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Author: admin | 14.09.2013 | Category: Treatment For Ear Ringing

The aim of our study was to outline the prevalence of hyperlipidemia in patients who had high-frequency hearing loss and tinnitus due to noise exposure. Cochlear hair cells and neural and central auditory pathways are involved in the generation of subjective tinnitus [1]. Decrease in internal diameter of the vascular bed resulting from hyperlipidemia compromises the oxygen transportation capability of the blood to the cochlea, and chronic hypoxia is likely to occur by the reduction in oxygen supply of the inner ear, which in turn would lead to insufficient adjustment of the cochlear metabolism. This may result in the overproduction and accumulation of free radicals, which disturb the microcirculation of the cochlea and play an important role in ischemiainduced cochlear injury [7]. The reasons for the susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss of patients who have been exposed to a noisy environment have been the subject of various studies. Previous data indicate that the cochlea and the central auditory system age faster and earlier in patients with hyperlipidemia and that the risk of noise-induced hearing loss is much higher [5,11]. The aim of this study was to outline the prevalence of hyperlipidemia in patients who had high-frequency hearing loss and tinnitus due to chronic noise exposure and to evaluate the risk of developing sensory hearing loss in those patients as compared to risk in control subjects. We conducted this prospective study in 120 consecutive patients with complaints of chronic subjective tinnitus of varying degrees of severity and hearing loss due to noise exposure.
The patients were examined otoscopically and were reviewed by an audiometric test battery including puretone audiometer (AC-30, IAC, Copenhagen, Denmark), stapes reflex, and tympanometry (Amplaid 775, Milan, Italy).
Antilipid treatment with statin derivatives was planned once-daily oral dosing for up to 1-2 years (minimum, 12.4 months).
We then compared tinnitus scores and hearing levels in patients with no response to antihyperlipidemic therapy and in patients who had a normal blood cholesterol level after the treatment. The duration of tinnitus in patients with noise exposure varied from 2 months to 12 years (mean, 5.5 years). Of 22 patients in the unresponsive group, 6 had high cholesterol and triglyceride, 9 had high triglyceride, and 7 had high cholesterol only before the antilipidemic therapy.
Of 20 patients in the responsive group, 7 had high cholesterol or triglyceride, 10 had high triglyceride, and 3 had high cholesterol only before the antilipidemic therapy. The difference between the pitch-match frequencies before and after therapy was not significant.
Epidemiological investigations emphasizing the relationship between hearing loss and the risk factors for coronary artery disease date back to the 1960s [18]. Spencer [19] found that 42.3% of 300 patients with different symptoms of inner-ear pathology had clearly defined hyperlipoproteinemia. The effect of hyperlipidemia on auditory perception has been studied clinically and experimentally.
The exact pathological mechanism for the hyperlipidemia-induced hearing loss remains obscure. In his study of 64 rats, Pillsbury [37] exposed half to loud noise and fed half of each subgroup a fat diet and found elevated auditory brainstem response thresholds in the hyperlipidemic animals.
Studies investigating the restorative possibility of a low-cholesterol diet and antihyperlipidemic therapy on hearing loss and tinnitus are very few. LDL apheresis has been reported to be much more effective as compared with standard prednisolone, dextran, and pentoxifylline therapy in patients with sudden hearing loss [9].
In our study, changes in tinnitus scores before and after therapy in the responsive group were significant as compared with those in the unresponsive group. Tinnitus and hearing loss are frequently encountered after an acute acoustic and blast trauma or chronic noise exposure. Deaf Seniors Deaf Believers Alumni Association of the WPSD Deaf Bilingual Coalition Deaf Equal Access Foundation Deaf Evangelism And Fellowship Deaf Queer Resource Center Deaf Reformed Ministries Deaf Hope East Valley Association of the Deaf, Inc. Theory of Time-Frequency and Time-Scale Analysis: Almost all physical signals come from systems that are time-varying. Biomimetic Acoustic Analysis: An interdisciplinary team of researchers from the University of Maryland, Boston University and the University of Washington are providing new principals for acoustic analysis. Speech Recognition and Analysis: Most researchers agree that most of the information in speech is contained within the time-varying portions of speech. Using molecular and cellular techniques, along with advanced imaging and electrophysiology, we try to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms that a) trigger formation of glutamatergic synapses and stabilize them, b) control the level of synaptic plasticity, and c) regulates ionotropics glutamate receptors. My broad research interests are in the area of sensory system development and regeneration. Professor Bierer’s research interests involve cochlear implants, which are prostheses that enhance or restore hearing in severely impaired individuals. Our work concerns development of hind-brain auditory circuits, with a particular emphasis on signaling mechanisms that control dendritic development.
Research Interests My research involves the integration between mechanism and function in animal behavior, with an emphasis on acoustic communication in birds and frogs.
I am interested in chronic sinus disease and how our various treatments impact the lives of our patients. In the past few decades, the field of speech-language pathology has begun to recognize the validity of comprehensive evaluation and treatment of communication disorders. His team is a diverse group of researchers committed to the development of a viable human vestibular prosthesis.
To develop new biological therapies for human hearing loss and balance disorders by applying the most modern tools of molecular and developmental biology to repair or regenerate the damaged or non-functioning ear. In our group, we use next generation sequencing approaches to identify genes responsible for complex human conditions.
Maravilla is currently involved with developing higher field MR techniques for molecular imaging study of small animal rodent models to explore neuroscience questions involving neuropathology, neurophysiology, and CNS genetic phenotyping.
Research Interests Three major areas of research interest: vocal fold paralysis, reflux affecting the larynx, and airway stenosis.
Professor Minifie is the author of numerous books in the Speech and Hearing field, including Normal Aspects of Speech, Hearing, and Language. Research Interests Our laboratory is interested in signal transduction in excitable cells, with a particular interest in muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and the neurally active cytokines LIF and CNTF. Knowledge of the factors which regulate the expression and function of the receptors for neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors is crucial to understanding what the brain.
My research focuses on the development and application of machine learning and statistical methods for interpreting complex biological data sets.
Research Interests The neurocognition of language comprehension in fluent native speakers and in adult second language learners.
In our lab, we use the tools of cognitive neuroscience to investigate the cognitive and neural underpinnings of human language.
Research Interests Development of topography, plasticity and critical periods in the mammalian central visual system.
The visual cortex is subdivided into many areas, and they are all interconnected forming neural networks that maintain the topography of the retina. As with many medical diseases, prevention of hearing loss may ultimately prove to be more effective than treatment. We study the neural mechanisms of vocal learning in songbirds, which learn their songs in a process resembling the learning of speech in humans. My lab is interested in how, during embryonic development, cells of the nervous system acquire their specific fates, so that they display the distinct characteristics necessary for their proper function. His research has been funded through numerous grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and many private foundations, and he has served on several national and international grant review panels, including NIH study sections, and is currently a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Foundation Fighting Blindness and of a start-up biotechnology company, Acucela. Low-Cholesterol Diet and Antilipid Therapy in Managing Tinnitus and Hearing Loss in Patients with Noise-Induced Hearing Loss and Hyperlipidemia. We investigated the role of a low-cholesterol diet and antihyperlipidemic therapy to alleviate the severity of tinnitus and possibly promote hearing gain after therapy in patients with acoustic trauma. Analysis of the epidemiological data indicates that exposure to noise is widespread and is one of the most common causes of tinnitus, which leads to various somatic and psychological disorders and interferes with the quality of life [2]. Auditory perception in such cochleas is very sensitive to reduction of the oxygenation in the inner ear [6]. Platelet aggregation and blood viscosity due to high lipid levels will intensify inner-ear damage owing to slowing of microcirculation and will contribute to the development of both progressive and sudden hearing loss [8,9].
Gratton and Wright [10] demonstrated the accumulation of lipid in the stria vascularis and outer hair cells in chinchillas after experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia, which might intensify the detrimental effect of ototoxic drugs or noise.
We instituted a low-cholesterol diet and antihyperlipidemic therapy to investigate whether any benefit accrued in terms of hearing gain and tinnitus relief. The project was approved by the local medical research ethical committee, and we obtained informed consent from each patient. Audiometric tests included air- and boneconduction thresholds for pure tones of 125-8,000 Hz, tests of speech reception and speech discrimination, contralateral and ipsilateral reflex measurements, and tympanometry.
Measurement of loudness of the tinnitus was based on subjective assessment by the patients. Daily dosage ranged from 10 to 40 mg for simvastatin (Zocor) and from 10 to 80 mg for atorvastatin calcium (Lipitor). Average ages of patients in the unresponsive and the responsive groups were 39 and 42 years, respectively.
Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the pretreatment data with the posttreatment results and to compare the results of responders and nonresponders.

None of these patients demonstrated any drop to normal ranges in cholesterol or triglyceride values after the treatment.
When those patients were asked to qualify the severity of their tinnitus, seven rated their tinnitus as the same (35%), two rated it as increased (10%), seven rated it as decreased (35%), and four had no tinnitus (20%). The correlation between serum lipids and auditory dysfunction has been investigated before, and it has been reported that sensorineural hearing loss is more prominent in those with high levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and lowLDL and in patients with low HDL concentration [18-23].
Increased blood viscosity and atherosclerosis of the cochlear vessels reduce the blood perfusion of the cochlea and promote hearing impairment [6,8,19,20,23,24]. When patients were required to qualify the severity of their tinnitus, 35% of the patients in the responsive group rated their tinnitus as decreased, and 20% of patients reported no tinnitus. Even though other factors making the patients susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss should be considered, on the basis of present results it can be concluded that the incidence of hyperlipidemia is high among patients with noise-induced hearing loss and that significant improvement in lowered intensity of tinnitus and in average hearing thresholds at higher frequencies can be achieved after lowering patients' serum lipid level [43]. Our theory drops all the typical assumptions of stationary increments in time (and space) and is able to directly resolve spectral detail while preserving time dynamics. The above time-varying analysis algorithms have been used to determine which aspect of the dynamics is most important for accurate speech recognition and these results have been used to improve recognizer performance. In particular the auditory part called the organ of Corti which is made up of hair cells and support cells that are arranged in a stereotyped pattern. Coltrera is a UW professor of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery and is board-certified in otolaryngology. This is reflected in ASHA's adoption of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as the framework for the Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology (ASHA, 2001). Folsom' research is in the areas of early identification of hearing loss, hearing development, and pediatric assessment. Their current research initiative is to investigate vestibular reflex function with electrical stimulation of individual vestibular inputs during natural orienting movements.
Our primary areas of interest are inherited breast and ovarian cancer, the genetics of schizophrenia, and Mendelian disorders in founder populations. Kuhl is internationally recognized for her research on early language and brain development, and studies that show how young children learn.
Our goal is to combine this neuroscience knowledge with state-of-the-art engineering approaches to design next-generation Brain-Computer-Interface devices that enable users to dynamically tune their prosthetic devices using only their minds. Maravilla's research focuses on anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of developmental disorders. He is also pursuing studies in brain functional MRI to address dysfunctional brain processes in disorders such as demyelinating disease, dyslexia, and other neurological disorders. His discoveries about infant imitation have revolutionized our understanding of early perception, cognition, and brain development. We are also interested in signaling by the cytokines leukemia inhibitory factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor, which regulate both neuronal survival and neuronal phenotype. In selecting research areas to focus on, I am drawn to research problems in which I can solve fundamental problems in biology while also pushing the state of the art in machine learning. My lab has done extensive work using methods such as hidden Markov models, dynamic Bayesian networks and support vector machine classifiers to identify remote protein homologs, assign gene functional annotation to proteins, and to predict protein secondary structure from sequence. We use motif-based hidden Markov models to characterize collections of transcription factor binding sites in genomic DNA.
In collaboration with Michael MacCoss's lab, we have developed a series of machine learning and statistical methods for the analysis of shotgun proteomics data. The primary method used in our lab involves recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from the scalp while people read or listen to language. How do these precise networks develop, and how susceptible are they to pathological insults occurring at different developmental stages? Olswang’s research has focused on measuring the benefits of treatment for individuals with language disorders, including the use of dynamic assessment as a means of predicting change in young children with specific language impairments. I am interested in developing strategies to halt hearing loss in its early stages by preventing the death of hair cells in the inner ear. Peter is a clinical linguist with extensive postdoctoral training in medical and statistical genetics.
Phillips is a UW research associate professor in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and director of the Dizziness and Balance Center. We have been examining how neural crest cells make cell fate choices in the zebrafish embryo, an emerging vertebrate developmental system with distinct advantages for cellular, molecular and genetic study. Ransom is an internationally recognized authority on the physiology and function of glial cells and on the pathophysiology of neural injury.
Fortytwo hyperlipidemic patients with subjective tinnitus and hearing loss due to noise exposure were enrolled for the study. It has been reported that high-plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels are one of the major risk factors for the development of occupational hearing loss [3-5]. It seems that noise and other metabolic disturbances have a synergistic effect on the development of tinnitus and hearing loss [5]. A diagnosis of acoustic trauma was verified by an ear, nose, and throat physician according to a clinical history of chronic noise exposure in patients who sought medical help for complaints of tinnitus and high-frequency hearing loss. Patients who had chronic otitis media or middle-ear effusion, those with an abnormal ear drum (perforation, retraction, etc.) or auditory canal, and those who had abnormal tympanometry (other than type A) were excluded. In the study, from 120 patients we chose 42 male patients (35%) with elevated cholesterol or triglyceride or both (age range, 19-60 years; mean age, 45 years).
The patients were separated into two groups: the "unresponsive" group, made up of 22 patients who had no response to either of the therapies and still had hyperlipidemia, and the "responsive" group, consisting of 20 patients who had lower cholesterol or triglyceride levels. The results of the blood lipid profiles were withheld from the individual to prevent a placebo effect with the tinnitus therapy. The significance of the difference in patient's comments on their tinnitus after the treatment ("same," "decreased," "increased," and "disappeared") was analyzed using McNemar and chi-square tests. However, the incidence of hyperlipidemia among a selected group of patients with neurosensory hearing loss varies.
They selected a group of subjects aged between 20 and 50 years and compared auditory thresholds at high frequencies and serum lipid levels. Noise and metabolic disturbances have a synergistic effect on the development of tinnitus and hearing loss.
Effects of experimental cochlear thrombosis on oxygenation: Auditory function of the inner ear. Direct effects of intraperilymphatic reactive oxygen species generation on cochlear function.
Clinical utility of LDL-apheresis in the treatment of sudden hearing loss: A prospective, randomized study. The relation of hearing in the elderly to the presence of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors. Appearance of free radicals in the guinea pig inner ear after noise-induced acoustic trauma. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss, subjective tinnitus and vertigo caused by elevated blood lipids. A comparison of auditory brainstem evoked potentials in hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic subjects.
Exploration of the early auditory effects of hyperlipoproteinemia and diabetes mellitus using otoacoustic emissions.
Hypertension, hyperlipoproteinemia, chronic noise exposure: Is there a synergism in cochlear pathology? Effects of noise exposure and hypercholesterolemia on auditory function in the New Zealand white rabbit. Hearing improvement after therapy for hyperlipidemia in patients with chronic-phase sudden deafness. A prospective case-controlled study of 197 men, 50-60 years old, selected at random from a population at risk from hyperlipidemia to examine the relationship between hyperlipidemia and sensorineural hearing loss.
This theory has been extended to develop optimal time-frequency smoothers for classification and detection applications. Atlas has provided this team with a new framework for understanding how auditory systems represent signals which are time-varying.
The first aspect (function) is pursued in the field, via a long-term banding and recording program combined with field experiments (mostly playback studies). I emphasize a comparative, evolutionary approach to this system, and combine behavioral studies in the field with laboratory techniques in neuroendocrinology, neuroanatomy, molecular biology, and signal analysis. He has conducted research on hair cells of the inner ear and on outcomes for head and neck cancer treatments, with particular emphasis on quality of life. We are using chronic microstimulation of the vestibular end organ and simultaneous multichannel recording of brainstem neural elements. Our goals are to identify and characterize critical genes in informative families and populations. Her work has played a major role in demonstrating how early exposure to language alters the brain. A major aspect of his research involves developing new techniques and new medical applications for MR-related imaging, including exploration of functional MRI and MRS to better understand normal and pathologic brain physiology.

His research on social-emotional development and children’s understanding of other people has helped shape policy and practice.
We carry out a variety of molecular and cell biological studies as well as behavioral analyses to determine what regulates the expression and function of these receptors. In this field, we continue to work on protein identification and quantification, targeted proteomics, and biomarker discovery. ERPs reflect the summed, simultaneously occurring postsynaptic activity in large groups of pyramidal neurons in neocortex.
We are studying these phenomena using anatomical and electrophysiological techniques, as well as MRI, time-lapse and serial approaches in vivo.
One research project focuses on the development of early signals of communication; another focuses on social communication deficits exhibited by school-age children. My research thus revolves around understanding mechanisms of hair cell injury, and developing medical treatments for the prevention of ototoxic injury. In her genetics study of speech sound disorders, she investigates causal genes in the context of multigenerational families, using cutting-edge genomic technology. The neural crest generates the neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, as well as pigment cells and craniofacial cartilages. He has worked at the interface between development and regeneration, focusing on the retina. He has published over 100 journal articles, reviews and books, nearly all in the field of retinal regeneration and development. All patients who were required to complete the questionnaire and who were subjected to clinical examination were military personnel.
A pure-tone signal was presented continuously at 50-Hz intervals at between 10- and 20-dB levels. We placed all these patients on a low-cholesterol diet or antihyperlipidemic therapy (Table 2). When patients were asked to qualify the severity of their tinnitus, 10 rated their tinnitus as the same (47%), 9 rated it as increased (42%), 2 rated it as decreased (9%), and 1 patient had no tinnitus (2%).
Lowry and Isaacson [12] reported 20% hyperlipoproteinemia among 100 patients with bilateral hearing loss. Lipidosis of the inner ear has been postulated by Nguyen and Brownell [33] as an alternate mechanism.
Insufficient perfusion of the cochlea due to increased blood viscosity and microthrombosis related to hyperlipidemia has been claimed to cause susceptibility to noiseinduced hearing loss [35].
We found in our study that the incidence of hyperlipidemia among patients with noiseinduced tinnitus and hearing loss was 35%.
Characteristics of tinnitus and etiology of associated hearing loss: A study of 123 patients.
Current work is directed toward providing a theoretical foundation for spectral analysis and transformations of the dynamics of time-varying systems.
The second aspect (development) is pursued both in the field, where we focus on young males we have banded in the nest or netted during their first summer, and in the laboratory, where we attempt to recreate and analyze the key conditions identified in the field studies. Eadie's long-term goals are to develop a clinical evaluative protocol by which clinicians can more effectively and accurately report the degree of vocal impairment using physiologic, acoustic, and auditory-perceptual measures. We are particularly interested in disentangling genetic heterogeneity in complex traits, thereby revealing the individually rare severe alleles that cause common disorders. It has implications for critical periods in development, for bilingual education and reading readiness, for developmental disabilities involving language, and for research on computer understanding of speech. His research interests include the application of new MRI techniques for analyzing central nervous system (CNS) pathology, neuro-imaging of multiple sclerosis, and the use of high-resolution MRI for study of peripheral nervous system disorders. Unlike other brain-based measures such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), ERPs provide a continuous,millisecond-by-millisecond record of the brain's electrical activity. The research examining early signals of communication involves infants developing typically and infants with physical impairments. In her interdisciplinary study of dyslexia, she investigates the biological substrates from multiple perspectives including behavioral measures, brainstem and cortical responses to sound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular genetics. We are interested in how environmental factors such as wnts and BMPs are involved in specifying these cell fates.
Ransom and colleagues conduct on how the long processes of neurons, called axons, are injured. The lab is currently divided into a team that studies retinal development and a team that studies retinal regeneration, with the goal of applying the principles learned from developmental biology to design rationale strategies for promoting retinal regeneration in the adult mammalian retina. We excluded on the basis of their response to the questionnaire or clinical examination subjects who had a history of familial hearing loss, head trauma, collagen disease, neurological or hormonal disturbance, addiction to alcohol, or ototoxic drug therapy. The main criteria for response to the antihyperlipidemic therapy was defined as a return to normal cholesterol or triglyceride levels after therapy or at least a 40% drop from either of the initial blood cholesterol or triglyceride levels if the values were slightly above the normal limits.
The latter authors showed that the lateral wall of outer hair cells from guinea pig cochlea incorporates water-soluble cholesterol.
Axelsson and Lindgren [34] matched 78 men at age 50 years with high serum cholesterol levels to 75 randomly selected 50-year-old men and found significant correlation between noise exposure and high cholesterol level. This theory has been applied to sonar, radar, machine and manufacturing monitoring, and speech and music signal analysis.
One concerns the physiological and molecular mechanisms, and the behavioral consequences, of seasonal plasticity observed in the morphology of song regions of the brain.
In addition, she hopes to continue to expand upon the current clinical database addressing the degree of impact on daily voice activity and participation as affected by various types of voice disorders, including those affected by head and neck cancer. Using this method, we have learned, for example, that the brain responds differently to anomalies involving sentence structure (syntax) and sentence meaning(semantics).
The social communication research involves school-age children with an array of disabilities, although the primary work has been conducted with children who have been prenatally exposed to alcohol. We have also performed a genetic screen to identify genes involved in the specification of particular lineages. The difference between tinnitus scores in the unresponsive and responsive groups and the change in tinnitus scores before and after therapy in the responsive group were significant.
None of the patients had cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, electrolyte imbalance, cranial nerve deficit, or clinical signs of peripheral neuropathy. Then, the pitch-match frequency threshold of the tinnitus was measured as the tinnitus loudness match of the pure-tone stimulus presented with a 1-dB increase of tinnitus frequency. Morizono and Paparella [30], using cholesterolfed rabbits, showed increased auditory dysfunction with time at all frequencies. This uptake of cholesterol is accompanied by an increased stiffness of the cells, which may impair the cells' electromotile response. Enhancement of cochlear action potentials and auditory brainstem responses has been demonstrated after limited intake of cholesterol. However, patients were at the chronic phase, more than 1 month from the onset of the hearing loss.
A second topic concerns the recruitment of new neurons to a song nucleus in the forebrain of adult birds, studied from the perspective of its physiological regulation and the influence of environmental factors. We have subsequently used these language-sensitive ERP effects to investigate many aspects of language comprehension, including changes in brain activity that are associated with second-language acquisition, individual differences in the processing of complex sentences, and the neurobiological manifestations of linguistically encoded social stereotypes. We have identified mutations affecting the development of dorsal root ganglia, the enteric nervous system, jaw cartilages and pigment cells.
It seems that the order of destruction and the high-frequency nature of the auditory dysfunction are correlated not only with the frequency and severity of the noise exposure but with the presence of the secondary pathology, as the formation of vasoactive lipid peroxidation products after intense noise is similar to the condition seen in metabolic damage to the organ of Corti [7,14-17]. In a survey of 44 patients with cochlear-type hearing loss, Booth [26] found hyperlipidemia in 28% of the men and 10% of the women. These authors observed hearing improvement of more than 10 dB in 9 of the 12 patients after antihyperlipidemic therapy.
The third topic relates to the observation that neurons in song control nuclei receive input from auditory regions, and respond selectively to the presentation of conspecific song.
Our overall goal is to determine how these genes regulate differentiation into specific cell types, identify upstream factors regulating their expression and the downstream effectors that confer specific cell characteristics. In this manner, preventive measures may provide restorative support to the injured cochlea.
We required all patients to rate their tinnitus from 1 to 10, with 10 being loudest (Table 1). I am investigating the role of song nuclei in the behavioral recognition of conspecific song in the contexts of mate choice and territorial defense. Each level was defined by short explanations to simplify the patients' grading of their tinnitus.

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