify the traditional world picture, never proceeding further than the evidence warranted. Today the original Catalan Atlas can be found in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, and has now assumed the form of seven loose wooden panels of which five inside ones bear one half of a sheet of the Atlas on each side, while the two outer ones consist of one side that bears a half sheet of the Atlas and one half of the binding on the other side.The first of the two preliminary sheets deals with the days of the month from the first to the thirtieth.
As a response to this interest, Cresques extended his chart to include all that was then known of Asia, notably from Marco Polo's narrative.
This town [Beijing] has an extent of 24 miles, is surrounded by a very thick outer wall and has a square ground plan. The description emphasizes the richness and urbanity of the Chinese capital at the edge of the civilized world. To the north is Catayo, the Great Khan and his capital of Chanbaleth; to the south Manji, with its great cities of Zayton and Cansay. Currently the Mayor of London, he previously served as the Member of Parliament for Henley-on-Thames and as editor of The Spectator magazine. Johnson was educated at the European School of Brussels, Ashdown House School, Eton College and Balliol College, Oxford, where he read Literae Humaniores.
On his father's side Johnson is a great-grandson of Ali Kemal Bey, a liberal Turkish journalist and the interior minister in the government of Damat Ferid Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, who was murdered during the Turkish War of Independence.[5] During World War I, Boris's grandfather and great aunt were recognised as British subjects and took their grandmother's maiden name of Johnson. Try as I might, I could not look at an overhead projection of a growth profit matrix, and stay conscious. He wrote an autobiographical account of his experience of the 2001 election campaign Friends, Voters, Countrymen: Jottings on the Stump. Johnson is a popular historian and his first documentary series, The Dream of Rome, comparing the Roman Empire and the modern-day European Union, was broadcast in 2006. After being elected mayor, he announced that he would be resuming his weekly column for The Daily Telegraph. After having been defeated in Clwyd South in the 1997 general election, Johnson was elected MP for Henley, succeeding Michael Heseltine, in the 2001 General Election. He was appointed Shadow Minister for Higher Education on 9 December 2005 by new Conservative Leader David Cameron, and resigned as editor of The Spectator soon afterwards. A report in The Times[22] stated that Cameron regarded the possible affair as a private matter, and that Johnson would not lose his job over it.
The Conservative Party hired Australian election strategist Lynton Crosby to run Johnson's campaign. Johnson pledged to introduce new Routemaster-derived buses to replace the city's fleet of articulated buses if elected Mayor.
I believe Londoners should have a greater say on how their city is run, more information on how decisions are made and details on how City Hall money is spent. Ken Livingstone presides over a budget of more than ?10billion and demands ?311 per year from the average taxpaying household in London. Under my Mayoralty I am certain that London will be judged as a civilised place; a city that cares for and acknowledges its older citizens. The Mayor’s biggest area of responsibility is transport, and I intend to put the commuter first by introducing policies that will first and foremost make journeys faster and more reliable. Well, I could use a good war is the line that came into my head but I didna€™t say so because I could tell she would start into me like a whole slew of hens. He didna€™t say anything, even though he was all mouth, but I could tell a channel between us had opened. I needed to eat something, but I didna€™t have any money, so I thought about slipping in and making cereal, but the kids always make the apartment smell like mustard and artificial grapes. I didna€™t want Antares to know I was looking for him, so I bought a skywriter, started twirling it through the square, which is how Kate said I would find him.
The first week I spent with the tubes Antares lent me, I might as well have been working with a toothbrush.
The thing about making love with Kate was that she knew how to run her fingers behind my neck and hold my head to her as she kissed me, like you think a man would do, but that men never do because it seems like something they should do and cana€™t live up to doing, so nobody ever does it except men in old movies, and Kate.
Before I saw Antares again, he came to me in a dream where he was a door, or the absence of a door, so it was like talking into a hole in a room that opened up. When I saw Antares that day, it shouldna€™t have surprised me, but it was 12A° in the sun and I wasna€™t sure which side of it I was on. I raised out of my seat and tried to get off the bus, which was stuck behind a funeral procession. I got off the bus feeling wired and shaky, like the last thing in the world I need is to hear a kid playing flute. I was thirteen when I walked out the front door like every high school kid has wet dreams about doing when theya€™re not thinking about how to score. So I kept going because by then Ia€™d worked up steam and I didna€™t care about suspension or graduation or even my music collection, which wasna€™t a tremendous collection, but it wasna€™t until the bus was pulling out of Chauquahana that I realized I was going to miss that. I pushed my palm against the wall, pulled back against his hand, pushed in until my hand began to sweat. Name of a weapon of the God of War, ita€™s a star in the constellation Scorpius, same one Ia€™m in.
Youa€™re an archer, a Sagittarius, only youa€™re the arrow, a spark popped out of the fire. No, just that youa€™re protesting for the environment, and I can see you in a crowd of people like a forest.
The thing about the rockstar kids was how they were all still playing characters in their own lives. They had a hangout in the forest where somebody had made a pit by pulling some rocks into a circle big enough to sit around.
The wilderness, Mickey said, is a place you can go without any Twizzlers, so when somebody brings them in ita€™s like they invented them.
I dona€™t know, if the wilderness came with a sofa, I think thata€™d be pretty rad, Chris added. Ia€™m fine, you can sell it like twice a month or something, you just have to stay hydrated. How do you love someone so much you get jammed in the arm by a noob who practically breaks the needle off in your vein, and you cana€™t feel anything but the swell of your heart aching into the bruise? No, but youa€™re gonna let me come back and belt one out next Saturday night and audition properlike.
A woman in a purple dress that plunged to the whitewater of the polar caps took the stage and the lights dimmed again. The song she had chosen was not the right one for this crowd, but MelanieE?s a€?Brand New Keya€? did have enough rhythm to get them clapping along. When the third singer approached the stage, a wave of applause moved over the crowd like gossip. You want to stick a fondue forkful of ColemanE?s fuel down your ripe throat for the show of it, go ahead.
To admit youa€™re not in control and meet it with both fists hanging by your side is pretty brave.
Kate was wearing black coconut perfume and the rockstar kids were looking especially bright-eyed under their Lucky Charms dye jobs. During the Christmas holidays, we spent some time down on the coast…which meant lots of walks with the furkids, and generally enjoying being out and about in the fresh air.
On an impulse, I decided to re-enter the world of wearable tech…I had a Jawbone Up last year, but it died after about six months with no return to life. This time, when faced with a display of choices, I went to the opposition camp of Fitbit and selected the Fitbit Charge…a black one. My new gadget was really easy to set up, and it synced straight away with my iphone 5s…I was off and running…well, more walking! You can activate the screen by just tapping or press the button on the side to go through all the current stats. Plus, it will vibrate if your phone starts ringing, and display the caller’s ID on the screen…this has been so useful as I am often guilty of not turning my phone off silent which means I miss those ten calls from people trying to reach me!
You can then view the data via the Fitbit app…I always feel I never have enough sleep, but the Fitbit often tells me that I have actually slept more then I think! The Fitbit Charge has given me the incentive to keep moving…I work in an office, and I was fascinated to find out how many times I go up and down the stairs…and now try to do it even more!
I have left the daily goal set at 10,000 steps for the time being, and I have even managed to hit it a couple of times!
You can set alarms to remind you to move as well as a silent alarm to wake you up gently in the morning. It has become a bit of a talking point…people have been asking me about it, and now two others have gone out and bought one! When we go out walking, my husband now asks me how far we have gone…that is the beauty of being able to see the live stats on the screen. The Fitbit Charge does come with a dongle allowing it to be synced with a computer, but at the moment, I am just using it with my iphone. I want to wear my Fitbit all the time to get it’s full benefits, so it would be nice to have a dressier version…every step counts! My name is Sarah, and I have created this blog to share thoughts and experiences as I journey through life!
Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. So one evening when the flock started home from the pasture and his mother called, the Kid paid no heed and kept right on nibbling the tender grass. When he saw how gaily the birds flew about and how the Hare and the Chipmunk and all the other animals ran nimbly by, always eager to see everything there was to be seen, the Tortoise felt very sad and discontented. He seized the stick firmly with his teeth, the two Ducks took hold of it one at each end, and away they sailed up toward the clouds. But the little Frogs all declared that the monster was much, much bigger and the old Frog kept puffing herself out more and more until, all at once, she burst. So they decided to leave the farmyard and to set out into the world along the road that led to the woods. At least they wished to find some way of knowing when she was coming, so they might have time to run away. A Jackdaw saw the deed, and his silly head was filled with the idea that he was big and strong enough to do as the Eagle had done. The horses could hardly drag the load through the deep mud, and at last came to a standstill when one of the wheels sank to the hub in a rut. The Kid was browsing near the edge of the roof, when he spied a Wolf and began to jeer at him, making faces and abusing him to his heart's content.
For lunch the Country Mouse served wheat stalks, roots, and acorns, with a dash of cold water for drink. They then went to bed in a cozy nest in the hedgerow and slept in quiet and comfort until morning.
There were sweetmeats and jellies, pastries, delicious cheeses, indeed, the most tempting foods that a Mouse can imagine. The grapes seemed ready to burst with juice, and the Fox's mouth watered as he gazed longingly at them. No words he could say did the least good, so he cast about in his mind for some very striking example that should make them see that discord would lead them to misfortune. He was sure that she, with her long neck and bill, would easily be able to reach the bone and pull it out. King Charles requested this map from Peter of Aragon, patron of the best Majorcan mapmaker of the time: Abraham Cresques. Originally the Catalan Atlas consisted of six large wooden panels that were covered with parchment on one side. To the right, from top to bottom, is a diagram of the tides; another lists the movable feasts, and a third drawing represents a blood-letting figure. The result is that the Atlas represents a transitionary step towards the world maps developed later during the Renaissance, especially by its extensive application of contemporary geographical knowledge and ambitious scope. Although the sailors were used to plainer charts whose importance lay principally in their utility and accuracy, even ordinary marine charts begin to follow the Catalan tradition with regards to their use of standardized color patterns. When in 1381 the envoy of the French king asked King Peter of Aragon for a copy of the latest world map (proof in itself that the reputation of the Catalan school had been widely recognized) he was given this example, which has been preserved in Paris ever since. For the first time in medieval cartography this continent assumed a recognizable form, with one or two notable exceptions. From west to east, the main divisions of the Mongol territory include the Empire of Sarra [the Kipchak Khanate], the Empire of Medeia [the Chagtai Khanate of the middle], and the suzerain empire of the Great Khan, Catayo [China]. Each side has a length of six miles, the wall is 20 paces high and lo paces thick, has 12 gateways and a large tower, in which hangs a great bell, which rings at the hour of first sleep or earlier.
The vertical waterway is the Grand Canal built by Kublai from Manji to Cambulac; below are the 7548 islands, rich in all manner of spicery, placed by Marco in the Sea of Chin. Of these, Canton is not mentioned by Marco Polo; it was, however, much frequented by Arab navigators and traders, upon whose reports the compiler was probably drawing.
Yule points out that Kao-li was the name given for Korea, and he therefore considers that the island Cresques depicts here represents confused notions about both the Korean peninsula and Japan; otherwise there is no obvious graphic reference or hint of Zipangu [Japan]. The first is difficult to explain; to make up for it the cartographer has inserted a great island of Jana [Java], which however was probably intended for Sumatra.
The notion that there were Christian rulers east of the Islamic world stems largely from the legend of Prester John; also important, however, were the real Christian minorities in India and the fact that the tomb of Saint Thomas was thought to be in Mailapore, a suburb of Madras, the Mirapore of the map. And it sometimes happens though rarely, that the widow of the dead man throws herself into the flames,a€? a practice that recalls widow-burning (sutti) of India.
There we are told that Satan came to his aid and helped him to imprison the Tartars Gog and Magog. The Persian Gulf, extending almost due west, has an outline similar to that on the Dulcert map, but is otherwise superior to any earlier map. Herein lies a succession of physical features: mountains, rivers, lakes and towns with corrupt but recognizable forms of their medieval names as given in the narratives of the great travelers of the 13th century. It is also possible to discern traces of their second journey, accompanied by Marco, in which they employed the 'south road' of the silk route, and, except for a detour through Ormis at the bottom of the Persian Gulf, ran from Trebizond through Eri [Herat], Badakshan, and along the southern edge of the Tarim basin from Khotan to the city of Lop.
Unlike many classical and fellow medieval scholars, the draftsman of Majorca showed praiseworthy restraint in this respect. For here, as is often the case in other maps of the period, the cartographer compensated for the dearth of known geographical points by including historical facts. The delineation of the Nile river system is vitiated, however, by the conception that it flowed from a great lake in the Guinea region, Lacus Nili. As previously mentioned, the early draftsmen insisted upon cutting the continent short just beyond the limit of coastal knowledge, that is, in the vicinity of Cape Bojador. It is cut in two by a land passage, a conventional allusion to Moses' miraculous crossing (Exodus, 14:2122). Between the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea appears the King of Tauris [Tabriz] and north of him Jani-Beg, ruler of the kingdom of the Golden Horde, who died in 1357. Stories reached 14th century Europe of the splendor of Mansa Musa, ruler of the Mali and lord of Guinea, one of the reputed richest of the 'Negro Kingdoms' of the Sudan, whose pilgrimage to Mecca created a sensation in 1324. However, there are great differences to be observed between what is labeled by some the a€?portolano sectiona€? (sheets 3 and 4, Europe and North Africa) and the rest of the map sheets. The legendary Insula de Brazil, for example, which is found on various medieval maps of the North Atlantic and later gave its name to Brazil, is shown here twice, once west of Ireland and a second time farther south. Elsewhere, however, the weight of received opinion is still felt, as, for example, in the various islands with fabulous names; they cannot represent the Madeiran group, as these islands were discovered only in 1418-1419. In the same spirit he removed from the map many of the traditional fables which had been accepted for centuries, and preferred to omit the northern and southern regions entirely, or to leave southern Africa blank rather than fill it with the anthropagi and other monsters which adorn the bulk of medieval maps.


This contrasts strongly with the people of the islands farther east who are described as savages living naked, eating raw fish, and drinking sea water. In reference to his cosmopolitan ancestry, Johnson has described himself as a "one-man melting pot" — with a combination of Muslims, Jews and Christians comprising his great-grandparentage.[6] His father's maternal grandmother, Marie Louise de Pfeffel, was a descendant of Prince Paul of Wurttemberg through his relationship with a German actress.
They have two sons—Milo Arthur (born 1995) and Theodore Apollo (born 1999)—and two daughters—Lara Lettice (born 1993) and Cassia Peaches (born 1997).[13] Boris Johnson and his family currently live in Holloway, North London.
In 1999 he became editor of The Spectator, where he stayed until December 2005 upon being appointed Shadow Minister for Higher Education.
He is also author of three collections of journalism, Johnson's Column, Lend Me Your Ears and Have I Got Views For You. On 2 April 2006 it was alleged in the News of the World that Johnson had had another extramarital affair, this time with Times Higher Education Supplement journalist Anna Fazackerley.
Yet Londoners have little confidence in the Mayor spending their money with care and prudence. It was here that David Cameron and all his supporters gathered to congratulate him on becoming Mayor of London.
I just loaded the rice into my satchel, which she was looking at because it had a skull and bones and said POISON on the side. The deer was tinged at the tips with auburn, so it mighta€™ve been a fire I have to burn off, like karma.
It was so much effort for me to stay on and for her to pedal, I shoulda€™ve just jumped off and walked, but she was laughing the whole time like she was made of glass and breaking, so I held on, holding my legs out of the way of the wheel. I had fallen asleep in Katea€™s bed with her hand tucked between my legs like kids do, because ita€™s warm. Kate teaches flute lessons to rich kids whose parents are practically salivating all over themselves to invite their friends to the Philharmonic and brag how they recognized little Magnusa€™s gift when he was playing recorder in his crib. Ia€™d seen it on a calendar of discount hotels, and there was something about the mountains in the backdrop of the a€?biggest little city in the worlda€? that I knew would look nice on a person, very steady and sedate. I was sitting in Geometry class and never has there been such a terrible useless fact as learning that no matter how you stretch sides AB and and AC of an isosceles triangle, they will always remain of equal length. How you had to ride over it to cross the bridge and at sundown the light shone in the Sunsphere like copper. I felt like my hand was an ear pressed against the wall, which was sounding something I could almost make out. Kate was sure, but she knew if she told him, hea€™d start thinking of his bumper stickers as blazons. I get honked at less on the holy days, but not as seldom as youa€™d think considering the town is cinched tight with the rhinestone buckle of the Bible belt. He was walking the other way, arms swinging side to side like they rocked him and he was the anchor ship of his own row.
Every time they discussed bringing a sofa they could leave in the woods, but they always forgot. I got so I started practicing in the morning before IE?d eaten so I didnE?t throw up food IE?d gone to the trouble of making.
It reminded me of a coat I saw in a museum oncea€”belonged to a Native American chief, made entirely of feathers. I knew it didna€™t matter if I lied, and honesty really is the best policy six times out of ten. When Reno broke into a€?Some people say IE?ve done alright for a girl,a€? she drew enough hoots not to hang her head when she strode back to her stool, yellow flicker feathers at her earlobes turning like wings. Every part of her was shinya€”lips glossed like a piece of hard candy, dress glinting with zirconium mirrors, heels polished as a stockbroker.
AntaresE?s comment surprised me so much, I wondered afterward if he said it inside my head or out. Nobody was around to see me, which was chancy, but it would have been more dangerous to have Kate there. Just like that, I knew I could drop the weight of the past like a coat, forgive Mama everything and the whole goddamned world we were born into, wash us off in a wave of flames, let the current carry us to another shore. But for some reason, I never had any inclination to go see the stage musical version, even though it is currently showing here in Melbourne. I know it is, because I have been nauseated since listening to the president's summit last Thursday.If nothing else in this never-ending suffocation of American health care has been clear, the sham was transparent enough. They say that Jupiter punished him so, because he was such a lazy stay-at-home that he would not go to Jupiter's wedding, even when especially invited. He wanted to see the world too, and there he was with a house on his back and little short legs that could hardly drag him along. The old Frog soon missed the little one and asked his brothers and sisters what had become of him.
The two comrades traveled along in the very best of spirits and without meeting any adventure to speak of. He thought he was still in the farmyard where it had been his duty to arouse the household at daybreak. Indeed, something had to be done, for they lived in such constant fear of her claws that they hardly dared stir from their dens by night or day. So with much rustling of feathers and a fierce air, he came down swiftly on the back of a large Ram. There he stood, unwilling to give up a single filbert and yet unable to get them all out at once. The Town Mouse ate very sparingly, nibbling a little of this and a little of that, and by her manner making it very plain that she ate the simple food only to be polite.
In her sleep the Country Mouse dreamed she was a Town Mouse with all the luxuries and delights of city life that her friend had described for her.
But just as the Country Mouse was about to nibble a dainty bit of pastry, she heard a Cat mew loudly and scratch at the door.
So he walked off a short distance and took a running leap at it, only to fall short once more.
This form later was transformed into a block-book, in which each sheet formed a double page, the parchment itself serving as a hinge between each of the two wooden panels. The latter is accompanied by a long text describing the world; it deals with its creation, the four elements of which it is composed, its shape, dimensions, and divisions.
Though the Catalan Atlas is the earliest complete example of its kind which has survived, it was undoubtedly preceded by other similar attempts at extending the range of the portolan chart.
Thus, pilots knew at a glance, for instance, that any port lettered in red offered revictualing and a safe harbor; dots and crosses, on the other hand, indicated underwater hazards. Continental interiors are filled with detail, compass lines drawn, and decorative items are added to enhance the nearly up-to-date picture. Its capital at Cambalucr or Chanbaleth [Beijing], the city of the Great Khan which so intrigued the chroniclers of the 14th century, receives due prominence, with a long legend describing its magnitude and grandeurs.
When it has finished ringing, no one may pass through the town, and at each gate a thousand men are on guard, not out of fear but in honor of the sovereign. The attempt at representing the configuration of the coast suggests at least that his informants were interested from a maritime point of view. Altogether, as mentioned above, we are told there are 7,548 islands in the Indian Ocean; they are rich in gold, silver, spices, and precious stones, so much so that a€?great ships of many different nationsa€? trade in their waters. Farther north is the realm of Kebek Khan, a historical figure who reigned from 1309 to 1326: a€?Here reigns King Chabeh, ruler of the Kingdom of the Middle Horde.
Here the text contains information from Marco Polo's account of how in the province of Malabar the death of criminals, who are compelled to commit suicide, is celebrated by their relatives with his observation on the custom of widows immolating themselves on the pyres of their dead husbands, mentioned a few lines later. In the Gulf, the island of Ormis [Hormuz] is shown, opposite the former settlement of the same name on the mainland. These are jumbled together in a manner sometimes difficult to understand, but with the help of Marco Polo's narrative, it is possible to disentangle the itineraries which the map was evidently intended to set out.
East of this lies the lake, Yssikol [Issik Kul], and Emalech the seat of the Khan, the Armalec of other travelers, in the Kuldja region. The compiler, however, perhaps because he confused this desert area with the Gobi, has transferred this stretch to the north of the Issik Kul.
In addition to Asia, the narratives of contemporary travelers were also extensively used by Cresques in Africa. We are told, for example, that merchants bound for Guinea pass the Atlas mountain range, shown here in its typical form of a bird's leg with three claws at its eastern end, at Val de Durcha. This rare speculation on the part of Cresques contained at least some partial truth because the Lacus Nili, the Pactolus of Strabo, and the Palolus of later maps, which in the Catalan Atlas and subsequent works is located in the neighborhood of Timbuktu, may reasonably be identified with the flood region of the Niger. By so doing, however, they found themselves reducing the vast extent of the Sahara almost to a vanishing point. The port of Quseir is clearly marked, and the accompanying text specifies that it is here that spices are taken on land and sent to Cairo and Alexandria. The importance of Baghdad as a center of the spice trade is emphasized; from there, precious wares from India are sent throughout the Syrian land and especially to Damascus. This African prince appears in the Catalan Atlas in a stately fashion with crown, orb, and scepter, with the inscription: The richest and noblest King in the world. In this section the coastlines are greatly differentiated and the abundance of names is in great contrast with the quantity of information, literally and graphically, supplied in sheets 5 and 6 (Asia). Nor can they be the Azores, which are first mentioned in 1427, or the Cape Verde Islands discovered only in 1455-1456.
They are obviously to be identified with the Ichthyophagi, one of the fabulous races traditionally placed in Asia or in Africa. Through Prince Paul, Johnson is a descendant of King George II, and through George's great-great-great grandfather King James I a descendant of all of the previous British royal houses. His comic first novel Seventy-Two Virgins was published in 2004,[16] and his next book will be The New British Revolution, though he has put publication on hold until after the London Mayoral election.[17] He was nominated in 2004 for a British Academy Television Award, and has attracted several unofficial fan clubs and sites.
In 2004 he was appointed to the front bench as Shadow Minister for the Arts in a small reshuffle resulting from the resignation of the Shadow Home Affairs Spokesman, Nick Hawkins. I knew shea€™d be good for me, which she started being as soon as she got me up to her apartment. I pulled in back of myself as far as I could and looked across the crystal desert of the parking lot. She wasna€™t home but leaves her door unlocked for situations like this, and she almost always has tuna fish, the good kind, with oil. She said it so often I thought it was her way of telling me things were going to be hard, and it took me more years than it should have to realize it was a line in the song. Plus, I figured I was about the biggest little girl in the world, so me and that name took up with each other like an old couple who buy each other cough drops and dona€™t have their own socks.
I stood up and walked right out, which probably even I thought I was doing for a breather, go to the weight room and tip the machine for a Coke, but once I got out, I felt the sheer absurdity of it all. Something about a river makes a town flow through you, and you can ride off on the rainbow current with some boozy grubfish.
She fought the look of naA?vety on her, had her lip pierced, painted black wings around her eyes. She asked herself, folding another sheet of colored paper onto the burn pile of Cancer crabs. The thing was, it was February and we were getting a glimpse of the spring to come, but we still had the rest of the month and all of March left.
Thata€™s what paradise is, like when you really need a drink and the liquor is right there. My stomach clenched when the bar reached my back palate, but I found a little arc in the reflex where it becomes involuntary.
It jumped out of my hand twenty-seven times, but on the twenty-eighth, I breathed deep and it stayed awhile.
I stitched the smaller feathers onto larger feathers and the larger feathers onto patches of cloth.
They werena€™t two individuals playing it out, but artists thrumming on the heart of a Siamese people.
Shawn was riding the silverplated eagle up the crystalcoated stairs, drying glasses off and shaking rocks into my whiskey, like diamonds, hea€™d say smiling every once in awhile. You donE?t rewire a reflex to become a circus freak, collect a few ahs and rounds of applause.
When she appealed to them with a€?If I Were Your Woman,a€? the crowd slammed their mugs against the bar and smacked their thighs and shouted out promises of what they would do if she were theirs.
Antares had no interest in Colleen or J.TE?s business plan or Whipgloss, who was apparently a regular act with a not unwarranted following.
If Ia€™d left it there, they would have met and burned me up, but I pulled it out, satisfied, for maybe the first time. When the backup singers rose and fanned around her like a cloak, it was like a sunrise of music ordaining this dark little basement bar, a gleaming catch pulled fresh from the ocean.
I burst into song thena€”one of mine instead of a covera€”the air around me like it would never stop breathing, and me a horse standing in the mountains hitched to a frost-burned, empty cart.
Frances knows I wasna€™t raised with the social niceties of skipping off to get somebody a clean spoon.
They recognized the song the Wolf sings before a feast, and in a moment they were racing back to the pasture. But when he tried to rise again he found that he could not get away, for his claws were tangled in the wool.
So the next day when the Town Mouse asked the Country Mouse to go home with her to the city, she gladly said yes.
In great fear the Mice scurried to a hiding place, where they lay quite still for a long time, hardly daring to breathe. This arrangement led to the folds of the precious sheets becoming worn through with use, so that these sheets were divided into 12 half-sheets, mounted on boards to fold like a screen.
Then come geographical accounts of countries, continents, oceans, and tides, as well as astronomical and meteorological information. Abraham Cresques, a Jew of Palma on the island of Majorca, for many years was 'master of mappaemundi and compasses', i.e. From the Mar del Sarra [Caspian Sea] in the west, with a fairly accurate outline in the style of the portolan charts, the Mongol domains stretch away eastwards to the coasts of Catayo [China]. Some of the islands off Quinsay may stand for the Chusan archipelago, and further to the south is the large island of Caynam, [Hainan]. The kingdoms of India as enumerated by Polo are absent from the map, and there are significant differences in the towns appearing in the two documents. The reference is to the gate that Alexander is supposed to have built in the Caspian Mountains to exclude Gog and Magog, who are here equated with various Central Asian tribes.
The Southern Arabian coast has names differing from those given by Polo, and in one of them, Adramant, we may recognize the modern Hadhramaut. The delineation is then confused by the repetition of the Badakshan uplands, the mountains of Baldassia, a mistake that probably arose from confusion over the river system of southern Asia.
In fact the section illustrated by #235B is thought to represent Nicolo and Maffeo Polo, with their Mongol envoys, crossing the Tien Shan mountains on their way through what is now China's Sinkiang Province, to Beijing (south is at the top).
Here the special feature of interest on the Catalan Atlas is the inscription and picture of the vessel recording the departure of the Catalan, Jacome Ferrer, on a voyage to the 'river of gold' southwest of the new Finisterre of Bojador in 1346.
More geographical information is given on the Maghreb, which, after all, is part of the Mediterranean. Thanks to their notorious capacity to travel long distances without water, they completely transformed African trade, opening sub-Saharan areas to Islam.
In Arabia, between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, is located the kingdom of Sheba; the queen, who came to visit King Solomon, is shown crowned and holding a golden disk as symbol of her wealth. Navigational information is also recorded: a€?From the mouth of the river of Baghdad, the Indian and Persian Oceans open out. The mountains in the European and African section are arranged in chains or chain-like symbols, in Asia they appear as regular humped garlands of rocks. The Catalan Atlas, in fact, marks the progress in the gradual discovery of the Atlantic and the west coast of Africa with an illustration of Jaime Ferrera€™s ship, which, we are told, set sail on lo August 1346 bound for the fabulous Rio de Oro [River of Gold] in Africa.
In this spirit of critical realism, Cresques and his fellow Catalan cartographers of the 14th century, threw off the bonds of tradition and anticipated the achievements of the Renaissance. The city stands near the apex of a triangle formed by two rivers and the ocean; each of the two rivers divides into three before reaching the sea, a representation embodying a somewhat confused notion of the inter-linked natural and artificial waterways of China.
In 1995 a recording of a telephone conversation was made public revealing a plot by a friend to physically assault a News of the World journalist.
This land was made for you and me to escape from or to, but the mountains have just been there all along. The thing that killed me though, the clincher, was how before I climbed on, she packed my rice into the saddlebags and started singing this song, all wavery with pauses while she made it up, patting the bags like thighs she was weighing out. He was wrapping my questions in something cool and close, like a suitcase full of dry white beans. Like their parents condense twenty-seven years of suppressed creative energy into one terrifically off-handed name.
So I made myself a peanut butter and tuna sandwich, which sounded pretty good because I was running low on protein, and it didna€™t taste half bad for the first couple of bites.
It didna€™t even occur to me to write Antares until about the fourth day, and then I wasna€™t sure how to spell it or what I wanted exactly. Come here, he walked over to a building and put my hand against the brick wall, his hand on top of mine.
The only thing just about Chris was his angera€”because his mother left them and his dad was a workaholic, because everyone had their own lives to live and no one paid attention to anyone elsea€”Mother Nature was just the representative. It had caught a sheet of newsprint and was tugging it into the telephone wires like an obstinate child.
On the twenty-ninth I noticed how my nasal passage was getting crushed but if I breathed slow, air could get around it. Nobody making you, and nobody gonna pat your backside either, even if it is as sweet as white flour.
It was a Wednesday night, so there werena€™t many people in the place, but it was nice and dark and had a purple couch.
I sat for long enough to think probably Shawn wasna€™t the best person to know about time passing, so I got up and started looking for a greaser in the bowels of the place.
You might could tell if you werenE?t so busy getting that hard cold proof down your gullet. I got three lady singers in the joint who are going to try their best to bring this place to its knees.
Before the woman, who called herself Colleen Parker, took her seat, she volunteered herself.
The thing is, your house burning down is just like anything else, all you can do is say no.
They were dressed to the nine-inch heels, pouting because he wouldnE?t comp all their drinks but made them nudge and flirt for them like the other customers. She said some part of me was going to rest when I found him, and some part was going to grow up. The speakers were backed up against the stage, but there was a sweet spot if I turned a little to the left and leaned back to get my spine straight and line my vocal chords up. We heard them mock their own bill by referring to it as a "prop." We watched as those who opposed the bill were insulted and shut off from discussion, and the end result was an immediate threat to "go along" with the 2,400 pages of lower- quality, higher-cost, more restrictive medical treatment or take it up at the polls in November.Do the progressives have no intellectual honesty left in them? The Wolf's song ended suddenly, and as he ran, with the Dogs at his heels, he called himself a fool for turning piper to please a Kid, when he should have stuck to his butcher's trade. When at last they ventured back to the feast, the door opened suddenly and in came the servants to clear the table, followed by the House Dog.
Four half-sheets are occupied by cosmographical and navigational data, they describe the whole concept of the world, show astronomical and astrological representations, and provide information about the calendar, the sun, moon, planets, the signs of the zodiac and the tides.
The second sheet presents a spectacular diagram of a large astronomical and astrological wheel. This country makes a sweep from east to south with an approach to its actual form, and along it's coast appear several of the great medieval ports and trading centers frequented by Arab merchants. There Cresques placed some of the fabulous and monstrous races legendary in classical antiquity and the Middle Ages: a€?On this island are people who are very different from the rest of mankind.
Conspicuous on the map is the Christian Kingdom and city of Columbo, placed on the east coast. And know that these people marry at the age of about twelve years and generally live to be 40 years old. The island of Scotra, an important stage on the trade route from Aden to India, is misplaced to the east, and appears to occupy the approximate position of the Kuria Muria Islands. The legend above them reads, in translation: This caravan left the Empire of Sarra to go to Catayo, across a Great Desert (Sarai, on the Edil [Volga], was the capital of the Kipchak Tartars, from which the Polos had set out about 1262. This refers to the northwest coast of Africa which extends beyond Cape Bojador to a point just north of the Rio d'Oro. Later draftsmen, in order to escape the embarrassment caused by indicating the great trans-Saharan caravan routes within these narrow limits, began to speculate on the course of the west African coast, south of Bojador. Here they fish for pearls, which are supplied to the town of Baghdad.a€? We learn that a€?before they dive to the bottom of the sea, pearl fishers recite magic spells with which they frighten away the fisha€? a piece of information that comes straight from Marco Polo, who mentions that the pearl fishers on the Malabar coast are protected by the magic and spells of the Brahmins.


The heathens believe that Paradise is situated there, because the islands have such a temperate climate and such a great fertility of the soil. For this reason the heathens of India believe that their souls are transported to these islands after death, where they live for ever on the scent of these fruits. Ia€™m making my way to them on a hobo pilgrimage toward salvation, because I dreamed my soul was inside one of them in a deer. That grocery store clerk was my mother, sure as the mole on my face, springing up like a reprimand that wona€™t be put down, because her concern for me is something I have to carry for some fixed amount of time like my own dead weight.a€?a€?a€?= The Ricea€?a€?The second person I asked about Antares I slept with because it was time.
I couldna€™t tell it was him at first because fur isna€™t something you expect to see on a bastard, which I figured he was. If their own parents had given them names that came with their own personality, maybe they could crawl out from the microscope under which they live.
But after about four bites I realized it wasna€™t really that good so I squirted Tabasco on it and washed it down with sour orange juice, which I must have been complaining about in my head because right then Frances walked in and told me to buy my own juice if I wanted the ritzy stuff; she was poor. Harner could tell them about Pythagoras, or drop his kids off at the swimming pool or Vietnam, where my dad had gone and gotten himself killeda€”years before, so I wasna€™t all traumatized or anything, but it did sort of rush together like a washing machine full of insight that all I had in the world was a mother who didna€™t want me to see the bruises she gave herself and a brother who was trying to raise a little girl. Ciara pushed against her hard, leaning with her whole body, digging her fingers in a little. She never felt so alone as after folding another origami scorpion to lay on top of the crowd. Something about his bare head should have made him vulnerable but instead it made him fierce.
On the thirtieth try, my mind had a fita€”I should get a gig or write music instead of this useless crapa€”but the picture had hold of me, of being onstage. I want you to make E?em feel welcome, clap hardest for the one you like most, not the one with the biggest titties, E?cause IE?m trying to run me a serious music theater. I figured it was a sure thing sheE?d take the dubious honor of official bar singer, but IE?d give her a run for it nonetheless.
Funny I wanted her to hear me now when I wouldnE?t let her come the first night, but I realized I didnE?t need my attention for something else. That grocery store clerk was my mother, sure as the mole on my face, springing up like a reprimand that wona€™t be put down, because her concern for me is something I have to carry for some fixed amount of time like my own dead weight.= The RiceThe second person I asked about Antares I slept with because it was time. They know, as every American instinctively knows, this bill is not affordable to the citizens of this country, and they also know that it will reduce the availability and quality of health care for the majority of citizens. An even earlier chart (probably covering the whole 'world' originally), that by Angelino Dulcert, of Majorca, dated 1339, also has points of resemblance to the Catalan Atlas.
There are several references to world maps executed by him, though this is the only one now known. There is a further allusion to Alexander having erected two trumpet-blowing figures in bronze; these, according to various medieval legends, resounded with the wind and frightened the Tartars until the instruments were blocked up by various nesting birds and animals. For India and the ocean to the west, therefore, we may conclude that charts were used which differed in detail from Polo's account, though similar in general features.
Here unfortunately the map ends; unlike the Medici Atlas, or some others, it makes no attempt at a representation, conjecture or otherwise, of the southern portion of this continent. The text beside a Touareg riding on a camel and also a group of tents informs us that this land is inhabited by veiled people living in tents and riding camels. Various trading stations are indicated on the shore of the Indian Ocean from Hormus, a€?where India begins,a€? to Quilon in Kerala. With meticulous care the islands in the region of the portolan chart section are displayed, they are painted in color, some of them like Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are shown in gold. Like a shadow of algae going to rive me from this stream.a€?a€?The first person I asked about him said Honey, whatchu want to know about Antares for?a€?a€?I dona€™t know that many people, I told her. But even from that distance, I could see his cheekbones were high and carved straight out of his skull.
He talked alright, but I could hear him clear as a bell thinking, a€?slice slice slice slicea€? and the visual it came with was like fish gills full of bitters. I asked her if it would make me cursed because a girl at school said that song was about a whore.
When I saw him, our eyes locked and I panicked, wondering what I was going to do now, but he walked right up and said, What? Even if he had to wait a couple maybe agonizing days, at least he wouldna€™t spend them indentured to the terror everybody else had of the cold. It made you wonder what a whole population of people would be like if they never stopped creating themselves, like there was never any obligation to anything but cool. I knew if I swallowed a sword it would quiet the audience for the sound of my voice coming out.
But I knew I put it there because I hadna€™t had time to wash my hands in the lettuce bowl. Maybe hea€™d gotten under the fence at his house or broken off the chain; hea€™d gotten loose from his owner anyhow. What I am opening to is right here, including the fear that she might miss me and the fact that I need her and she might not be able to provide. Like a shadow of algae going to rive me from this stream.The first person I asked about him said Honey, whatchu want to know about Antares for?I dona€™t know that many people, I told her.
It appears that, like spoiled children, these '60s leftovers care not about anything except their own power. The other elements (fire, air, water) are incorporated into the next three concentric circles; then come the seven planets, the band of the zodiac, and the various stations and phases of the moon. In view of the possible identity of Dulcert, and the Ligurian origin of the Medici Atlas, we may conclude that this type of world map, though developed by Catalans, originated early in the 14th century in northern Italy, where the narrative of Marco Polo, which, as will be seen, supplied many of the details embodied in the map, would be most readily available.
After his death in 1387, his work was carried on by his son, Jafuda, who eventually instructed the Portuguese under the patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator. This form of the name (it is rendered Coilum by Polo), and other details, suggest that the compiler drew upon the writings of Friar Jordanus, who was a missionary in this area, and whose Book of Marvels was completed and in circulation by 1340.
It is marked by a line of towns up the valley of the Edil from Agitarchan [Astrakhan] through Sarra [Sarai], Borgar, and thence eastward through Pascherit [probably representing the territory of the Bashkirs east of the middle Volga], and Sebur, or Sibir, a medieval settlement whose site is unknown, but thought to be on the upper Irtish. The crowned black man holding a golden disk is identified as Musse Melly, a€?lord of the negroes of Guineaa€? - in fact, Mansa Musa, of fabulous wealth. Speculation of this sort did at least have the merit of enabling the mapmaker to draw the Sahara with greater accuracy.
I asked her how she dealt with stuff like that but she looked at me kind of puzzled like you dona€™t know? She asked if I felt cursed and I said no, and she said curses dona€™t exist, and besides, I liked being called Roxy-anne like I had my own adjective, and Roxy, like moxie and Rocks, like star. Something about having to make sandwiches out of ketchup and saltines made Reno unable to count on anything as unreliable as that.
When the tube touched ground in the bottom of my stomach and came barreling back out as a flame of sound, I figured. She was ringing up my rice, which was when she noticed I had about seventeen bags of rice and thata€™s all. If we allow one-sixth of our economy to be taken over by what has essentially become a handful of "government gangsters" (Michael Barrone's term, not mine) we are in serious trouble. These proportions are of some significance, for they have undoubtedly restricted the cartographer in his portrayal of the extreme northern and southern regions.
The next six rings are devoted to the lunar calendar and to an account of the effect of the moon when it is found in the different signs of the zodiac. The Catalan Atlas says: The circumference of the earth is 180,000 stadia, that is to say 20,052 miles (this is the same calculation as Ptolemy's, yet it was given a full thirty years prior to the first known Latin translation of his Geographia, #119 ). But the day of the Jewish school of cartography at Majorca was already drawing to a close, owing to the wave of persecution which swept through the Aragon kingdom in the latter years of the century. Possibly additions were also made so that the map might serve as an illustration to his narrative. In this quarter, the information upon which the map is based was not drawn from Marco Polo.
Also its treatment of the Atlantic islands: the Azores, Canary, and Madeira groups, is more complete than any representation of earlier times. The gap in the snake-like Atlas Mountain chain of North Africa is meant to illustrate a pass that these Arab merchants commonly used (#235A). I had pushed in maybe a millimeter, so I pulled back into his hand, sank in maybe a centimeter before my body dissolved like pixie stix in acid.
This was perhaps to some extent deliberate, for two years before the composition of this map, we hear of the Infant John (son of Peter of Aragon) demanding a map 'well executed and drawn with its East and West' and figuring 'all that could be shown of the West and of the Strait [of Gibraltar] leading to the West'.
Three more rings show, respectively, the division of the circle into degrees, while the last gives an account of the Golden Number.
There are still other names which are not found in Jordanus either; but the commercial importance of Cambay (Canbetum, on the map) would account for the relatively detailed information about this region. To the south is a long east-west range, called the Mountains of Sebur, representing the northwestern face of the Tien Shan and Altai.
His pilgrimage to Mecca, including a visit to Cairo, was famous for the enormous amount of gold he spent on that occasion. One after another I asked dumb questions like that until he started winding them around this wheel, like the millera€™s daughter spinning straw into gold, I said, which made him smile so wide I fell right through the door.
He leaned his body into mine against the wall, holding it there, which made me able to feel the wall again, him. The Infant, in other words, was interested, not in northern Europe and Asia or in southern Africa, but in the Orient and the Western Ocean.
They eat white men and strangers, if they can catch them.a€? The reference is to giants familiar from the medieval Alexander legend, specifically defined here as Anthropophagi. There is, surprisingly, no indication of the river Indus, a striking omission also from Polo's narrative. In the late 13th and early 14th centuries there were Franciscan mission stations at these localities, and the details no doubt came originally from the friars.
This is plausible enough, for he controlled a large part of Africa, from Gambia and Senegal to Gao on the Niger, and had access to some of its richest gold deposits.
She told me to get on her handlebars and I did because her eyes were the color of twilight if twilight had a gray. I didna€™t do it on purpose, but once I saw the shock on her face, I started collecting finales. Move on to the important stuff.It's like a group who claims the sky is falling, using doctored data to "prove" it.
The cartographer satisfied him by cutting out, as it were, an east-west rectangle from a circular world map which would cover the desired area. George Grosjean, in his commentary on the 1977 facsimile edition of the Atlas, stresses that the orientation of this map must be understood from its essential part.
To these far distant waters are also relegated mermaids, some of them probably the traditional half-woman and half-fish, the others more siren-like half-birds.
This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.a€?The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian. Reports of the fabulous wealth of this African ruler did much to encourage an interest in the exploration of Africa. This oversight probably arose from confusion that often can be found between the Indus and the river Ganges.The Indian powers are represented on the Catalan Atlas by the Sultan of Delhi and the Hindu King of Vijayanagar, who is wrongly identified as a Christian.
The map was constructed in the portolano style, a type of medieval navigation chart which was intended to lie on the chart-table of a ship and always was oriented to the necessities of navigation, thus there is no 'orientation of priority' of such maps. The one illustrated has two fishtails, in accordance with one of the most common medieval conventions.
Farther north appear the Three Wise Men on their way to Bethlehem and at the top (or bottom) of the map a caravan; all of the latter figures are drawn upside down, as the map was probably meant to be laid horizontally and viewed from both sides.
Or in the case of global warming, government will force you to give it money, burden and tax industry with green regulation, and enjoy telling the rest of us what to do in perpetuity.As you read this, Democrats in Washington are planning a huge energy tax called cap-and-trade to "fight" climate change.
The shape of the Catalan Atlas, therefore, must not be taken as evidence on questions such as the extent, form or knowledge of the African continent; nor does the change from a circular to a rectangular frame indicate specifically any change in ideas relating to the shape of the earth. Since the Atlas was not intended as a portolano for daily use but instead was a luxury edition for a princely library, it is useless to ask for correct orientation of the map-sheets.
Camels laden with goods are followed by their drivers; behind them various people, one of them asleep, are riding horses.
I mean amphetamines didnE?t help, but she wouldna€™t have needed them if she made something other than kids.
The first of many, I'm sure, it will burden every citizen and business with higher costs of, literally, everything.Questions for the Tallahassee Democrat: Is what George Will says true? This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.a€?A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano. This fact notwithstanding, however, as the legends that are legible prevail in north-orientation, in the modern literature of the maps the north-orientation is now adopted.A major impetus to the advancement of exploration in Western Europe during the later Middle Ages came through the evolution and use of this very kind of map, the nautical chart or portolano.
Did Phil Jones of the Climatic Research Unit admit there's been no warming in 15 years or that the earth was warmer during the Medieval Warm Period? Designed to assist mariners find their way at sea, it served a practical purpose akin to that of the future road map, but it answered this purpose by depicting not the route itself, but detailed coastlines and hazards to shipping.
Mariners previously had to rely on written itineraries which can be traced back to the peripli or coastal pilots of the classical world.
Did the IPCC retract its assertion that Himalayan glaciers are melting?Then, why doesn't the Democrat report on it? Following the introduction of the mariner's compass in Europe towards the end of the 13th century, nautical or portolan charts were made as an extension of the peripli, constructed on a framework of radiating compass lines, with north at the top.
Places were located and marked around the coasts, while places located further inland and usually the entire interior of the continents were left blank.
The province and town of Lop mentioned by Marco Polo can be connected with the modern town of Ruoqiang (Charkhlik) south of Lop Nor. Life pulls into a station, you wait for the next bus to come along, or you take it where it goes. It should be emphasized that while the Atlas was drawn in the portolano style, it is not, strictly speaking, a portolan chart. The typical nautical chart, which some scholars believe had its origin with the Catalan mapmakers, had hitherto been cartographically the very opposite of the medieval theocratic or ecclesiastical maps. I mean, Hank and me werena€™t something to be ashamed of, but she knew my being able to sing wasna€™t something she did. Portolan charts traditionally displayed only known, discovered coasts, precisely detailed harbors, river mouths, rocks, shallows, currents, etc. The state Senate last week approved a 294-percent increase in the state cigarette tax, and unless the House or Gov.
Crist rejects the plan, it will punish the very taxpayers the stimulus package purported to save.A A cigarette tax increase is a regressive tax hike on the state's low-income population during a devastating recession. Florida smokers' median household income is almost $10,000 less per year than that of Florida nonsmokers. In some of the state's poorest counties, the cost of cigarettes will surpass 5 percent of household income.A Cigarette tax increases also have detrimental effects on nonsmokers by damaging the larger economy.
Raising the price of a pack of cigarettes higher than those found in bordering states promises to not only repel out-of-state consumers but drive Florida citizens over the state border, where prices are lower. Retailers are justifiably clamoring to defeat the tax hike, because they see sales evaporating as customers buy their cigarettes in Georgia and Alabama, where a carton will cost almost $10 less. The price advantage that Florida's retailers enjoyed will go up in smoke if this tax hike happens.A Florida Senators are lauding the $1-per-pack hike as a victory for both balanced budgets and anti-smoking initiatives, but the reality is a cigarette tax increase cannot achieve both. Any drop among in-state cigarette purchases goes hand-in-hand with a reduction in tax revenues, leaving another gaping budget hole in the future. As growing numbers of Florida smokers buy their cigarettes somewhere else, revenue projections will not be met.
Between FY 2002 and FY 2007, state cigarette taxes were increased 57 times; 39 of those increases yielded revenues that fell short of predictions.
In New Jersey, cigarette tax revenue actually declined after a tax hike there, with revenues falling 181 percent short of expectations. A study by the National Taxpayers Union found that, after 35 tobacco tax hikes between 2004 and 2006, 22 states followed up with other tax increases.For those of you keeping score at home, cigarette taxes are bad for smokers, nonsmokers, the poor, retailers, the government and anyone who cares about the state's economy. It appears the only people these tax hikes benefit are the misinformed, who will change their tune soon enough.The fact that any tax hikes are on the table is preposterous. Florida expects to receive a $13 billion infusion from the federal government as part of President Obama's stimulus package. We need a government that will encourage entrepreneurs and preserve property rights, thus allowing citizens to invest in America.A This is what has made America great a€” letting one choose his or her own destiny. But keeping people employed through government jobs at the taxpayers' expense will not stimulate the economy. Government should reduce jobs, just as the private sector does.A This brings me to ask why we, the citizens of Leon County and Tallahassee, are being hit with so many fees in these troubled times? Are citizens here obligated to furnish local-government employees with a better lifestyle by imposing fees while local businesses are hurting for sales? What's next?A The city and county should first look at the situation we have now, which is an ex-fire chief managing the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a fire chief managing the Tallahassee Fire Department.
Taxpayers are covering the cost now, and taxpayers have always paid for fire protection through their property taxes.In the 1960s, '70s, '80s and '90s, property taxes paid for local government without the fees we are faced with today. It appears that, like spoiled children, these '60s leftovers care not about anything except their own power. Did Phil Jones of the Climatic Research Unit admit there's been no warming in 15 years or that the earth was warmer during the Medieval Warm Period? Did the IPCC retract its assertion that Himalayan glaciers are melting?Then, why doesn't the Democrat report on it? Florida smokers' median household income is almost $10,000 less per year than that of Florida nonsmokers.
Florida expects to receive a $13 billion infusion from the federal government as part of President Obama's stimulus package. But keeping people employed through government jobs at the taxpayers' expense will not stimulate the economy. What's next?A The city and county should first look at the situation we have now, which is an ex-fire chief managing the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a fire chief managing the Tallahassee Fire Department. If Nader hadn't drawn 90,000 Florida votes in 2000, the reasoning goes, a handful of his supporters might have closed their eyes, swallowed hard and voted for Al Gore a€” probably closing the 537-vote gap by which Bush carried the state. A Imagine Clinton or Obama (maybe Clinton and Obama) versus McCain or Mitt Romney or Mike Huckabee next fall. Once again, the Democrats will be the peace party while the Republicans defend their policies.
A It's probably too much to hope for, but the best-known leaders in both Florida political parties are being mentioned for vice president. Charlie Crist's well-timed endorsement of McCain raised his running-mate ratings in the GOP. Bill Nelson, having won four times in a state with 27 electoral votes, should be on the short list of either Democrat. They're affable and telegenic, but they have shown they can be tough, capable campaigners. On the other hand, gay-marriage proponents, who have pushed this issue in the courts and legislatures from Hawaii to Massachusetts, seem startled and offended when their cause runs into resistance. Ulysses Grant's drinking, Abraham Lincoln supposedly joked that he would find out what kind of liquor Grant liked and send a case to each of his other generals.
Well, Leon County has always had totally clean elections a€” zero defects in the recounts, readily certifiable results, relatively short lines, few if any complaints from candidates. Even in the post-presidential merriment of 2000, Ion Sancho's office stood out from the rest of Florida. So now Sancho is investigating allegations of drinking on primary night by some of his employees. Considering how well our elections have run, maybe he ought to find out what they were drinking and send a case to colleagues in some other counties. With the interviews to begin in FSU's athletic-director search, did you know that the first FSU AD was a woman?
Montgomery entered Florida State College for Women, she found there was no provision for recreation for women students outside of a couple of tennis courts. Some said it was not quite ladylike for women to take physical education and was a hazard to the health of women to take violent exercises. When FSCW became FSU and men were enrolled, a football team was organized, and of course a (male) coach was hired. Montgomery had a doctorate in physical education, and the coach had only a bachelor's degree, she still remained head of the department of physical education.



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