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Author: admin | 12.04.2016 | Category: Ear Drops For Tinnitus

Under normal conditions, the inner ear possesses remarkably stable homeostatic mechanisms for the maintenance of functional integrity of the inner ear fluid. Maintenance of a constant volume and composition of the inner ear fluids is essential for the functional integrity of the inner ear [1].
Maintenance of inner ear fluid ion homeostasis is essential for signal transduction and proper function of the inner ear.
Other mechanisms involved in the regulation of inner ear fluid composition include the BLB.
It was demonstrated that glucose levels in perilymph parallel the levels in blood when experimental hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia was induced [10]. The composition of both endolymph and perilymph also is maintained by active homeostatic mechanisms located within the stria vascularis contained within the membranous labyrinth [6, 12]. Hair cells are specialized sensory mechanoreceptors that transduce specific mechanical energy into a change in membrane potential by opening and closing, or gating, of ion channels.
Ion channels, including the delayed rectifier K+ channel, Ca2+-dependent K+ channel, Ca2+ voltage-sensitive channel, and receptors such as NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs) have been localized to the stria vascularis, IHCs, and OHCs and are the primary factors responsible for maintaining the electrical potential of the hair cells and the process of auditory transduction (Table 2).
At rest, channel-mediated ion influx by passive diffusion is balanced by active flux that requires energy. Proper regulation of ion channel conductance is mediated by protein phosphorylation and is essential to opening or closing ion channels such as the K+ channel [19] and to maintaining ionic homeostasis in the inner ear. Ca2+ is an important second messenger and is a final common pathway essential for many processes in neurons and cells. Hormonal modulation of inner ear fluids through alteration of membrane permeability to ions and water has been reported [22].
Ion channels compose the largest component of inner ear disease most likely to be affected by changes in inner ear fluid composition. Oxidative stress caused by free radical damage is perhaps the most fundamental cause of age-related pathology in the biological aging of cells. The effects of NO on ion homeostasis may also be attributed to the modulation of intracellular Ca2+. Aminoglycosides also act as iron chelators and promote the formation of reactive oxygen species [43].
A vailable data suggest that after exposure to ototoxic drugs, hair cells die by apoptosis. Evidence suggests that inner ear diseases such as Meniere's disease, tinnitus, and sensorineural hearing loss may be treated by selective systemic administration of drugs [49].
Aminoglycosides used to treat vestibular disorders can be toxic to other inner ear structures.
The available evidence, based on electrophysiological studies, suggests that tinnitus is associated with disturbances in spontaneous neural activity in the auditory system [53].
In general, it is known that stress-related hormones such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, vasopressin, aldosterone, and cortisol are released into the systemic circulation in response to stress. The major symptoms of Meniere's disease are sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus. Our previous studies have observed an elevation of K+, Na+, and osmolality in perilymph after epinephrine infusion [3, 6].
An elevation of prostaglandin levels (prostaglandin E2 or I2) in perilymph by cathecholamines and antidiuretic hormone has also been reported [8] and indicates another possible mechanism of altering membrane permeability in the inner ear. Acoustic trauma causes a severe sensorineural hearing loss, which is associated with tinnitus-a functional disorder of the auditory system and a major symptom of Meniere's disease.
Presbycusis refers to the gradual loss of hearing associated with various types of auditory system dysfunction that accompany aging. The cells of the inner ear and associated structures sustain damage throughout life and are presumably subject to biological aging as well. The large individual variability in the age of onset and the severity of certain types of age-related hearing loss suggest involvement of a genetic mechanism in presbycusis. Animal models have been developed using C57BL mice that show progressive auditory decline with age, decline that resembles certain types of hereditary hearing loss in humans [71]. Under normal conditions, the inner ear possesses remarkably stable homeostatic mechanisms for the maintenance of the functional integrity of the inner ear.
Several substances have been found to penetrate inner ear fluids and induce functional changes. Further studies are necessary to identify the mechanisms responsible for disturbances to the remarkable homeostasis normally maintained by membrane permeability between the fluid-containing compartments of the inner ear.
Tinnitus, a medical symptom described by the afflicted individual as a ringing noise heard without an external or actual source of the sound.
As it is a symptom and not entirely a disease to be overly worried about, this minor ailment can be mended with adequate dietary supplementation like Lipoflavinoid.
Lipoflavinoid is also researched and studied to be effective in easing symptoms of Meniere’s disease. Lipoflavinoid tinnitus treatment has been a popular natural supplementation choice to reduce the annoying manifestations of this medical symptom.
This occurrence of the ringing of the ears is not a rare symptom; all over the world around 50 million people share the same sentiment towards this ringing sensation. As Lipoflavinoid  tinnitus treatment improves overall health of the ears with adequate ear circulation, any annoying symptoms are reduced. Lipoflavonoid for tinnitus are not a prescription drug but rather considered as a natural supplement. In some rare instances, lipoflavonoid for tinnitus may bring about allergic reactions that may necessitate medical attention. Take lipoflavonoids for tinnitus as prescribed by your physician or as indicated on the product label. Prior to start taking lipoflavonoids for tinnitus, it is always wise to consult with your physician first. Lipo flavonoid is an OTC vitamin dietary supplement that is being sold in the market as a form of treatment for Meniere’s disease and tinnitus. To date, Lipo flavonoid has not yet been approved by the FDA for use as a form of treatment for tinnitus. A research paper published in 1963 showed the results of product testing on 197 patients who exhibited hearing loss and had symptoms of Meniere’s disease.  The study focused on the role of eriodictyol glycoside, one of the components of bioflavonoids found in citrus fruits. Of the 75 patients who suffered from hearing loss not related to Meniere’s disease, 11 patients or 21.2% experienced improved hearing. Because of the promising results of Lipoflavonoids, many ear, nose and throat specialists began prescribing Lipoflavonoid to patients suffering from hearing loss and tinnitus, including those with symptoms not related to Meniere’s disease. While Lipoflavonoid may not cure tinnitus, the studies indicate that Lipoflavonoids may help in the treatment of Meniere’s disease due to its antihistamine properties.  Tinnitus and hearing loss related to Meniere’s disease may respond well to Lipoflavonoid.
In rare cases, an allergic reaction may occur leading to difficulty breathing, hives or swelling of the face.  Serious side effects are not common and most people can take Lipoflavonoid without experiencing negative side effects. If you are taking medications or other dietary supplements you should let your doctor know before taking Lipoflavonoid to avoid potential drug interactions.
Conductive hearing impairment was usually associated to the elders before however, these days have proven otherwise, as more and more teens also experience the case. Conductive hearing impairment is a situation wherein the moving parts of the ear are damaged thus sounds that it filters can either be somewhat more muted and vague to hear.
Conductive hearing impairment is often caused by, besides being exposed to loud sounds, build up of earwax and a case of ear infection. It is very essential that when one experiences a sudden hearing loss in one ear, consulting an ear specialist must be right away undertaken. Diseases of the ear that afflict human beings are common or rare, mild or severe.  Among the serious cases is known as mastoiditis.
Mastoiditis normally results from an infection in the middle ear, also referred to as acute otitis media.
There are signs that have to be taken seriously about mastoiditis as it affects the little ones and early detection is better. Adults must be very conscious of looking after the babies and frequently check their body parts for any changes or occurrence of any mastoiditis symptoms because infants and toddlers can only communicate by crying which might be misinterpreted as discomfort or hungry pangs. Conductive hearing loss is the situation where the sound you hear becomes vague than what they usually be. One of the causes of conductive hearing loss is that the functions of each ear part are not functioning as they should. Some causes of conductive hearing loss can be fixed through simple intervention of medicines but it is also possible for it to be a permanent thing. Some hearing impairment may be a result of a blockage inside the ear and could either be permanent or temporary. Calcium can sometimes build up between the inner ear and the middle ear, causing the formation of another bone-like structure that hampers the movements of the middle ear. Meanwhile, a cause of conduction deafness that is related to your hygienic practices is the buildup of earwax that could block the transfer of sound waves between the inner ear and the middle ear. Treatments for conduction deafness vary from individual to individual often by the cause of the hearing loss. In case the conduction deafness had been caused by an infection or damage to some parts of your ear, medication through drugs may be needed. Unlike sensory deafness which is caused by damage in the sensory nerves that carry sound waves from the ears to the brain, conduction deafness starts with a problem in the conduction of sound through the ear itself. Of course, it is still best if you first consult your doctor if you suspect you’re suffering from conduction deafness. In simple terms, sound therapy is defined as a listening program that uses carefully picked classical music. On the other hand, in a paper published online by the American Tinnitus Association, the author, audiologist Dr. When the patient undergoes sound therapy, he is actually doing two things: exercising the muscles of his middle ear, and stimulating his cilia.
The muscle in the middle ear is responsible for the quality of sound that we perceive, and if this is not intact, a different sound is perceived. Aside from providing a workout for the middle ear, sound therapy also stimulates damaged cilia in the inner part of the ear. There are several kinds of sound therapies available, but the following are the sound therapies that experts would recommend to help alleviate or cure tinnitus. To know if your tinnitus can be helped by sound therapy, perform an experiment called masking therapy. If your doctor puts you into sound therapy, it’s important that you follow his orders. Tinnitus is a medical term that refers to a hissing, buzzing, or ringing sound that a patient can hear but is, in actuality, absent. If you’re suffering from tinnitus and are here because you want to know how to cure it, you might want to try any of these homeopathic remedies. A homeopath is a professional who uses a diluted amount of drug, herbs, supplements, or minerals to cure a certain disease.
For instance, if the homeopath has found out that there is hardening of your ear drum or hard deposits are stuck in your ear canal, he can suggest Calcarea Flourica. Since a homeopath carefully uses only a miniscule amount of a certain medicine, this is generally considered safe and won’t cause any adverse reaction. The Chinese believe that all functions of your body are controlled by qi, which should flow undisrupted all throughout the body.
Tinnitus aurium, a medical condition described to be a ringing in the ears, commonly reported that many individuals heard different variations such as hissing, buzzing, ticking, or beeping. This ancient Chinese practice is now commonly practiced all over the world, not just to target a certain illness. Tinnitus aurium is a medical condition in which an individual suffers a misperception of a ringing sound that may be heard for a short period, intermittently or continuously.
Pycnogel, a natural extract from the bark of the maritime pine has been researched to be proven to ease the manifestation of tinnitus.
Pycnogenol for tinnitus has been found to improve the quality of life of the patient afflicted with this hearing condition.
Maskers for tinnitus are defined as specialized devices which are capable of creating the so-called white noise aimed at helping the sufferer of tinnitus to ignore the clicking, buzzing, hissing or the ringing sounds that they hear inside their ears. The so-called white noise is a latest innovation in technology where various sounds possessing various frequencies will be incorporated into a piece of hearing material. Even before a sufferer of tinnitus is suggested to wear maskers for tinnitus as a form of treatment, the medical condition must be first assessed thoroughly. Standard hearing aids – these apparatuses will aid the sufferer to ignore the clicking, hissing, buzzing or ringing sound in the ear as the sound from the background gets intensified by the tinnitus masker.
Maskers for tinnitus hearing aid – this particular apparatus is pretty much alike with the usual hearing aid although it is incorporated along with the technology of white noise and is typically suggested for those individuals who are not able to find relief from the usual hearing aids.
Implants for Cochlear – implants for the ear that are made available only at ENT clinics or cochlear specialist clinics. Maskers for Tinnitus Software – this contains a wide array of white noise sound files to choose from.
Edward Chisholm – Otolaryngology ENT SpecialistGlue ear or otitis media with effusion can be treated with grommets. Initially the fluid is thin and watery but eventually it becomes thick and tenaceous, hence the name ‘glue ear’. It is important to note that in children the Eustachian tube is more horizontal and smaller than in adults and this is one of the reasons why glue ear is relatively common in children. Because of the change in size of the Eustachian tube as you get older, and becaue you tend to be less prone to infections as you get older, children usually grow out of glue ear. If glue ear is causing problems with poor hearing, poor speech or lots of infections, it may be better to put grommets in. Nose drops or steroid nasal sprays can sometimes help. Antibiotics and antihistamines do not seem to help this type of ear problem. Taking out the adenoids may help the glue ear get better, and reduce the chance of needing a further set of grommets. A hearing aid can sometimes be used to treat the poor hearing and speech problems that are caused by glue ear if you are not keen on the idea of grommets. A new trend in tinnitus treatment is the use of veryhigh- frequency maskers, including ultrasound, delivered by bone conduction [1,2].
Human ultrasonic hearing has been independently "discovered," documented, and abandoned more than a dozen times over the last half century [3].
The dynamic aspect of ultrasonic pitch suggests that the ear may not be directly stimulated but rather that an intermediary structure may be involved. The brain ultrasonic demodulation theory implies that the sound produced by brain resonance will propagate to the ear via fluid channels.
The application of ultrasonic noise to the skull by bone conduction should produce cochlear masking in frequencies corresponding specifically to the brain's resonant frequency, raising the question of how brain resonance interacts with conventional hearing. For more than half a century, ultrasound has been reported to be associated with the pitch of air-conducted sound in the range of 8 to 16 kHz and often has been cited to be directly related to the highest frequency audible by a listener [3]. Deatherage [7] first noted an ultrasonic diplacusis; that is, the pitch associated with ultrasound could be International Tinnitus Journal, Vol.
If the ultrasonic frequency does not determine the perceived pitch but rather the resonance of the brain, how is the reported pitch discrimination in the ultrasonic range possible [3,S], or is it absent [24-26]? The effect of airborne ultrasound on hearing has not been thoroughly studied, but young normally hearing adults seem at greater risk for very-high-frequency hearing loss.
The correspondence of the results of brain resonance, ultrasonic masking, and ultrasonic pitch-matching data are summarized in Figure 2. Alternatively, just the basal tip of the basilar membrane has been proposed as the site of ultrasonic transduction [7,32].
High- and very-high-frequency stimulation were reported recently to be effective in tinnitus masking [1,2].
If speech is modulated on an ultrasonic carrier, speech monitoring and perception with a high degree of comprehension (approximately 80%) is possible [3,47], even in high ambient noise. Deatherage swam into a 50-kHz beam and first discovered underwater audible ultrasound 50 years ago [7]. Humans can detect ultrasound up to at least 100 kHz, but perception generally requires direct contact of the source with the body. I gratefully acknowledge the critical but constructive analysis and editorial contributions of Drs.
One of the most common medical conditions in children, affecting ~90% of children at some point before the age of 7.
The pressure in the middle ear causes a build up of fluid behind the eardrum, which may become infected with bacteria.
Acute otitis media may resolve on its own after rupture of the eardrum and draining of fluid. Chronic otitis media may require the placement of pressure equalization tubes to relieve negative pressure and allow the middle ear space to drain. In conjunction with treatment from your physician, an audiologist may monitor your hearing on a regularly scheduled basis. The inner ear fluid maintains its homeostasis by a variety of regulatory mechanisms such as an ion transport system, a blood-labyrinth barrier, and a constant blood supply. Inner ear fluids are maintained by a delicate balance of homeostatic mechanisms that include a blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB), epithelial ion transport systems, and a constant blood supply [2]. They provide an appropriate ionic environment for optimal generation of the membrane potentials that are necessary for inner ear function.
Endolymph, the fluid within the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, and perilymph, the fluid that surrounds the membranous structures, differ markedly in their composition, and both playa vital role in the physiology of the inner ear. The BLB is thought to be an important homeostatic mechanism that protects the delicate ionic balance within the labyrinth.
Percentage of serum concentration or activity in perilymph after systemic administration of various biological substances.
Tight junctions present in the stria vascularis contribute to the distinct ionic environment of the endolymph.
When this mechanism is functioning normally, stretch or pressure forces displace hair cell stereocilia and cause opening or closure of K+ -conducting ion channels, which in turn depolarizes and repolarizes the hair cell body. Ion channels function by gating in response to external stimuli, and they may be classified by their response to stimuli. Substances such as neurotransmitters and some drugs bind extracellularly, whereas intracellular second messengers, signaling molecules, and enzymes such as protein kinase interact with the cytoplasmic face.
Na+K+-adenosine triphosphatase (Na+K+-ATPase) is responsible for the active transport of Na+ and K+ across the cell membrane, which maintains the K+ gradient between endolymph and perilymph essential for auditory transduction. Binding of cell signaling molecules to membrane receptors or ion channels activates an intracellular signaling pathway and is an important regulatory control point for modifying a cell's response to changes in the extracellular environment. Ionic equilibrium in perilymph and endolymph can be affected by changes in the BLB induced by ototoxic drugs.
Principally implicated as a mediator of oxidative stress and inflammatory and infection-related damage in the central nervous system and other tissues is the presence of increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS).
It is produced in neurons by conversion of L-arginine by inducible NO synthase, a process that requires calcium bound to calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM).
Aminoglycoside toxicity may be attributed to the combined effects of several mechanisms resulting in a disruption of normal function and integrity of the cell membrane. Administration of a high dose of salicylate is known to produce reversible hearing loss and tinnitus [54]. Stress hormones can act as powerful intercellular signals and are reported to have local and systemic effects on hearing.
The pathology of Meniere's disease is known to include enlargement of the endolymphatic sac, endolymphatic hydrops, and bulging of Reissner's membrane into the scala vestibuli.
Possible mechanisms of inner ear disturbances (endolymphatic hydrops) by epinephrine administration. It appears that epinephrine infusion results in adrenergic receptor stimulation at the cell membrane of epithelial cells in the lateral wall of the cochlea [62]. Under physiological conditions, prostaglandin may be involved in the maintenance of stable membrane permeability to water and ions through adenylate cyclase [61]. Traumatic noise exposure has also been demonstrated histopathologically to destroy auditory hair cells, especially OHCs, to contribute to the collapse of the organ of Corti, and to impair cochlear circulation.
Four types of presbycusis have been defined on the basis of a study of audiometric data and the histological findings in the elderly [68]. In 1974, Schuknecht [68] suggested that strial presbycusis is likely to have a genetic etiology because of clinical impressions that the disorder is prevalent in certain families.
Thus, it is conceivable that presbycusis may be due to a genetic predisposition for the factors that are associated with sensorineural and other types of age-related hearing loss. The BLB is composed, in part, of tissues adjoining the membranous labyrinth and has been shown to protect the inner ear from unlimited entry of substances into the inner ear fluids. The inner ear fluid maintains its homeostasis by a variety of regulatory mechanisms such as an ion transport system, a BLB, and a constant blood supply. Free radicals, stress hormones, noise exposure, and aminoglycoside antibiotics may induce short- and long-term effects on cellular function of the auditory or vestibular system (or both). This sound as interpreted by the person may appear in different forms such as clicking, humming, hissing, electric buzzing or even a pure steady tone. It is a proprietary, over the counter nutrient or dietary supplementation suggested to be effective in combating tinnitus or the ringing in the ears. This disease of the ear characterized by tinnitus, vertigo or sensation of falling and hearing inconsistencies occurs mainly due to oscillations in the fluid of the inner ear.
Tinnitus, a ringing in the ears heard without any external source may be caused by Meniere’s disease wherein the problem lies in the oscillation of the fluid of the inner, basically leading to a variety of hearing inconsistencies.
This dietary supplement is easily procured as it is an over the counter nutrient and can mostly be found in shops that specializes in vitamins and other supplementations. The product is formulated basically to aid in the treatment or tinnitus or ringing in the ear that is brought about by Meniere’s disease. The kinds of reactions to take note of include hives, swelling of the throat, lips, tongue or face as well as difficulty in breathing.
Refrain from using the product in are dosages or for a prolonged period of time than the suggested time span. It is essential to have an assessment regarding any health condition that you may be suffering from more in particular if you are taking any kind of medicines.
According to scientific evidences, lipo flavonoid is successful in the treatment of these ailments. It however contains a potent ingredient called eriodictyol glycoside, which is derived from the extracts of bioflavonoids that are tested and proven to enhance the microcirculation occurring in the inner ear canal.
It has been said that teens are naturally inclined to music and the technologies that goes with it are being abused that they always feel the need to blast of the sound causing them conductive hearing impairment.
This so happens because the sound vibration that the outer ear receives doesn’t or only a little goes to the middle ear which process all sounds.
It has also been said that it may be caused by a blunt trauma that has damaged ear parts causing them to malfunction. If the impairment is untreatable but stabilized to a muted sound, ear devices are offered almost everywhere to help out. As a social being, it is saddening and depressing not to hear any sound from oneself and the environment.
Some are common while others are rare.  One of the hearing illnesses is known as sudden hearing loss in one ear (SHL). As the name implies, it is an infection that transpires right in the mastoid bone of the skull.  The mastoid can be found adjacent the outer ear which is actually behind it. It is infectious as it may attack from the ear towards the mastoid bone of the skull which makes it very serious.  Because of this infection, the honeycomb-like structure of the mastoid bone might be weakened or destroyed. It is necessary that children have to be oriented pertaining about any problems encountered with their ears and to report it quickly to adults to prevent an ailment turning into worse because the complications of this disease are potentially life threatening.

Initially, mastoiditis symptoms look the same with that of an early middle ear infection.  This usually comes about and can be observable two weeks after an acute otitis media has been overlooked and not taken care of with the proper medications. It would feel like someone is blocking the sound from entering the ear, making it somewhat so silent and uneasy to decipher. This may be caused by an infection, either a recent one or a history from childhood, which ceases sound waves to be transmitted in the brain due to a damaged cochlea nerve which is the nerve that connects ear to the brain. The popular attack to this inevitable problem is the usage of hearing aid where sound waves are accepted and released in a louder state. This results to a slowing down of the sound waves’ movement through the ear and eventually leads to conduction deafness. Aside from excess earwax, sticky fluids could also buildup inside the ear and hamper the sound transmission between the ear parts. If the cause of your hearing problem is a buildup of earwax or fluid, you can consult a doctor and ask for a decongestion of your ears to relieve it of the blockage. Some cases even require surgery to remove the perforation or the growth of other bony structures inside the ear.
Hence, correction of the impairment can often be solved by removing the blockage in the conduction of sound waves.
Some experts believe that this music corrects tinnitus by stimulating the ear muscles that are responsible for the condition.
The simple answer is that it relieves the causes of tinnitus, which include ear fluid imbalance, cilia damage, and hardened ear muscles. In sound therapy, the music can correct all sorts of problems related to the middle ear such as muscular problems and fluid imbalances.
Cilia are hair-like parts of the ear that pick up sound vibration and send them to the brain. To do this, simply immerse yourself in an environment where you can hear another distinct sound.
Patients with tinnitus are not delusional, but when it comes to this condition, conventional medicine neither has a concrete explanation as to why it exists nor has a treatment for it. To treat tinnitus, your homeopath will have to first thoroughly examine your ear to get a clear view of what may be causing your condition. Aside from that, these medicines are not known to be in conflict with pills and medications prescribed by conventional doctors. The usual procedure is spine alignment, if their findings indicate that your backbone is causing strain in your neck, which might be causing your tinnitus. If not, any disruption may lead to complications, diseases, and conditions such as tinnitus.
Most people even once in their lifetime have experienced tinnitus aurium, even for a brief period. When nothing still can be found wrong regarding the hearing condition, most people combine medical help with alternative treatments or therapies. Pycnogenol for tinnitus has been studied as a natural dietary supplementation that may aid in the blood perfusion of the ears, which is what typically happens during tinnitus aurium occurrences.
The truth of the matter is that, the incessant clicking, hissing, buzzing or ringing sound could be associated with a more serious internal ailment. The technology involving the white noise gives a southing noise composed of various frequencies which permits the patient to ignore the tinnitus syndrome. The build up of fluid in the middle ear is due to a problem of blockage of the tube that connects the middle ear to the back of the nose (Eustachian tube). They let air get in and out of the ear. Grommets usually fall out by themselves as the eardrum grows. We like to leave children alone for the first three months, because about half of them will get better in this time. Some children think everything sounds too loud until they get used to having normal hearing again. The pain from the change in pressure in the aeroplane cannot happen when the grommets are working. The mechanisms involved in reception and perception of both audio frequencies and ultrasound are identical, with the exception that ultrasound interacts with an intermediary site, the brain.
Masking and long-term inhibition may involve inducing plastic changes in the brain at the central level. So outlandish is the concept that humans can have the hearing range of specialized mammals, such as bats and toothed whales, that ultrasonic hearing has generally been relegated to the realm of parlor tricks rather than being considered the subject of scientific inquiry. Three lines of evidence suggest that the resonance of the brain is critical for an audible ultrasonic experience. Using a 7-cm radius as a representation of the human average, the fundamental resonant frequency is calculated to be 13.4 kHz. Such channels have been proposed by Ranke [13] and confirmed experimentally by Tonndorf [14,15]. Ultrasonic masking has been reported to suppress audio thresholds in the 8- to 12.5-kHz range by 2- 29 dB [22,23]. Masking was less for frequencies higher and lower than the resonance peak, which is characteristic of a resonance phenomena.
Ultrasonic hearing is unique in that even moderate changes in frequency « 10%) are not associated with the dramatic pitch changes as in the conventional audiometric range. Thus, the brain stimulates each ear equally, but the frequency response of each ear contributes to the perception of pitch. Each subject matched an air-conducted pure tone (variable frequency) with an ultrasonic tone of 26 or 30 kHz delivered at 5 dB SL. The effects of ultrasound on audio frequency thresholds depicted for the two ultrasonic sources. Note in Figure 1 that a change in the center frequency of the noise, even at a constant intensity (S dB SL), results in a different frequency or place spread of activation. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has adopted ultrasonic hearing protection working standards [29].
These data clearly support the hypothesis of physical demodulation of ultrasound by brain resonance and the detection of this resonance in the base of the basilar membrane. One-dimensional modeling of the cochlea, incorrectly assuming both scales have equal volumes, results in the prediction that ultrasound activates the first few millimeters (0-7) of the cochlear base.
Substantial agreement supports the theory that ultrasound, regardless of its frequency, stimulates an area on the basilar membrane that codes the fundamental resonant frequency on the brain. Summary of the data from modeling, spherical measurement, masking, and pitch match, supporting the theory of ultrasound brain demodulation in the high audio frequencies. Plastic changes in the auditory neural axis in severe tinnitus, particularly in the auditory cortex, may playa role in the continued perception of tinnitus by adding salience to the experience [34,35]. Calibration procedures are based in part on bone-anchored measurements (in the high audio frequencies of 8-20 kHz) [3]. This result opens the possibility of using ultrasonic speech for communication under poor listening conditions and in situations wherein traditional amplification is ineffective. It seems reasonable to expect that any mammal can detect underwater ultrasound by brain ultrasound demodulation. Ultrasound sets the brain into forced vibration, and it is the brain oscillation that is detected on the base of the cochlea in normally hearing individuals. Barbara Goldstein and Abraham Shulman at the Martha Entenmann Tinnitus Research Center in the preparation of this manuscript. Occupational Safety and Health Administration Technical Manual, Section III, Chapter 5, subchapter V: Ultrasonics.
Reference Equivalent Threshold Force Levels for Audiometric Bone Vibrators (ANSI S3.26, 1981). Highly regulated transport of ions into and out of the inner ear provides for the maintenance of inner ear fluid composition necessary for auditory transduction. A number of factors, such as free radicals, emotional stress, anoxia, noise exposure, and aminoglycoside antibiotics, may disrupt ionic homeostasis by interacting with ion channels and the cellular processes that regulate the dynamic fluid environment of the inner ear.
Like other barrier systems (blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, blood - aqueous humor barrier), tight junctions within the capillaries of the spiral ligament form the morphological site of the BLB and prevent the passage of substances from blood into the fluid of the inner ear (Fig. It appears that its entry exhibits ratelimiting saturation, and glucose transport appears to be carrier-mediated. Passive spread of depolarization due to K+ influx from endolymph throughout the stereocilia into the hair cell soma activates an inward Ca2+ current, which drives nearby Ca2+-dependent K+ channels, resulting in an outward K+ current that releases neurotransmitter from the base of the hair cell. Voltage-gated ion channels open in response to a change in electric potential that normally exists across the plasma membrane of cells at rest.
Hair cells have mechanically gated ion channels that are opened by deformation of the cell membrane.
Na+K+-ATPase pumps three Na+ ions out of the cell for every two K+ ions pumped in, thus balancing the Na+ influx and K+ efflux.
Activation of various effector proteins can lead to the production of second messengers, components of the cell signaling pathways that are important mediators of ion channel functions, such as kinases dependent on cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-dependent kinases), nitric oxide (NO), soluble guanylyl cyclase, inositol triphosphate, diacyl glycerol, and calmodulin (CaM). Most important, intracellular Ca2+ regulates many cell functions such as modulation of ion channels, enzyme activation, and gene expression. Systemic injection of urea or glycerol has been shown to disrupt the tight junctions between pericytes, among other cells that comprise the BLB, and to induce a change in inner ear fluid osmolality by shifting water that freely moves across the BLB and inner ear membranes. NMDA receptors are normally "plugged" by Mg2+ and are permeable to Na+ and Ca2+ only when bound by ligand.
Redox reactions with gentamicin form a gentamicin-iron chelate that will produce free radicals both in vitro and in intact cells [44]. Gentamicin may induce key components of the apoptotic biopathway or stress-activated kinases that mediate apoptotic cell death in several cell types, which have been shown to be activated in hair cells in response to stressful stimuli [45]. The aminoglycosides gentamicin and kanamycin are known to be differentially ototoxic to vestibular and cochlear hair cells.
Systemic administration of a stress hormone may induce shortand long-term effects on cell function by promoting transcription of target genes or through the initiation of phosphorylation signaling cascades and may exert significant effects on the delicate homeostatic mechanisms of inner ear fluid and function of the inner ear [3]. It is accepted that disturbances of the inner ear fluid homeostasis and breakdown of the integrity of the inner ear tissues can lead to endolymphatichydrops.
Inamura and Salt [9] reported that the rate of tracer entry into perilymph could be increased by epinephrine-induced hypertension or by simultaneous administration of histamine and prostaglandin E2. Tinnitus may be attributed to a leakage in the apical or lateral potassium channel, metabolic disorders affecting intracellular calcium levels, and aminoglycoside toxicity. The majority of hearing loss involves progressive sen sorineural cochlear pathology characterized by marked degeneration of OHCs and nerves, most notably in the basal end of the cochlea and resulting in the loss of high-frequency hearing. Throughout life, our immune systems are triggered to produce intermittently toxic concentrations of free radicals that can bind indiscriminately to nearby tissues. Future research should be directed to exploring basic mechanisms of the aging processes in general as well as specific functional and clinical entities. Processes associated with the metabolic activity of the BLB allow the inner ear to respond to an altered biochemical environment of a systemic or local nature and to regulate the chemical composition of the inner ear fluids. These effects are mediated by interaction with ion channels, membrane-bound G-protein-linked receptors, and the cellular processes that promote transcription of target genes or through the initiation of phosphorylation signaling cascades that exert significant effects on the delicate homeostatic mechanisms of inner ear fluid and, consequently, on the function of the inner ear. Permeability changes of the bloodlabyrinth barrier measured in vivo during experimental treatments. Ion transport mechanisms responsible for K+ secretion and the transepithelial voltage across marginal cells of stria vascularis in vitro.
Mechanism generating endocochlear potential: Role played by intermediate cells in stria vascularis. The fine structure of spiral ligament cells relates to ion return to the stria vascularis and varies with place-frequency.
An immunohistochemical and electrophysiological study on Isk protein in the stria vascularis of the guinea pig. Congenital deafness and sinoatrial node dysfunction in mice lacking class D L-type Ca2+ channels. Expression of a potassium current in inner hair cells during development of hearing in mice. Membrane potential depolarization in the porcine ciliary epithelium evoked by nitric oxide. Roles for NAD(P)H oxidases and reactive oxygen species in vascular oxygen sensing mechanisms [review]. Nitric-oxide induced mobilization of intracellular calcium via the cyclic ADP-ribose signaling pathway.
Calcium and protein kinase C mediate high-glucose-induced inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase in vascular smooth muscle cells.
Pertussis toxinsensitive G proteins influence nitric oxide synthase III activity and protein levels in rat heart. Alteration of the calcium content in inner hair cells of the cochlea of the guinea pig after acute noise trauma with and without application of the organic calcium channel blocker diltiazem. Suppression of hypoxia- associated vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression by nitric oxide via cGMP. Activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and potassium channels contribute to relaxations to nitric oxide in smooth muscle derived from femoral veins. Nitric oxide directly activates calcium-activated potassium channels from rat brain reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer. Nitric oxide signaling contributes to late-phase LTP and CREB phosphorylation in the hippocampus.
Nitric oxide inhibits L-type Ca2+ current in glomus cells of the rabbit carotid body via a cGMP-independent mechanism.
Biochemical aspects of inner ear fluids and possible implications for pharmacological treatment. Intraotic administration of gentamicin: A new method to study ototoxicity in the crista ampullaris of the bullfrog.
Estimation of perilymph concentration of agents applied to the round window membrane by microdialysis.
Gentamicin blocks Ach-evoked K+ current in guinea-pig outer hair cells by impairing Ca2+ entry at the cholinergic receptor. Sensorineural hearing loss owing to deficient G-protein in patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism: Results of a multicentre study. The possible roles of hormones and enzymes in the production of the acute attack in Meniere's disease. Perilymphatic fluid compartments and intercellular spaces of the inner ear and the organ of Corti. This phenomenon is not considered as a medical illness or disease; rather, it is a medical symptom in which its occurrence may be related to natural hearing impairment due to aging, hereditary hearing loss or to a side effect of a particular drug. This Lipoflavinoid promotes adequate circulation in the inner ear, to fight any ringing in the ear which may be caused by lack or insufficiency of Vitamin B12. The symptoms of Meniere’s disease are lessened with Lipoflavinoid supplementation as it balances out any fluctuations in the inner ear fluid. The tinnitus can also spring from man’s natural process of aging, hereditary predispositions, and as side effects of certain medications.
Truthfully, there would nothing more annoying than hearing a constant humming, ticking, or beeping sound which isn’t just annoying, but also renders you irritated as only you can hear it among your peers or companions. But it is always better to get checked for first and have the doctor suggest this supplementation as suited to your overall health. It is said to contain a key ingredient called eriodictyol glycoside which improves the microcirculation in the inner ear canal. This is because multivitamins are not anticipated to bring about any adverse side effects although there have been a few cases of non-serious side effects that have been reported including unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth, upset stomach and headache.
Eriodictyol glycoside, a major ingredient of this product is actually the extract derived from the citrus bioflavonoids.
This active ingredient is also known to serve as an antihistamine, which could aid in combating the pathology and symptoms brought about by Meniere’s disease. These causes, together with some other more like Otosclerosis, may permanently damage the ear parts or may be addressed through medical attention. But if it is treatable, therapies are available to put back damage parts to a normal state once again. It is like having a separate world which is so difficult to penetrate unless a concrete intervention has to be applied for communication to occur between the hearing impaired and those he or she is interacting with.
More often, it simultaneously goes together with tinnitus or vertigo or both.  The hearing loss also varies from moderate to serious and has dissimilar hearing frequency range. If taken for granted, the disease quickly spreads to the other ear making the condition worse this time since there are now two (2) ears affected. Moreover, conductive hearing loss may also be a result of too much calcium that swells on the eardrum that ceases it to move as much.
However, it is not recommended to overly clean your ear as this can damage the ear drum as well especially when it is continuously hit by the cleaner.
Basically, it is caused by a buildup between the middle ear and the inner ear, hence blocking the transfer of sound waves from the former to the latter.
This could result from an infection or aggregation of fluid brought by a cold or other illness. Earwax removal is a pretty easy procedure and your doctor can solve your problem in a matter of a week or two. In extreme cases where the impairment is already severe, a hearing aid may be the only possible solution.
Music therapy is also used to relieve some mental and neurological diseases such as amnesia and Parkinson’s disease. When a person is suffering from tinnitus, experts believe that the cilia are damaged and flattened.
That’s why most people suffering from this condition go to a reliable homeopath or a person who practices alternative medicine in hopes of getting cured. At other times, this condition is blamed on ear conditions or problems such as a ruptured or damaged middle ear. But if you still want to make sure, you’re strongly suggested to talk to your physician about it.
Aside from spine adjustment, these professionals can also prescribe herbs such as ginkgo biloba.
The only way to cure a disease is to locate the pressure point where the disruption is located and stimulating it. Some are more dreadfully afflicted as their quality of life is affected when there is constant or intermittent tinnitus. Acupuncture for tinnitus has a natural healing process where endorphins in the brain are released, a chemical responsible for inducing relaxation ad happiness.
This disrupted or inadequate blood flow in the ears leads to the occurrence of reverberations heard without an actual external source. The Pycnogenol for tinnitus has been found to have natural and organic ingredients including bioflavinoids, procyanidins and other organic acids. It is important to relay this medical discovery to help a lot of people as this hearing condition affects nearly 50 million people worldwide. This technology allows the patient to make their own maskers for tinnitus by recording the sounds. The Eustachian tube normally plays an important role in maintaining equal air pressure between the outside and inside of the middle ear. Obstruction of the tube may be due to repeated bacterial and viral upper respiratory tract infections, enlarged adenoids or nasal allergy. This usually takes only a few days. You should be able to go back to work or school the day after the procedure. You do need to avoid getting dirty or soapy water into the ear, so in the bath or shower plug your ears with a cotton-wool ball covered in Vaseline. We need to check your  hearing after grommets have been put in, to make sure their hearing is better.
We proposed brain ultrasonic demodulation as the means of place-mapping ultrasound on the first few millimeters of the basilar membrane. The application of high audio frequencies (10-20 kHz), which stimulate the base of the cochlea through bone conduction, is a conventional auditory technique. More recently, the primary auditory cortex has been implicated, using magnetoencephalography, in processing ultrasound tonotopically, consistent with veryhigh- frequency hearing [5].
Support for a brain ultrasound demodulation theory stems from spherical models of brain and psychoacoustic metrics of masking audio frequencies by ultrasonic noise and by matching the pitch of audible ultrasound with conventional air conduction sound.
Direct vibration of the brain, but not skull, is sufficient to record auditory evoked potentials [16-18], thus verifying the brain-ear mechanism. This experiment was repeated using seven normal hearing listeners with no history of otological disease. Note also that the masker with noise centered at 39 kHz was less effective, as it is almost two octaves above the fundamental brain frequency (see Table 2). Further, pitch generally asymptotes approximately at the air-conduction match of some 16 kHz, rendering judgments difficult [3,24,25].
The change in the area activated and the subsequent neural coding likely contributed to crude detection of pitch change. Ultrasonic cleaners and related technology (ultrasonic welders, etc.) are an industrial source of high audio and ultrasound of sufficient energy to induce hearing loss. Although some overlap is seen with the brain ultrasound demodulation place of transduction in the cochlea, the mechanism is assumed to be direct stimulation via bone conduction. The psychoacoustical findings, despite the methodological differences, are also consistent with the brain ultrasound demodulation theory. Plastic changes reflecting neural reorganization secondary to peripheral hearing loss have also been well documented [36]. Presumably, the increased ultrasonic energy increases the displacement spread on the basilar membrane toward the apex, thus accounting for the observation that the ultrasonic pitch is related to the highest frequency detectable by air conduction.
Echolocation is also possible by direct listening to the reflected ultrasonic echoes in the high audio range, after brain ultrasonic demodulation, which, owing to its frequency separation, will not interfere with speech communication. With hearing loss, greater ultrasonic energy is needed to spread the displacement on the basilar membrane toward the region of intact hair cells. Theoretical analysis of acoustic signal generation in materials irradiated with microwave energy. Auditory perception of radio frequency electromagnetic fields J Acoust Soc Am 71 : 1321- 1334, 1982. Oscillations of the internal ear basilar membrane in the sonic and ultrasonic range from the data of mathematical analysis of the hydrodynamic model of the cochlea. The functional anatomy of tinnitus: Evidence for limbic system links and neural plasticity. Plastic changes in the auditory cortex induced by intensive frequency discrimination training. Vestibular hypersensitivity to sound (Tullio phenomenon): Structural and functional assessment. The otolithic organ as a receptor of vestibular hearing revealed by vestibularevoked myogenic potentials in patients with inner ear anomalies. Thresholds of Hearing by Air Conduction and by Bone Conduction Under Different Masking Conditions. Any disturbance in one of these mechanisms can disrupt homeostasis expressed by ionic, osmotic, or metabolic imbalance between the compartments.
Ion channels are essential to maintain a unique composition of inner ear fluid required for auditory transduction. The inner ear fluids seem to serve as a means for transport of nutrients and oxygen to the outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (lHCs) of the organ of Corti and also for the removal of metabolic waste products from the cochlea [4]. The high Na+ content and low K+ content of perilymph is controlled by local homeostatic mechanisms or by radial flow through the cochlea [5]. Therefore, the BLB seems to serve as a protective mechanism for maintenance of the constancy of the inner ear fluid composition.

It has long been accepted that marginal cells of the stria vascularis are involved in the production of potassium-rich endolymph and generation of a positive endocochlear potential of +85 mY [13]. Ligandgated ion channels are insensitive to voltage changes but are opened by the noncovalent, reversible binding of chemical ligands to extracellular or intracellular domains.
These can, in turn, act on such secondary effectors as protein kinases and phosphatases that target ion channels. A shift in water out of the endolymphatic space into the blood results in an increase in endolymph osmolality, disrupting the local ionic homeostasis.
Stress hormones have been reported to have local and systemic effects on hearing by exerting significant effects on the delicate homeostatic mechanisms of inner ear fluid and function of the inner ear. NO and its metabolites do not interact with specific membraneassociated receptor proteins but instead interact with second messenger systems in the target cell to modulate secondary intracellular signaling pathways. Intracellular Ca2+ is highly regulated by NO, cGMP, and protein kinase-G pathways involving reversible modification of protein kinases and other intracellular proteins and has been shown to decrease inositol triphosphate-induced Ca2+ release but may also mobilize intracellular Ca2+ stores by a cGMP pathway or in response to increased intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels. When glutamate binds to the NMDA receptor, Mg2+ is expelled, causing an influx of Na+ and Ca2+.
Furthermore, aminoglycosides bind strongly to phosphoinositides and may enhance free radical formation by bringing the drugs in close proximity to arachidonic acid, which is the preferred substrate for free radical production by gentamicin [43].
Pharmacokinetics, cellular actions, and our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying ototoxicity were recently reviewed [46]. First, by binding to the plasma membrane, the aminoglycoside induces the release of calcium, which competes with normal polyamine transport and energy consumption during the uptake of the drug into the cell.
This mechanism may describe the observation that aminoglycosides block K+ current by inhibiting Ca2+ influx via nicotinic-like receptors (nAchRs). Another mechanism may be a contraction of OHCs pulling on the tectorial membrane toward the stereocilia, which increases spontaneous activity of the IHCs.
These effects are mediated by the binding of stress factors to membrane-bound G-protein-linked receptors [55]. Emotional stress or severe anxiety can precipitate or aggravate the symptoms of Meniere's disease. Prostaglandins, by altering membrane permeability in the inner ear, may play an important role in the maintenance of cochlear homeostasis [49].
However, no single theory has been posited that adequately defines the role of the BLB in the development of inner ear pathological processes. Ion channels, including Na+K+-ATPase, delayed rectifier K+, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels, and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels have been localized to stria vascularis as well as to IHCs and OHCs and are primarily responsible for maintaining the electrical potential of the hair cells.
In R Gregor, V Windhorst (eds), Comprehensive Human Physiology- From Cellular Mechanisms to Integration. Abstract of the TwentyFourth Annual Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, St. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Meniere's Disease, Paris, France, April 10-14, 2000. Abstract and poster presented at the Association for Research in Otolaryngology Midwinter Meeting, St.
This ringing in the ears can also be caused by wax build up or excess, ear infection, a foreign body stuck in the inner ear or a nasal drain due to allergies or colds.
Lipoflavinoid is rich in this vitamin, making it an essential nutrient or dietary supplementation to combat tinnitus.
It was studied that though rarely this supplementation can cure the disease, it can at least diminish the uncomfortable symptoms experienced by the patient. Lipoflavinoids for tinnitus treatment is not the cure for such ailment, but it does show improvement and efficiency in diminishing the ringing noise in the ears, if not alleviate it.
This key ingredient is said to be capable of improving the circulation occurring in the inner ear canal. The improvement in the microcirculation in the inner ear canal could also permit the better flow of fluids. If it happens to child, his or her development is largely affected as it will be most likely delayed or the growth stages might be retarded.
Moist around the ear canal can also cause conductive hearing loss as the ear canal is somehow incapacitated to receive sound waves making sounds heard more vague than normal.
Blockage between the two ear parts may result from the buildup of one of these three things: calcium, ear wax or fluid. When this happens, sound quality reduces and what you’ll hear are muffled and unclear sounds.
It is the same case with fluid buildup which only needs draining of the watery substance and cleaning of your affected ear. He said that the reason why this method works is that tinnitus is made less noticeable by the introduction of an environmental sound which manipulates how the patient perceives his tinnitus. If the sound of any of these devices drowns or masks your tinnitus, then you can talk to your audiologist about sound therapy. Also, as diet is also believed to be one of the causes of tinnitus, you must make the necessary lifestyle adjustments.
In some cases, it’s caused by a hardened bone somewhere in the aural region or close to it. There are several procedures that acupuncturists can stimulate your acupuncture points, but the usual method is through the use of special kinds of needles. Tinnitus, also known to be associated with stress and anxiety, is presented with a treatment centered on relaxing the body. Sounds heard that are reported by individuals who are affected include hissing, buzzing, ticking, beeping, hushing or humming sound. This unique combination of organic ingredients benefits to overall health, especially adequacy in blood perfusion to the ears.
With continuous research and study about certain natural supplementations like Pycnogenol for tinnitus aurium, help for these people will be possible. When the tube becomes obstructed, the air in the middle ear becomes absorbed and the resulting vacuum draws fluid into the middle ear cavity from the lining of the ear (the mucosa). The peripheral site of action of low-frequency ultrasound is more problematic but, in this study, we argue that the ultrasonic transduction is also parsimonious with conventional auditory theory, with the exception of its demodulation. The same authors confirmed ultrasonic hearing and ultrasonic speech perception in approximately one-half their deaf subjects. Taken together, these findings suggest the absence of a specific place of ultrasonic frequency mapping on the cochlea but a dynamic mechanism that is a function of remaining hearing or hair cells and intensity of the ultrasonic stimulation.
Audiometric thresholds were obtained in the conventional audiometric frequencies and extended through the high audio frequencies (10 - 20 kHz) using a Virtual 310 audiometer (Virtual Corporation, Portland, OR). Recall that 26- and 30-kHz center noise maskers were both at an equal SL (5 dB); therefore, the relative energy is not a principle factor but only its relationship to the fundamental frequency of the brain being forced into vibration.
Note that the 26-kHz noise resulted in an increase in frequencies as well as masker threshold shift as compared with 39 kHz. Further, the multiple coupled resonances of the brain and skull can yield subtle intensity cues [27,28] but, in any event, changes of perhaps 10% of the frequency are required in the ultrasonic range to be detected as a pitch shift [3]. The model also predicts multi peaked or "slurred" waves higher than 20 kHz, rather than a conventional single traveling wave peak [33].
Characteristically, neurons sensitive to a damaged cochlear region will reprogram their best frequencies either higher or lower, resulting in greater neural representation of frequencies on the "edge" of the damaged peripheral region. In the case of severe deafness, with ultrasonic thresholds approximately at 30 dB above normal, insufficient surviving hair cells exist in the apex to detect the basilar membrane motion. In fact, what humans experience as ultrasonic perception may have been a necessary precursor in the evolution of echolocation specialization in marine mammal ears and brains.
Ultrasonic pitch is not related to the stimulating frequency but rather to the remaining high audio frequency ability of the listener.
Paper presented at the Twenty-First Annual Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, St.
Free radicals, stress hormones, noise exposure, and aminoglycoside antibiotics may induce short- and long-term effects on cellular function of the auditory or vestibular system (or both) and serve as a triggering mechanism for abrupt functional disturbances of inner ear fluid ion homeostasis. Knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate ion channel function provides a basis for understanding how disturbances to inner ear homeostasis can lead to cellular toxicity and hearing dysfunction. Finally, the inner ear fluids serve as relay media for the vibrations transmitted from the footplate of the stapes to the auditory transduction centers in the inner ear. Unlike other barriers, however, the BLB seems to be less permeable to several ions (sodium, chloride, and calcium) and differentially modulates the passage of larger substances in proportion to molecular weight [8].
The Na+K+-ATPase has been localized to marginal cells of the stria vascularis [16] and to type II fibrocytes in the inferior portion of the spiral ligament. Ion channel disorders such as tinnitus or metabolic disorders are characterized by a leakage in the apical or lateral potassium channel, affecting intracellular calcium levels. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration can affect the membrane potential of the hair cell by decreasing the apical-basal K+ gradient and result in an increase in the threshold for generation of gated response. After systemic administration of the steroid hormone epinephrine, Juhn and Rybak [6, 23] reported a similar increase in perilymph osmolality and altered cochlear physiology (Fig. Other late-emerging factors, such as a failure of the immune system, onset of autoimmune disease, or hypoxia due to vascular insufficiency, also may contribute to disruption of inner ear fluid homeostasis (Table 3). In particular, NO has been shown to regulate the permeability of cell membranes by activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, and covalent modulation of signaling pathways [25-35].
In response to ischemic or hypoxic injury, excess glutamate causes an increase in Ca2+ influx that activates endoproteases, mitochondrial excitotoxicity, and generation of free radicals, which eventually leads to neuronal cell death. Second, by binding to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate on the cytoplasmic side, the aminoglycoside may disrupt the normal function and integrity of the cell membrane.
It is known that hormone receptors are desensitized by adrenoreceptor kinases in the continuing presence of an agonist [56]. Increased norepinephrine and vasopressin levels in the plasma of patients with Meniere's disease have been reported [58-60].
Other possible mechanisms of ROS-mediated presbycusis may involve the accumulation of free radical damage to mitochondrial DNA, inactivation of important regulatory proteins, and apoptosis [69, 70]. Any disturbance in one of these mechanisms can induce the disruption of homeostasis expressed by ionic, osmotic, or metabolic imbalance between the compartments. This significantly decreases the ringing as this natural dietary supplementation is rich in Vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, Vitamin C, and choline. Patients may benefit through modifying their lifestyles such as lessening noise and stress, reducing the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, caffeine, artificial sweeteners, sugar, some over-the-counter drugs and salt. That is how important it is to detect early problem pertaining to the ear and more so, that immediate diagnosis and remedial prescription and rehabilitation will be done fast. In some cases, however, conduction deafness may be developed from infections within the ear, a perforation of that tissue that vibrates the sound or the tympanic membrane or by a tumor affecting the ear canal.
Acupuncture for tinnitus makes use of very fine needles that is inserted to the body in painless manner, as these needles are 10 times thinner than most hypodermic needles.
Significant changes have been shown when intake of Pycogenol for tinnitus is embraced by the individual, together with lifestyle changes such as avoiding smoking, caffeine and alcohol will help in alleviating or diminishing the ringing in the ears, and improving the overall ear health.
Maass, never credited again for his original discovery, made all the essential observations in regard to ultrasonic hearing phenomenology. Ultrasound would then be unique as a form of auditory stimulation that any listener with any degree of hearing loss could detect given sufficient ultrasonic energy. Modeling the brain with such a boundary condition, the F is reported to be approximately 70% higher [8]. Monitoring neural vascular function with Doppler ultrasonic imaging provides unexpected support for the brain ultrasound demodulation theory.
Thresholds were repeated in the presence of ultrasonic masking noise, with peak energy centered at either 26 or 39 kHz. Note that the masker centered at 1 octave above the brain fundamental (26 kHz) produces more masking and a wider range of masking than does the masker approximately 2 octaves above (39 kHz).
Note the close correspondence of the maximal hearing loss and frequencies within the brain's resonance. This model would not predict a peak frequency for masking or pitch matching in the range observed as does the brain ultrasound demodulation theory. In the only tinnitus-imaging study of neural reprogramming [34], the tinnitus frequency area expanded (more than twice the size) with some hint of lower-frequency expansion below the tinnitus frequency, as expected subsequent to hearing loss. Placing a transducer on the water surface and measuring the pressure output in a small tank can be complicated, even when brain and water impedances are similar [24].
In the case of complete deafness, the increased ultrasonic energy likely displaces the otolith organs, resulting in saccular stimulation. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the mechanisms underlying inner ear fluid homeostasis necessary for normal auditory function and factors that can disrupt homeostasis and lead to functional disturbances, namely sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The BLB has been characterized and is believed to maintain inner ear fluid composition by protecting the inner ear from toxic substances present in the systemic circulation, selectively limiting substance entry into the inner ear. However, the composition of endolymph is now known to be derived from transcellular diffusion of perilymph and is maintained by metabolic processes.
The existence of a tight BLB, equivalent to the blood-brain or bloodcerebrospinal fluid barriers, has been confirmed by the demonstration of slow entry of tracer into perilymph [9]. An electrochemical resonance is created in the stereocilia owing to opposing cycles of depolarization and repolarization, which reinforces the mechanical action of the tectorial membrane and produces sharp tuning of the basilar membrane. Its activity has been suggested to be hormonally regulated [17, 18] and is involved in the ion transport system in the cochlear tissues [3]. The rates of movement of these ions from blood into the perilymphatic space have been studied [8].
High-voltage, activated Ca2+ channels such as the L-type open only in response to large cellular depolarizations and are found in cardiac and skeletal muscle as well as several types of neurons. Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive Ca2+-activated K+ channels, large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, and maxi-K+ channels are known to be activated by NO-associated cGMP-dependent mechanisms [36, 37]. Smith [42] reported that there is increasing evidence to suggest that excessive NMDA receptor activation and NO production after exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics is a critical part of hair cell death. Investigators have reported a long half-life and saturation concentration of gentamicin after intravenous administration [10, 48]. When the signal termination processes are not functioning, epinephrine may continuously activate the adenylate cyclase (adenosine 3',5'cyclic monophosphate [cAMP]) pathway, disrupt ion homeostasis, and lead to membrane displacement and functional anomalies in the inner ear (Fig. The effects of epinephrine and steroid hormones can also lead to increased intracellular calcium by allosteric modification of calmodulin or through phosphorylation cascades such as inositol triphosphate or cAMP. It enhances absorption in the epithelia by increasing the permeability of the luminal membrane to water and sodium.
Reissner's membrane is elastic and is able to maintain itself electrically intact despite considerable distention.
This can be manifested as membrane displacement or functional disturbances of the inner ear and can serve as a triggering mechanism for abrupt functional disturbances seen in such diseases as Meniere's disease, sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and presbycusis. It is particularly high in concentrations of Vitamin B6 wherein lack of the said vitamins is one major cause for tinnitus. Otosclerosis is a situation that happens when your middle ear and inner ear grows soft bones. There is no medication in the needles itself; one reaps the benefits of acupuncture for tinnitus when these needles assist in inducing relaxation and releases the stress of the body. The individual should be fully open to this treatment as power of the mind also improves and helps in fast recovery and healing.
In contrast, this suggests an apical cochlear site or other noncochlear acoustic site that is activated in the presence of severe deafness.
Ultrasound refinement could lead to new types of audio amplification, auditory orientation (echolocation), and tinnitus treatment, if the mechanism can be clearly elucidated.
When the imaging beam was focused at the center of the brain, patients reported hearing a high audio sound, much like tinnitus. Thus, ultrasound will map in the high audio frequencies, because the brain is the demodulator regardless of the stimulating ultrasonic frequency.
Note the close correspondence of the masking curves for 26- and 39-kHz-centered ultrasonic noise and the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) composite audiograms reported for industrial worker exposed to intense ultrasound [30]. The concept of brain ultrasonic demodulation as applied to industrial exposure is unique and begs for further exploration. This pattern was striking in only four of the subjects, and the mean high-frequency hearing loss for all subjects was just outside the normal range. Indirect high audio frequency stimulation (ultrasound) or direct highfrequency stimulation can be an effective masker in tinnitus and can contribute to long-term tinnitus relief through neural repogramming. Inner ear diseases such as Meniere's disease and associated symptoms of sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus commonly are attributed to disruptions of inner ear fluid homeostasis, although the precise etiology is unknown.
The potential difference between the endocochlear potential and the resting potential of hair cells (OHCs, - 70 mY; IHCs, - 40 mY) drives K+ into the hair cell cytoplasm.
IHCs express predominantly voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels [20] and large conductance calciumactivated K+ channels [21]. NO may also modulate signaling pathways by inhibiting stress-induced phosphorylation of protein kinases or by stimulating cGMP-dependent kinases in parallel with protein kinases, resulting in increased phosphorylation of transcription factors [38, 39]. Pharmacokinetic studies of aminoglycosides indicate that drugs administered systemically reach the inner ear and can be found in endolymph and perilymph in equal ratios for a prolonged period [48]. Increased ion permeability due to this increase in cAMP is reflected in K+ elevation in the perilymph [61]. However, in response to extreme pressure increases associated with high-intensity sound, hyperdistention of Reissner's membrane into the scala vestibuli can result in a breakdown of normal potential and potassium intoxication of the hair cells. Free radicals that mistakenly bind to proteins and DNA in our own tissues cause significant cellular and molecular damage. Some deaf patients could hear ultrasound, albeit at levels higher than those in normal listeners, and frequency discrimination was possible, although far poorer than in the audio range. The implication is that different sites on the inner ear's basilar membrane are activated, depending only on the proportion of hair cells present.
For all practicality, the exact resonant frequency of a brain with a 7-cm radius is probably a number between the free and boundary states.
The higher the ultrasonic frequency is in regard to the brain resonance, the more energy is required to set the brain into forced resonance, accounting for the wider spread of masking for 26 versus 39 kHz (Fig.
In addition, the presence of both high audio frequencies and ultrasound in the workplace can increase the ear damage risk, as a place-coding overlap exists on the basilar membrane (see details later).
Assuming that maximal displacement of the basilar membrane is at the place corresponding to the brain's fundamental frequency (1.5 mm from the base for 26 kHz), bulk innerear fluid displacement, permitted by compliant oval and round windows at very high intensities (100 SL+), could conceivably create fluid flow in the saccule, not unlike the Tullio effect [39]. Recent data have shown that the type of changes associated with disruptions to inner ear homeostasis may also be strongly influenced by genetic factors [3].
The amino acid profile of cochlear perilymph and utricular endolymph has been reported [7]. The electrochemical gradient of ions, especially K+, produced by this process is essential for auditory transduction [15]. OHCs are known also to express cholinergic receptors that involve nAchRs permeable to Ca2+ ions and that activate nearby Ca2+ sensitive K+ channels. NO may also act as a regulatory element that modulates apoptosis by interfering with promoters or by reducing activity of caspases (Fig. Juhn and Youngs [10] reported that perilymph levels generally reach a maximum of J 0% of serum levels after a distinct time delay of up to 1 hour. Recently, adrenoreceptor and receptor kinases involved in the desensitization processes in the rat cochlear tissue have been identified [3]. These findings suggest that the distention of Reissner's membrane provides limited protection for the organ of Corti by resisting functional and structural breakdown against trauma caused by static pressure and pressure developing during moderate-intensity sound.
Protective enzymes are present in tissues that usually intercept the free radicals but, as a result of age or certain toxic conditions, the effectiveness of these enzymes may be reduced. Applying a microwave burst to a 7-cm radius sphere containing fluid with properties similar to those of brain results in a measured peak frequency of 11.4 kHz. Setting the brain into resonance resulted in a clear, high-pitch, audible sensation consistent with brain resonance in the 11- and 16-kHz range. The very short cilia of saccular hair cells, not mass-loaded by gel or otoconia [40] in the striola region, are likely fluid velocity-sensitive. Thus, it is conceivable that individuals may be genetically predisposed to develop certain types of hearing loss. Although the mechanisms for an increase of intracellular Ca2+ and outward currents have yet to be determined, it is interesting to observe that stress-related hormones can affect the biochemical as well as the electrochemical characteristics of marginal cells (Fig. Consequently, cellular repair machinery may become overwhelmed by unchecked free radical damage, so that tissues are not repaired or are repaired at a slower rate.
Microwave absorption causes a rapid heating that launches a pressure wave within the sphere.
The use of imaging ultrasound has had mixed success [20,21], but the critical feature in failure might be not focusing the beam at the brain's center to maximize brain ultrasonic demodulation.
High-frequency stimulation (high audio and ultrasound) have been shown to mask tinnitus and produce varying degrees of residual inhibition [1,2].
We will introduce possible factors and mechani sms involved in regulating inner ear fluid homeostasis, the importance of the BLB in maintaining the integrity of inner ear fluid, and the possible involvement of these factors in the pathophysiology of inner ear diseases. However, abnormal receptor kinase expression due to failure of desensitization may retain high levels of hormones and cAMP and cause disturbances in ion homeostasis.
Thus, the combined effects of damage caused by repeated free radical damage and a subsequent decrease in the effectiveness of cellular repair mechanisms may be responsible for presbycusis. If the head is exposed to such microwave stimulation, the fundamental brain frequency is proportional to the brain size.
Because ultrasound produces high audio stimulation by virtue of brain resonance, the direct use of high audio stimulation is more economical in power requirements and still stimulates the brain at resonance.
9, No.2, 2003 Stimulating the saccule, an organ having input into the auditory pathways in mammals [37,41,42], may explain ultrasonic detection in the deaf.
This suggests that β-adrenoreceptor kinases may participate in the phosphorylation of G-protein-coupled receptors for proper hormone action of epinephrine. The types of changes that accompany aging can also be strongly influenced by genetic factors that may predispose individuals to develop certain types of presbycusis. A human infant would have a resonant frequency between 16 and 22 kHz assuming a 5-cm radius. Anecdotally, a graduate engineering subject who had no measurable hearing and who was an unsuccessful cochlear implant user described the perception of 26 kHz and an alternating knocking in her head.
The existence of factors involved in the desensitization of stress-related hormones in cochlear tissues supports the hypothesis that disruption of the inner ear fluid homeostasis may be related to the failure of the desensitization system [64]. The cilia of hair cells have opposite orientation on either side of the saccular striola, which could neurally code the alternating phase of a sine wave as an alternating knocking. Certain gene defects, as seen in other neurological diseases such as episodic ataxia [65], may also occur in patients with inner ear diseases such as Meniere's disease. A hydrophone implanted in the brain of a cat recorded peak pressure at 39 kHz as a result of microwave pulses [11]. Other subjects reported unsteadiness when rising from a seated position after ultrasonic listening, which also was suggestive of saccular stimulation. This may explain the increased susceptibility of patients with Meniere's disease to the effects of stress as com pared to those without the disease. Clearly, more work must be conducted to elucidate the source of nonauditory coding of ultrasound in humans, but complete loss of hearing and balance seems to preclude its detection. It is conceivable that molecular markers can be developed as a tool for screening patients with Meniere's disease when sufficient evidence can be collected.
As deduced from the foregoing data, the human brain resonant frequency is likely between 11 and 16 kHz, with the exact value being determined by individual skull geometry. No published reports have cited the use of ultrasound in treating tinnitus in severely deaf individuals in spite of a high incidence of tinnitus in this population [43].
Future molecular biological studies of factors involved in stress-related hormone action and desensitization may provide basic information necessary to understand the genetic basis of disturbances of inner ear fluid homeostasis.

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