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Author: admin | 01.09.2014 | Category: Ringing Of The Ears Treatment

Iso-surface of temperature showing the flame front (red) and locations of auto-ignition (blue) for spark ignited engine.
Point pressure minus average cylinder pressure (both actual and FFT filtered) at a monitoring point for a spark ignited engine operating at 3000 rpm. Adequately modeling the ignition delays caused by Negative Temperature Coefficients (NTC) is crucial to simulating knock, according to Reaction Design.
Pushed by a competitive need for better fuel economy coupled with emissions regulations, engine developers are taking conventional internal-combustion engine (ICE) technologies to the limit. Boosting, higher compression ratios, geometry of the piston, injection strategies, spark timing, and octane levels of fuels are just some of the design factors that affect knocking.
One approach that Pomraning points to is a model they call the G-Equation that calculates the location of the flame using an empirical relationship.
To reduce complexity while maintaining accuracy, Reaction Design started and led the Model Fuels Consortium about seven years ago.
After completing its work with the MFC, the company announced in February 2013 a predictive knock capability to its FORTE and CHEMKIN-PRO software solutions. Rosenthal presented data that showed simulations comparing favorably with experimental data for two fuels with an 87 Octane and 100 Octane rating.
RKLAB AG is developing a self-pressurizing fuel injector that uses an electro-hydraulic multiplier to magnify pressure, and high speed, high flow valving to control fuel delivery. To reduce cost and improve performance in engines, Honeywell is offering a software tool to embed virtual sensors in engines, using first-principles models that resides in the engine control unit. Engineers at Bosch are looking to increase car-engine efficiency by using a technology proven in fighter aircraft 70 years ago. It would be faster and cheaper to simulate on a computer, but the phenomenon can be expensive to model as well.

They use adaptive meshing, reduce chemical mechanisms as much as possible, and group cells with similar or identical chemical reactions into single computations. In September 2013, a new chemical kinetics mechanism reduction will be introduced that will dynamically reduce such mechanisms at the beginning of each calculation step. Often the empirical G-Equation approach is useful in exploring a number of initial design decisions quickly. The purpose of the MFC was to create a validated library of fuels that used a minimum number of representative constituents yet accurately modeled the chemical kinetic characteristics of commonly used fuels, from gasoline to biofuels. It is designed to provide the potential to reduce engine out emissions sufficiently to eliminate the need for aftertreatment. Test results to date show a reduction of fuel consumption at high loads and low rpm (up to 4% improvement on the NEDC cycle); reduction or avoidance of fuel enrichment and lower exhaust-gas temperatures at high loads and high rpm, and improved torque. Neither the service provider nor the domain owner maintain any relationship with the advertisers.
Their more accurate approach for calculating the flame location is to use the SAGE chemistry solver while resolving the turbulent flame thickness using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR).
Pomraning presented data that showed a speed up for SAGE of 75x with its multizone, iterative, and dynamic reduction mechanisms' improvements in place. These customers reserve the more accurate and costly computations when their design choices are more mature or refined, according to Pomraning.
A fuel such as gasoline is composed of 10,000s of species, resulting in 1000s of individual reaction computations.
In case of trademark issues please contact the domain owner directly (contact information can be found in whois). To capture fine-grained combustion phenomenon requires fine-grained computational meshes, and each cell could require calculating thousands of reactions to mimic modern fuels.

Pomraning also stressed that knock is highly variable, sometimes occurring sporadically from cycle to cycle, often in only a few cylinders of a multicylinder engine.
SAGE is integrated into the company’s CFD solution, CONVERGE, as a standard feature and determines the flame front directly using the heat release and heat transfer from the reaction zone. The MFC modeled many common fuels into 100s of species with 100s of individual reaction computations. Instead of a smooth flame front moving through the combustion chamber, hot spots will auto-ignite unpredictably in the remaining air-fuel mixture ahead of the flame front. Even with the increasing speed and parallelism of 21st-century computers, it is time-consuming. In addition to added accuracy over the G-equation approach, calculating flame location using SAGE with AMR is grid convergent as the mesh is refined. These were validated through experimentation, in collaboration with the companies in the MFC that range from automotive OEMs to oil companies.
Regardless of how the flame front location is determined (G-equation or SAGE directly), SAGE is always used ahead of the flame to determine the auto-ignition of end gases.
Besides annoying drivers, excessive knock can wear engines faster and even catastrophically damage pistons and cylinders.

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