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The focused ion-beam tool developed at the NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology can inject ions into the resonator, creating tiny bulges that affect the structurea€™s resonant propertiesa€”akin to how a bell maker can change the sound a bell makes by adding material and changing its shape. Researchers working at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a novel way to noninvasively measure and map how and where trapped light vibrates within microscale optical resonators. The new technique not only makes for more accurate measurements but also allows scientists to fine-tune the trapped light's frequency by subtly altering the shape of the resonator itself. Visualizing the vibration patterns will help scientists to perfect ultrasensitive optical sensors for detecting biomolecules and even single atoms. Microscale optical resonators are like tiny bells that ring not with sound, but with light.
The devices are so tiny that the light actually extends outside their outer surfaces where they form "near-fields." Where these vibrating near-fields are strongest, the resonator is hypersensitive to changes in the environment.
Mapping these vibration patterns of light in real devices will help scientists to make them even more sensitive.
At present, the vibrational profiles of these resonators are measured using sharp, needle-like probes. Fortunately, the new focused lithium-ion-beam techniquea€”developed at the NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST)a€”can do just that. Jie Zou, a former NIST guest researcher who co-authored the paper describing this research, is interested in what resonators could teach them about lithium ion beams.
A team of researchers working at the University of St Andrews in Scotland has found a way to place a laser inside a living human cell.
In their quest to make the world's most precise sensors, Cornell physicists have developed a novel method of manipulating mechanical resonators to be sensitive enough to work at the quantum scale. Diamonds are renowned for their exquisite beauty and unrivaled durability, but they also are highly prized by scientists and engineers for their exceptional optical and physical properties. High-quality (high-Q) whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators can efficiently confine light in a very small volume via total internal reflection, leading to dramatically enhanced interaction of light with matter. Scientists have devised a way to build a "quantum metamaterial"a€”an engineered material with exotic properties not found in naturea€”using ultracold atoms trapped in an artificial crystal composed of light. In the early 1900s, Ernest Rutherford shot alpha particles onto gold foils and concluded from their scattering properties that atoms contain their mass in a very small nucleus.
Researchers have developed a promising new fiber-optic based chemical sensing method that uses light inside a fiber to induce sound waves outside it, providing indirect information about what surrounds the fiber. The drought-tolerant crop could replace teff as an ingredient in injera, the traditional Ethiopian dish that is eaten daily in virtually every home. Test plantings of the millet in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region - one of the nine ethnic regions of Ethiopia - have so far proved to be successful, the academy says. Peng Dajun, deputy general manager of CGCOC, which is a subsidiary of a large, state-owned Chinese enterprise, says foxtail millet has an annual output of more than 7 metric tons a hectare - about 5 tons more than teff.
Several crops can be fermented to make injera, but he says dishes made using foxtail millet taste just like those including teff. Last year, Ethiopia was hit by its worst drought in decades, leaving 8.2 million people in need of emergency food aid, according to media reports. Peng says if foxtail millet had been planted widely in Ethiopia, the famine may have been avoided due to its strong drought tolerance. Zhao Zhihai, chief agronomist at the academy, says cooperation with CGCOC can be complementary.
Peng adds that CGCOC can mobilize more funds than research institutes and have a better understanding of government policies in Africa. The two partners have established a millet research center in Addis Ababa, the Ethiopian capital, where Peng aims to make a breakthrough in solving Africa's food security issues.
Zhao adds that they are also working on new species and advising enterprises on how to build up a complete industry chain for the crops they develop.
David Gann says developing smart cities in China is of great significance as rural to urban migration continues in the country.
The professor of innovation and technology management at Imperial College London says the growth of new cities in China, coupled with the increasing density of population, requires Chinese cities to be "smart", such as making data more available, as in the Smart London plan. David Gann says the growth of new cities in China, coupled with the increasing density of population, requires Chinese cities to be "smart".
Given that urban dwellers can be more vulnerable to risks such as contagious diseases and severe pollution, Gann says the livability of densely packed cities requires good physical and data infrastructure.
According to Gann, "the smart city is about using digital technology to harness data to improve the way in which the city is operating, but it could mean different things in different places". He says some of the things that London does can be a bit different from what cities in China do. Gann, the chairman of the Smart London board, says the concept of Smart London originally stemmed from the successful management of the London 2012 Summer Olympics, where a swath of data was used to support the delivery of the Games.
London was able to provide support digitally for people's experience during the Games in 2012, and as a direct result the decision was taken to create a Smart London board and Gann was asked to be chairman by then-London mayor Boris Johnson. Gann thinks it was his expertise in digital technology, along with its application and use in business and government, plus Imperial College's top reputation in science and technology in Europe, that led to his selection for the job.
To make the capital function better, Gann says London has put data utilization at its core to help the city manage its transport, social, economic and environmental systems.
Thanks to contributions from a mix of academics, businesspeople and administrators, the Smart London plan was published in December 2013, to use the creative power of data and technology to improve the lives of Londoners, the experience of visitors, and the conditions for doing business. Since the birth of the plan, there have been huge improvements in some areas, says Gann, adding that one of the key contributors is the London Datastore, a data-sharing portal. A report published in March, entitled The Future of Smart, documented the board's progress in advising, developing and promoting the use of digital infrastructure and data in London.
Because the London Datastore has been such a powerful piece of infrastructure and is a web portal into information about how London operates, he believes it is liberating, and one of his strong recommendations for China is to make data open. Also, because the use of scientists and the links between academics, business and government have worked well in London, Gann says China could benefit by encouraging more collaborative efforts from various parties, including researchers, the government and industry.
China could do more with startup entrepreneurs, says Gann, who has lots of experience mentoring startups, supporting rapidly growing tech businesses and developing long-term strategic partnerships with multinational technology corporations. Gann says companies like Huawei, which is also a member of the Smart London Board, can play an important role in helping develop smart cities in China.
He says he thinks there are plenty of avenues for Huawei to continue to develop in those areas but also probably in developing new services and understanding how infrastructure is used to optimize its use. One of the challenges for Huawei, Gann says, is determining what sort of platform would really deliver in the long term.
COVERED IN DULL OLIVE GREEN SYNTHETIC RAFFIA, BOUND BY GRAY STRINGS, the almost square book seems modestly unadorned.
The book, made by the bookshop owner, Lyu Chonghua, designed by Li Jin and published by Guangxi Fine Arts Publishing House, won the Gold Medal in the Most Beautiful Book in the World competition in Leipzig, Germany, in February. The 200-square-meter shop, beside the gate of the academy, is jam packed with 20,000 books and other items related to the arts, gorgeous calligraphy model books, plaster statues and row upon row of neatly stored brushes.
Li, 44, looks smart and elegant, wearing a dark cotton gown, her long black hair in a bun held together by a hairpin. She was a classmate of Lyu at the Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts, where the pair studied graphic design, more than 20 years ago.
Publishers use it to protect books while they are being transported because such wrapping is cheap but durable. Lyu dipped into his own savings to produce the book, spending more than 200,000 yuan ($30,600) on the first and second print runs of 7,500 copies, which quickly sold out after the book won the award in Leipzig, paving the way for a third printing, which is due out soon. His mother, Ma Xiulian, who founded the family book business, rejected his plans for what eventually became an award winner as a waste of money. In January 2010 at the Beijing Book Fair Lyu met Zhang Dong, then vice editor-in-chief of Guangxi Fine Arts Publishing House.
So he drew a caricature of himself as a signature in the bottom right corner of each order. On average, he drew three to four orders a day and over the next 10 years, before fax was largely supplanted by e-mail, he built up a stack of more than 10,000 orders. After returning to Xi'an from the Beijing Book Fair in 2010, Lyu started preparing the book. However, beyond that cheery optimism for the family business, Lyu is well acquainted with the tough times the book industry is going through and appreciates that in fact the family business may be much closer to its end than its beginning. The family started the book business in 1982 soon after Ma Xiulian arrived in Xi'an with her two sons, Lyu and his older brother Lyu Qinbing, to be with her husband, Lyu Anwei, who was a lowly paid teacher of scenography at the Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts. At first they sold books about the arts, with their wares spread out on the ground, around universities, and business was brisk. In 1984 they sold 250 of the 5,000 sets of the first print of the Complete Collection of Shakespeare and 600 of the 4,900 copies of the first print of Sigmund Freud's A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis. The following year the family rented a shop of less than 20 square meters next to the Xi'an Conservatory of Music and later moved to its current location in Jixiangcun, where the poet Li Bai of the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907) is said to have once lived, and it expanded to the current size.
After leaving high school in 1991, Lyu joined in running the business and in 1996, after he graduated from the Xi'an Academy of Fine Arts, Li, by then 25, decided to take over the business from his father. With its intimate acquaintance with the arts the family has the kind of credentials that make it a natural for running the business they have, Lyu's father and his wife Liang Bing both having studied oil painting, and Lyu himself having studied graphic design. The annual rent is 450,000 yuan, which means the shop needs takings of more than 1,200 yuan a day just to pay the rent.
As with many other bookshops in China, Fangyuan started to feel the pinch when e-commerce began to take off in the country, but the most immediate cause for the Xi'an store's woes comes down to bricks and mortar rather than the ether of cyberspace.
There is no doubt, either, that e-books have eaten into the profits of those who sell printed books.
You can look at pictures of any place on Earth on your computer, he says, but that is totally different to seeing the world for yourself. In late June 2010 Shaanxi Library hosted an exhibition called The Most Beautiful Books from Germany. Li, teaching book design at the university, took a ruler, a notebook and a pen to study the books. Later in summer, after Ma left home to visit her mother, she needed to return home to look after her oldest son, who was ill.
The shop had had 10,000 orders, many of them similar, and including all would have made the book tedious, so they picked more than 2,000 and put the most representative ones in the main part of the book and the others were made into four flip books on the left side.
In order to include more material, those Li believes are minor stories, they printed more private information on the left-hand pages that are closed at the front by the fold. They used relatively thin paper so that the content on the left-hand pages appears on the front, like hazy memories. The Leipzig judges said the printed left-hand pages "serve up the additional content like an unopened fruit.
The extraordinary exploits of adventurer William Mesny are recounted in a new biography that fizzes with lively characters and provides a valuable insight into life during the last decades of the Qing Dynasty.
One morning in 1998, David Leffman awoke to find himself with a desert-dry throat, a thumping hangover and a notebook littered with jottings about an uprising in the 1860s that resulted in the deaths of 3 million people. Although the hangover eventually subsided, the scribbled notes Leffman had taken during a three-day "Sisters Meal", courtesy of the Miao ethnic group in the southwestern province of Guizhou, were so intriguing he couldn't get them out of his mind.
That weekend signaled the start of a 15-year obsession with William Mesny, a British adventurer who arrived in China as a penniless sailor in 1860 and rose to the rank of general in the Imperial Army of the Qing Dynasty (1644 - 1911), before dying as he had arrived, almost broke, in Shanghai in 1919. The upshot of that decade and a half of travel and research is Leffman's recently published biography of Mesny, The Mercenary Mandarin: How a British Adventurer Became a General in Qing-Dynasty China, a story packed with stirring tales of derring-do and larger-than-life characters, deftly interwoven with the events that drove the times. Mesny, a native of Jersey in the Channel Islands, led a full and dangerous life in China, plying many trades - gunrunner, jailer, newspaper columnist, government official, soldier, artillery expert, bridge designer, author and historian, to name just a few - before donning his general's uniform. He spoke fluent Chinese, advocated the modernization of all areas of society and, unusually for a Westerner at the time, had several close Chinese friends and seems to have been genuinely untainted by notions of superiority. Indeed, both Mesny and his brother John, an officer in the Chinese customs, married Chinese women - William twice, at different times, of course - and raised families with them. His life and travels were so remarkable, and well-publicized at the time, that it's surprising to learn that The Mercenary Mandarin is the first full biography of Mesny, although Leffman expresses great admiration for Keith Stevens' 100-page A Jersey Adventurer in China, published by the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1992. In Leffman's hands, Mesny emerges as a Zelig-like character; someone who was always - at least in his own accounts of events - in the thick of the action, whenever and wherever it occurred. On the positive side he was ingenious, industrious, generous, resourceful, courageous and honest.
Sadly for Mesny, those attributes were often overshadowed by less admirable qualities, such as impulsiveness, a desire to stand on his dignity and an almost childlike naivety.
The first official reference to Mesny comes in 1860 in an Australian newspaper report relating how the 18-year-old sailor was fined for an unprovoked attack that left the bosun of his ship nursing several bruised ribs. That first visit, made as the country moved forward with the reform and opening-up policy, was hard work because Leffman spoke no Chinese and only had a vague plan of action.
Following his brother's arrival in Beijing, the two set out to visit the capital's major tourist sites.
The brothers' constant presence obviously perplexed Michael, who paid Leffman "a huge compliment by complaining loudly to his entourage of photographers that I didn't look like a Wham fan".
A few years later, as a fledgling author for the Rough Guides travel series, he used his photojournalism experience in China to successfully lobby the editors to send him to write about the southwest of the country. In addition to China, Leffman, who lived in Queensland for 20 years and holds dual British-Australian nationality, has written guidebooks about many countries and regions, including Iceland, Australia, Indonesia, Hong Kong and Macao, and has even ghosted a cookbook for a Chinese author.
He estimates that he has visited China more than 15 times since that first trip, often in the company of his wife, and spending about three years in total, traveling, observing, learning and writing about a country that has fascinated him during the 30 years since he and I first met. Usually, each visit lasted six months, occasionally broken into two blocks, but the longest was nine months. To ensure that they would be able to communicate with their interviewees, Leffman and his wife signed up for intensive Chinese courses; first at London University's School of Oriental and African Studies and later at Sichuan University in Chengdu.
Although it took many years to research and recount Mesny's life, including retracing his steps as far as possible to visit cities, battlefields and other places of interest, Leffman rarely felt overwhelmed or despaired that he might not finish writing The Mercenary Mandarin.
That affection for Guizhou, and indeed most things Chinese, is highlighted in The Mercenary Mandarin by the use of Mesny's own words, culled from thousands of items, including newspaper reports and articles, published collectively as Mesny's Chinese Miscellany. At four volumes and running to a mammoth 2,000 pages and about 1 million words, the Miscellany contains Mesny's thoughts on just about anything and everything connected with life in China: politics, food, social mores, ailments and treatments, the standing of the army, the price of rice and, increasingly, his own perilous financial situation. Everything, it seems, was grist to his mill, and although Mesny rewrote previously published articles to bring his own role to the fore, the collection remains a valuable and fascinating window into life in China during the last decades of the Qing Dynasty. His own odyssey allowed Leffman to retrace Mesny's seemingly endless treks, visiting the places he fought or lived, and interviewing direct descendents of many of his friends and colleagues. He also set great store in the Miscellany as a source of information about his subject's opinions of the people and events he encountered during nearly 60 years in the country.
As Leffman points out in the introduction to The Mercenary Mandarin, the Miscellany, written in the flowery English of the time, is an extraordinary piece of work, given that Mesny left school at age 8 and his English was initially poor. The "Slash Generation" are leading double lives as they experience the thrill of different identities. At their normal workplace they are, say, a teacher from 9 to 5, from 6 to 7 they may be an online flower arranger and from 8 to 10 they could be a film reviewer. But it is important to note that money or monetary rewards, for the "Slash Generation" or the "Slashes", are not their driving force. Alboher pointed out that "slashing has also taken hold overseas" and some living on the other side of the planet are discovering how punctuated careers can integrate and satisfy multiple passions, talents and interests that a single career may be unable to match. Six jobs don't bother him, Cheng told China Daily, as they are "interconnected" by facilitating people-to-people exchanges between Taiwan and the Chinese mainland.
In a maker-space in Beijing, Cheng worked as a project manager to help Taiwan entrepreneurs through consulting and financial investment. But there are only so many hours in a day and living a full professional life can have consequences in the private sphere. Upon graduating from the University of the Arts, London, in 2011, Kang became a user interface designer of a government website in 2013 and a tutor in an art education training center that year. Adding a slash to his career by necessity, not by choice, Kang said doing only what he likes does not pay the bills in a major city like Beijing. Art and design may seem as if they are from the same stable but actually they are incompatible with each other, Kang said. Kang is confident that he will make the breakthrough in the visual arts, but he is also aware that his company may demand that he becomes "slashless" to give them more of his energy. Liu Xuezhi, vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Personnel Science said that the Slash Generation could set a trend as the Internet had made it possible for people to satisfy their creative yearnings.
From the employment perspective, Liu said of course there are companies looking for full-time specialists to focus on only one area, but there are also a number of bosses who want to hire members of the Slash Generation both for their creativity and because it can help "slash" costs. Students at Shanghai's Jinshajiang Road Primary School hone their skills, especially dribbling, tackling and shooting, every day in intense workouts after school under the guidance of Spanish coach Jose Luis Iglesias.
A rapidly developing tactical awareness is evident, as players get into position and run off the ball.
Ray Sports is rolling out a program in cooperation with Shanghai's municipal education authority to help improve the city's junior soccer training program with European expertise offered by 10 foreign coaches it hired, including the 24-year-old Iglesias.
Having adapted to life in Shanghai, Iglesias now trains students from grade one to five for two and a half hours after school from Monday to Friday, while coaching the school team at regional tournaments on weekends. As China aims to develop into a soccer power, highlighted in a long-term plan announced earlier last month, an increasing number of youth promotion programs and junior camps, featuring foreign coaches, have been organized by governmental departments, social organizations and private companies. Inspired by President Xi Jinping, an avid soccer fan, the government approved a national plan in March aimed at transforming the country into a dominant soccer power in Asia by 2030 and a leading world competitor two decades later.
One of the keystones of the plan is to encourage more children to participate in the game in a joint effort of cooperation between the Chinese Football Association and the Ministry of Education. Wang Dengfeng, director of the ministry's PE, health and art department, envisions a surge in student interest in the game as well as the training programs. In accordance with the national outline, the ministry, in cooperation with the CFA, has set a goal to increase the number of schools specializing in soccer from more than 8,000 to 20,000, encouraging more than 30 million primary and secondary school students to practice regularly and training 5,000 school soccer instructors by 2020. A four-tier school league system is currently operated by the Ministry of Education with more than 100,000 inter-school matches played last year, involving 2.7 million students. Still, the lack of training expertise as well as facilities have been a pressing issue, and this needs more investment from both local governments and the private sector, said youth training expert Jin Zhiyang.
To raise soccer's profile in the country, 16 clubs from the Chinese Super League, the top-flight competition in the country, spent a staggering $373 million during the most recent transfer window to purchase high-profile overseas players for the 2016 season. In contrast, the average governmental funding for each school registered in the four-tier system is less than 10,000 yuan ($1,539) for all expenses, while more than 10,000 students currently have to share, on average, a playing area of half a soccer field, according to CFA. The lack of public funding has opened business opportunities for companies such as Ray Sports and Sport 8 International to introduce foreign resources. Sport 8, a Beijing-based company offering online-to-offline soccer education and training programs for local coaches, has been cooperating with Pan-China Sports, a sports infrastructure developer, to build and manage 300 soccer pitches in Beijing, according to Sport 8 co-founder Bai Qiang. Featuring the advanced Dutch youth training know-how that has produced an abundant supply of stars, including Sneijder and his fellow countryman Arjen Robben, Sport 8's training program, which is conducted by a foreign training crew from the Netherlands, has reached out to more than 70 Chinese cities, instructing about 15,000 local PE teachers. The after-school training provided by private companies and NGOs will serve as a supplement to the governmental effort, said Bai. Students undergo training at the No 2 Experimental Primary School in Wenxian county, Henan province, in April. The professor of marketing and innovation at Britain's Warwick Business School says brands of the power and reach of Apple give companies breathing space to do research and development. Wang, who was speaking at the Kerry Hotel in Beijing on one of her many annual visits to her native China, says the lack of global brands, not just in technology but in almost every sphere, was a real problem for the world's second-largest economy. She cites that there were no Chinese brands in the Interbrand top 100 best global brands survey in 2015. She believes the lack of brands is undermining the country's technological efforts and achievements even though it overtook the United States and Japan as the world's largest filer of patents in 2012. The major question though is how far China - once light years behind at the time of reform and opening up in the late 1970s - has to go in catching up with the West in terms of technology. Her father was branded a "landlord" and lost his job at the height of the "cultural revolution (1966-76)", which meant the family was sent to the remote southwest Chinese province of Yunnan to a labor camp for intellectuals. When the universities reopened in 1978 she was accepted by Xi'an University of Technology at just 16 to study engineering. She then went on to study management science at Tianjin University before being accepted on scholarship under a technology cooperation scheme between the British Council and the Chinese government to study in the UK.
So in 1988, she arrived at Warwick University to study for a doctorate in marketing and has lived in the UK ever since. She went on to teach at John Moores University in Liverpool and after a spell at Sussex university in Brighton went back to Warwick University, where her specialization is a combination of marketing and innovation.
Along with others such as Peter Williamson at Judge Business School at Cambridge University, she is pre-eminent in combining these two disciplines. Wang, who is engaging but with a steely determination, also specializes in Chinese marketing on the advice of Robin Wensley, the former dean of Warwick Business School. She says that it was a new subject in China because in the 1970s there wasn't even a word for it. Wang has been quite evangelical in trying to get across the message in China itself that brands and marketing are important. She says when China first began to rapidly develop, many Chinese companies found their brands were killed almost at birth by Western companies.
Wang, who has held a number of posts at Chinese universities, including Sun Yat-sen, Tongji and Tsinghua, says the problem many Chinese brands face today is the negative association attached with being from China.
She, however, believes Chinese companies such as Alibaba, Tencent and Huawei have made huge strides. Chinese infrastructure companies are also moving from markets such as Africa, where they are now well established, to Europe to be involved in major projects such as HS2. Every morning, Lu Shaojie parks her car beside a gravestone shaded by trees on the slope of Cuiwei Mountain in western Beijing, before going to work as a tour guide at Fahai Temple, just a few hundred meters to the northeast.
A copperplate printing of Da Bao En Temple in Nanjing, made by missionary artists in the 19th century. Apart from that, the only fact known for sure about Li is that he was a prominent eunuch of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).
Ever since Zheng's story was spread more widely in the early 20th century, the mystique of the seafarer has been perpetuated partly by his being a eunuch of the Ming court. According to Zheng Zihai, a descendent of Zheng He, his ancestor was Li's colleague for nearly 30 years. Whether the friendship was due to mutual fondness or political convenience remains unknown.
In 1956, a gilt bronze miniature tower was unearthed in the underground chamber of the temple tower. And for those who have read about the evils of the Ming eunuchs, spending a few minutes inside the dark main hall of Fahai Temple, where the frescoes are housed, may open another window. During the reign of Qianlong (1735-95), it became customary for European nations to send clocks to the palace, either as gifts or on request. Wang says he has passed on his skills, which are listed as national intangible cultural heritage, to his 24-year-old son.
In 1933 the German photographer Hedda Morrison went to a western suburb of Beijing, where she discovered what she would call the city's most interesting temple.
However, the way Morrison went about her work, which she wrote about in detail, is likely to fascinate the modern reader almost as much as her pictures. It was a miracle moment, when the photographer's experiences, which I read about years ago, jumped out from the back of my mind, vivid and fresh.
And few, according to Lu, have dug deep into the history of the frescoes, and by extension that of the temple.
The result of the five-year endeavor is a grand temple built on three terraces and scaling Cuiwei Mountain. Covering 237 square meters in total, the frescoes include 77 figures - not including animals - in nine scenes that amount to either individual or group portraits. A detail Lu never fails to point out to visitors is the white gauze draped across the body of Avalokitesvara, or Bodhisattva, the Goddess of Infinite Compassion, painted on the back wall of the altar. However, the status that the murals enjoy today in Chinese art history has not prevented them from vicissitudes, especially in modern times. Tao Jun is the vice-director of the Fahai Cultural Relics Protection Bureau, the organization directly in charge of the temple's protection and maintenance, with its office on the temple precincts. The alarming message was soon passed to Ye Qianyu (1907-1995), a renowned painter and art educator who at the time taught at the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing.
They are still there on a lower section of the northern wall in the main hall, together with a couple of holes that used to hold the nails.


The goat's hair and egg white may have reduced the wall's vulnerability in the hands of nature, but it needed a courageous soul to save the frescoes from those determined to have them destroyed. That was the genesis of the friendship between Ding and Wu Xiaolu, the doorman of the middle school whom many today consider the protector of the Fahai Temple. Today, those sculptures can only be viewed in the black-and-white pictures taken by British reporter Angela Latham, Morrison's contemporary who photographed the temple in 1937 and had the pictures published in the Illustrated London News that same year.
Wu, in the final years of his life, suffered from Alzheimer's disease and handed the keys to Fahai's main hall to Ding. Before his death, Wu, who had been an antiques dealer for years before a series of misfortunes brought him to Fahai, left a will in which he requested to be buried near the temple. Lu saw the murals for the first time in 2011, before deciding that she "wanted to do something for them". When Li Tong commissioned the building of the Fahai Temple about 600 years ago he could barely have imagined that one day it would link him to one of his contemporaries, the world-famous Chinese mariner and explorer Zheng He (also known in English as Cheng Ho).
Commanding a fleet some of whose ships were 120 meters long - Christopher Columbus's Santa Maria, by comparison, was 26 meters - Zheng made expeditionary voyages to parts of Asia and Africa from 1405 to 1433. Ever since his story began to become widely known in the early 20th century, the mystique of Zheng He has been perpetuated partly by the fact that he was a eunuch of the Ming court (1368-1644). According to Zheng Zihai, a descendant of Zheng He, his ancestor was Li's colleague for nearly 30 years. Whether the friendship was minted as a result of mutual fondness or political convenience will forever remain a mystery.
In 1956 a gilt bronze miniature tower was unearthed in the underground chamber of the temple tower.
But Zheng Zihai, who has been to the Fahai Temple in Beijing to study its frescoes, has his own view. And for those who have read enough about the evils of the Ming eunuchs, spending a few minutes inside the dark main hall of the Fahai Temple, where the frescoes are housed, may open another window. On April 13 local time, the State Department of the United States released its country reports on human rights practices. The use of guns was out of control in the United States, which severely threatened citizens' right of life.
Citizens' personal security could not be guaranteed with the excessive use of violence by police. The prison system in the United States was plagued by corruption and severely violated inmates' human rights. Money politics and clan politics were prevailing and the political rights of the citizens were not safeguarded effectively.
DESCRIPTION: During the late Middle Ages a Venetian by the name of Giovanni Leardo compiled a series of wall-maps that were based, in their general arrangements, upon earlier cartographic designs. The oldest, as well as the crudest and simplest, of these four Leardo maps is preserved in the Biblioteca Communale Library at Verona, Italy and carries the date 1442. Commentaria in somnium Scipionis, 20:20, a treatise by Macrobius, gives the diameter of the earth as 80,000 stades, which might, if converted into Arabic miles, be approximately 6,857 miles of Leardo, other figures are even more at odds. The astronomical details are followed in the third paragraph by the explanation of the calendar.
The second circle shows the names of the months, beginning with March, which was officially reckoned the first month of the year in the Republic of Venice until as late as 1797; it also tells the day, hour, and minute when the sun enters each of the twelve signs of the zodiac. The seventh circle gives the dominical, or Sunday, letters; these are indicated opposite the days of the month (fourth circle) on which Sunday falls in the years designated by the first letters (seven) of the alphabet. The four figures in the spaces between the calendar and the outer edge of the parchment represent the four evangelists: the lion for St.
Leardo draws a circular landmass, or oikoumene [known world], surrounded by a narrow strip of water. In its orientation, with East and the Terrestrial Paradise at the top and with Jerusalem at the center, the map follows the Christian tradition of the earlier Middle Ages, hence the long axis of the Mediterranean runs vertically up the southern half of the disk. Later medieval contacts between Europe and remote lands are revealed in names derived from Western travelers such as Marco Polo who had visited the Far East, as well as in the Arabic names in Asia and Africa. In contrast to the earlier medieval cartography, such as the T-O maps (Book II, #205) that were symbolically drawn, in the Leardo map the contours of the Mediterranean and of Western Europe are surprisingly well drawn and easily recognizable, obviously being based upon sea-charts known as portolanos.
This Leardo map, which was painted on parchment, displays the seas as a uniform blue color, with of course the exception of the Red Sea that is appropriately colored. Winds blowing from the four cardinal and four intermediate points of the compass are shown by eight faces around the edge of the disk.
Although decorative, the Leardo map lacks many of the pictorial elements such as animals, birds, preposterous monsters that enliven the blank spaces on other medieval maps.
Among the existing maps dating from the 14th and early 15th centuries this Leardo map of 1452 is very closely related to the group of maps drawn by the famous Catalan cartographers of Majorca in the Balearic Islands. A brief discussion of each of the four major geographical areas, Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean and Europe, will reveal some of the salient points of this map as outlined in the enclosed numbered sketch-map (from J.K. ASIA: In the extreme north (left-hand side) there is a large structure that looks like an Italian church with its campanile (#13). South of the sepulcher can be seen the River Volga (items #6, #7) flowing into the northwestern corner of the Caspian (item #250). Farther east, beyond a row of six castles representing towns on the borderlands of China (#35-40), we come to a gulf of the encircling ocean and to a great system of mountains.
Immediately west of the statues appears Mount Tanacomedo (item #48), apparently Leardo copied Montana Comedorum from a Ptolemaic map, combining the last part of the first word with the first part of the last. In central Asia there are two rivers entering the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, the Jaxartes (item #117) and the Oxus (item #118). The Tigris and Euphrates (#165, #166) join, reaching the Persian Gulf (#267) as a single stream flowing between two large edifices that represent Susiana (#172) and Babylonia (#173). The most prominent feature in Arabia is Mecca (#211), a large domed and towered building in good Italian Renaissance style and presumably representing a mosque.
AFRICA: On Leardoa€™s map, this continent, like that of the Catalan-Estense map, has a very unusual shape (see outline map comparisons below). THE MEDITERRANEAN: The outlines of the Mediterranean (#433) and Black Seas (#431) are more correct than any other features which Leardo draws. Leardoa€™s place-names along the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts are all derived from the portolan charts, although Leardo wrote names only where it was easy to do so without crowding. The maps vary among themselves, but all are oriented with East and Paradise at the top and Jerusalem in the center.
The computus and theological framework of the Leardo maps show their purpose: to illustrate the totality of Goda€™s creation in both space and time. Crivellari, Giuseppe, Alcuni cimeli della cartografia medievale e sistenti a Verona (Firenze: B.
Crivellari, Giuseppe, Alcuni cimeli della cartografia medievaleesistenti a Verona (Firenze: B. Wright, John Kirtland, The Leardo Map of the World, 1452 or 1453, in the Collections of the American Geographical Society (New York: American Geographical Society, 1928).
NordenskiA¶ld, Adolf Erik, Periplus, an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions (Stockholm, 1897). NordenskiA¶ld, Adolf Erik, Periplus, an essay on the early history of charts and sailing directions (Stockholm, 1897), pp. Uzielli, Gustavo and Amat di Filippo, Pietro, Mappamondi, carte nautiche, portolani ed altre monumenti cartografici specialmente italiani dei secoli XIII-XVII, 2nd ed. American Geographical Society 1928 (colored, original size) The World Encompassed: an exhibition of the history of maps, Plate V. Stevenson, Edward Luther, Genoese world map, 1457 (New York: American Geographical Society and Hispanic Society of America, 1912), Plate 56. Stevenson, Edward Luther, Genoese world map, 1457 (New York: American Geographical Society and Hispanic Society of America, 1912), 56.
Stevenson, Edward Luther, Descriptions of early maps, originals and facsilimes (1452-1611) (New York, 1921), 1, no.
Wright, John Kirtland, The Leardo map of the world, 1452 or 1453, in the collections of the American Geographical Society (New York, 1928).
Leardo draws a circular landmass, or oikoumene [known world], surrounded by a narrow strip of water.A  One cannot, however, question his belief in the sphericity of the earth, for otherwise he would hardly have held the views expressed in the panel below the calendar. Although decorative, the Leardo map lacks many of the pictorial elements such as animals, birds, preposterous monsters that enliven the blank spaces on other medieval maps.A  With the exception of the eight wind faces and the symbolic figures of the evangelists no living creatures, whether animals or men, are graphically represented. A brief discussion of each of the four major geographical areas,A  Asia, Africa, the Mediterranean and Europe, will reveal some of the salient points of this map as outlined in the enclosed numbered sketch-map (from J.K. In central Asia there are two rivers entering the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, the Jaxartes (item #117) and the Oxus (item #118).A  The Lake of Aral, in which these great streams actually have their outlet, seems to have been wholly unknown to the geographers both of antiquity and of medieval Europe. The most prominent feature in Arabia is Mecca (#211), a large domed and towered building in good Italian Renaissance style and presumably representing a mosque.A  Several corrupted Turkish place-names, along with classical names appear in Asia Minor.
The Indian Ocean is filled with yellow and red islands.A A  A legend asserting that pepper and spice are found in these islands (#275) comes from Marco Poloa€™s description of the East Indian archipelago.
Like most medieval cartographers, Leardo makes the Nile (#312) rise in West Africa (#338).A A  In this he follows Herodotus, Pliny, Mela and other ancient authorities.
In this segment, we will try to provide the information we have found for each of these children.
A search of the 1901 and 1911 Irish Census records did not produce any members of this Tinman family. Also, in the 1860 record of the Battlehill Methodist Church there was a Conway Tinman (Battlehill: A Local History, A Church History, by Valerie Ruddell and William Newell, Ruddell Press, Portadown, 2000 -- p.
The only known child of Sarah Lindsay Tinman was her daughter, Sarah Tinman who married William Hinton and was the a€?niecea€? that Alexander met while on his mission, as referred to above. It is clear that they had another daughter, born about 1908, after Alexander returned home from his mission, and she was therefore not mentioned in his journal.
This is all that we have been able to find for Sarah Lindsaya€™s and her daughtera€™s families. This Bible is now in the possession of Wilson Glass, Grandnephew of Fannie Livingston Lindsay. With William being married in Jersey in 1859, he seems to have remained in the military for the next several years, and was probably still serving as a soldier at the time that his parents died--mother in 1865, and father in 1866. Eventually William, Alice and Alex returned home where they took up farming on their old home site. In his role as a local farmer, and a leader in the Methodist Church at Battlehill, life continued until 20 Oct.
In the 1901 Irish census, we find William and a€?Fannya€? Lindsay, both listed as aged 62 and Methodists living in Ballintaggart (Richhill, Armagh).
In the 1911 Irish census we find the same William and Fanny (ages 73 & 72) still listed as Methodists and still in Ballintaggart (Aghory, Armagh).
Between these two dates, William was visited at their old home by his brother Alexander who made many references in his journal to their discussions, including a variety of religious conversations. While the brothers loved each other, it seems apparent that Alexander took his LDS mission very seriously and wanted to convince William of the truthfulness of the restored gospel. William seems to have had two happy marriages, but was not blessed with children in either one. She would have been about 25 years old when her father died in 1866, and so was old enough to be out on her own. There is a lot of missing information about her and her family, but the two census records give us a great deal of help in filling in some of the gaps.
Shortly after their marriage they were posted to India, which was a part of the British Empire at that time and had a fairly large contingent of British soldiers stationed there. The family retuned from India about 1879, not long after Alexandera€™s departure for for New Zealand, and settled in County Armagh.
In the 1901 Irish census we find this family living at house 8 in Union Street in Portadown, Armagh where they were all listed as Methodists. His journal contains a number of brief entries showing a warm conviviality and a joy to be reunited with his loved ones in his old home country. Shortly after this experience Alexander was transfered to England and was only able to communicate with his family by mail thereafter.
In the 1911 Irish census we find this family living in house 14 Union Street, Portadown, Armagh. In addition to the above information, there is a note that Mary Ann had been married for only 9 years; had born 5 children, 3 of whom were still living.
We do not know of Elizabeth or William ever marrying, and we do not know what became of little Sarah, but it is possible that she had a family of her own with descendants somewhere today. Our family records indicated that Mary Ann died about 1910, but it is apparent from the 1911 census that she was still alive at that time.
She was still a young woman at that time and one wonders what happened to end her life while just entering her prime. The three death dates always match, and in each one he says she was 31 years old when she died. In the 1860 roll for the members of the Battlehill Methodist Church, Dorothy Lindsaya€™s name appears as a member of the group that was led by her father, John Lindsay. Dorothy grew up in the Lindsay home in Ballintaggart on the Loughgall Road with her other siblings. Dorothya€™s marriage may have taken place while Alexander was away as a soldier in the British Army, but he married and returned to this area in time to know Dorothya€™s two little boys when they were very young.
Early on, the Holmes family moved to the townland of Clonroot, which is immediately adjacent to, on the west side of, Battlehill, which is adjacent to, and on the west side of, Ballintaggart, so they were very close to the rest of the family. Upon his return to Ireland as a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1904-5, Alexander Lindsay visited with his brother William, and his sister, Mary Ann, to get caught up on all the changes that had occurred while he was away in New Zealand, and in Oregon, over the past 26 years.
While he was surely saddened to miss most of his siblings, he did get a chance to rekindle some relationships with the next generation, including his nephew, William Holmes. Shortly after this last visit with William Holmes, Alexander was transferred to England for the remainder of his mission.
In the 1911 Irish census we find William still living alone in the 19th house enumerated in Clonroot, Kilmore Parish, Co. Although William Holmes was still single in the 1911 census, he did eventually marry on 3 March 1920, in Ahorey, Co., Armagh, Ireland to Margaret Edgar, the daughter of Thomas Edgar. As has been mentioned several times already, Alex was the youngest of eight children born to John Lindsay and Mary Donaghy.
After returning to Ireland, and probably with the discharge of William from the Army, Alexander then enlisted for his own tour. So, in the fall of 1878, with their baby just a few weeks old, Alex and Mary set sail on an old sailing vessel, which went south around the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, and then eastward to New Zealand.
They Lindsays homesteaded land in their new country and from time to time traded up for larger tracts until they eventually bought 640 acres of land near Towai, Bay of Islands, on the North Island. In 1897 missionaries from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints came to this area and eventually the Lindsays were taught the gospel and were baptized into this church.
After returning home to LaGrande, Alex and Mary had a wonderful life together watching their children grow up, marry and raise children of their own. From the eight children (four daughters and four sons) of John Lindsay and Mary Donaghy, they had about nineteen known grandchildren. In this segment, we will try to provide the information we have found for each of these children.A  Much of this information comes from Alexander Lindsaya€™s Journal which he kept when he returned to the place of his birth on a two years mission (1904-1906) for the LDS Church and will be referred to as a€?ALJa€? {The Alexander Lindsay Journals 1903-1906, transcribed by Larry E. Sarah Lindsay--born 1837, was the oldest child of this family.A  She married Edward Tinman (date unknown but probably between 1860-64) {ALJ p. In the 1901 Irish census, we find William and a€?Fannya€? Lindsay, both listed as aged 62 and Methodists living in Ballintaggart (Richhill, Armagh).A A  In this census she said she too was born in Co. William seems to have had two happy marriages, but was not blessed with children in either one.A  He passed away on 30 Dec. Mary Ann Lindsay--was born in 1841 (no actual date specified).A  At age 19 her name was listed as one of the members of the Battlehill Methodist Church, of which her father, John Lindsay, was then the Group Leader [Battlehill Church History p. In the 1901 Irish census we find this family living at house 8 in Union Street in Portadown, Armagh where they were all listed as Methodists.A  Mary Ann was listed as being a widowed house keeper, aged 60 and the three children between ages 18-22 with the two girls as a€?Drawer in Factorya€? and the son was a weaver. Any man who will not be corralled by conventional thought and provokes others to think outside the box is dangerous to established power. Whoever attends a Seeger concert will come away with a challenge to the blind acceptance of faith in both government and its whitewashed, selective version of history. Those who lack the courage to demand that our leadership live up to these principles need to question their own patriotism. Learning the 5-string Appalachian-style went slowly at first, but later would become his trademark. Pete met the love of his life, Toshi-Aline Ohta at Margot Mayo's Square Dance Club on 13th St.
In 1947, Seeger formed a new band called the Weavers, with Lee Hays, Ronnie Gilbert and Fred Hellerman. In the crucible of the depression of the 1930's, the poverty was so deep, that many people looked at the concept of Communism for answers to questions of social justice. He was done with it by the time the House Unamerican Activities Committee (HUAC) called him before them in 1955 to answer questions about the nature of his associations.
Pete was technically exonerated, but was still guilty in the eyes of folks who agreed with HUAC. He shares a great many stories about the history of songs and how they are used by different ethnic groups and movements within the United States. During the final question and answer session, the big question gets asked: What do you do in the face of a corrupt all-powerful government? He is also an avid participant in a peace vigil, held every Saturday in Wappinger's Falls, in upstate New York at the corner of Routes 9 and 9D from 12 noon to 2pm. It is our fervent hope that enough of us will rise up to justify Pete's optimism and prove ourselves worthy of his efforts to imbue us with courage and spirit.
Pete met the love of his life, Toshi-Aline Ohta at Margot Mayo's Square Dance Club on 13th St.A  On that particular date, the club was having a work party and only Pete and Toshi showed up.
He shares a great many stories aboutA  the history of songs and how they are used by different ethnic groups and movements within the United States. The fine-tuning capability will also open the door to creating optical resonators with identical resonances, a feat now impossible to achieve during manufacturing, but necessary for applications such as quantum information processing with single photons. Just like a bell's tone, the frequency with which an optical resonator "rings" is determined by its size and shape, so that it amplifies and sustains some frequencies of light and diminishes others. Any perturbation of a near field, say by a stray molecule or atom, will affect the light inside the resonator in a detectable way, much in the same way that touching a ringing bell will change its tone or volume or silence the bell altogether.
The problem with using a probe is that it strongly disturbs the near-fields before it is able to get close enough to the surface to do high-resolution imaging. This "tapping" creates tiny bulges and affects the structure's resonant properties, influencing the pattern of the light trapped within, sort of how a bell maker can change the sound of a bell by adding material and changing its shape. Compared with the funds needed for scientific research, he says the costs of popularizing the crop and promoting it in the market are far higher. There are no plug and play technologies that fit into the same types of infrastructure in different cities, he says.
And the stories in it about a simple man and his family's bookshop in the city of Xi'an are unlikely to stir readers that much. And in the most important location are a stack of solid olive green books, copies of Order: The Story of Fangyuan Bookshop, which are barely discernible because they almost melt into the background.
He squints and bares the teeth under his handlebar moustache in a broad smile, looking for all the world like a caricature of those images in the book. By then, the family had run the bookshop for 28 years, and the ambitious Lyu can see the family running it beyond when it is 100 years old. That expertise helped give the shop a great deal of credibility that contributed to its success, and when it was at its best it employed 11 people.
Li Jin, Lyu Chonghua and another classmate of theirs at college, Wei Tao, went to take a look.
She was surprised that the books she saw there, as attractive as they were, were not that fancy, and they did not strike her as being particularly collectable.
In 2011 he started collecting materials for the book, trying to tell the stories of his family and the bookstore from many different angles. In three years, based on her understanding of beautiful books and the Lyu family, she tried more than 60 different formats.
Despite being well-grounded in Chinese history, the British author was astonished that he had never heard of the uprising, so he decided to learn more about it.
Although technically a biography, the author's grasp of history and the pivotal events of the time provide an excellent guide to late 19th century China and the conditions under which people lived. Weighing heavier on the scales are his tendency to take the credit for other people's ideas, and at a time when traveling in the interior inevitably meant handing out bribes and "gifts", his refusal to give face or money to local officials often hindered his progress in terms of both geography and his career. In 1985, the then 20-year-old photography student at the London College of Printing - now the London College of Communication - was left a small inheritance, so he asked his tutors for permission to travel to China during term time to undertake a photojournalism project. One day, as they rested on the Great Wall, the brothers spotted a couple of Westerners being guided by a large group of Chinese officials and surrounded by a gaggle of photographers and journalists.
Only later did the brothers realize that the men were George Michael and Andrew Ridgley, then better known as Wham, the first Western pop group to perform live in China. That trip sparked an ongoing love affair with the provinces of Guizhou, Sichuan and Yunnan. And, having spent 25 years working to deadlines, it was an indulgence to set my own pace," he explained. As Channel Islanders, and therefore geographically closer to France than the British mainland, the Mesny family spoke French at home.
The "Slash" are not in it just for the cash, though financial rewards are always appreciated, as the age of the Internet and mass information provides them a chance to explore different roles in a way previous generations could only dream of. In an age of austerity it is not unusual for people to take on an extra job to pay the bills but for the Slash Generation their motivation is not primarily to improve their bank balance but to unleash their creativity.
It made me feel really good when you made a difference in a new area which you used to know nothing about," he said.
Although Cheng loves his jobs, enjoys his life and has somehow managed to juggle various identities, he confessed that finding the time to have a girlfriend has been problematic. Unlike Cheng, who was focusing on many fronts, Zhu is really concentrating on making his rock festival famous in China. Art is about expressing your own ideas in your works while design is a business to meet the demands of your clients. These include self-control, good communication skills and they are popular in their circle. Kind-hearted, enthusiastic, and it seems that no matter what situation there are in, they can adapt quickly. They have a variety of interests, are always willing to experience new things and have friends from wide-ranging backgrounds. The scene is reminiscent of youth practice sessions at La Liga (Spain's top professional league) giants such as Barcelona and Real Madrid, he said. The high levels of enthusiasm and the school's commitment to develop the soccer program has impressed Iglesias, who was hired by Beijing-based Ray Sports last October to train players at the school as a physical education teacher. China opened its first line in 2007 and now has 19,000 kilometers of track in service, more than the rest of the world's high-speed rail networks together. Her father taught philosophy at a military college and her mother taught Chinese literature.
So researchers and scientists don't talk to marketers because they speak different languages. She addressed the Pujiang Innovation Forum, organized by the Ministry of Science & Technology, in Shanghai as far back as 2000. They had brands that could have been quite promising but they allowed themselves to be acquired by Western brands who basically discarded them," she says. However, if one listens to Lu, the story of Li is inextricably linked to that of another man, the much more famous Chinese mariner and explorer Zheng He (also known in English as Cheng Ho), whose expeditionary voyages between 1405 and 1433 took his fleet to parts of Asia and Africa. However, few people know that Zheng, who lived between 1371 and 1433, was a devout Buddhist.
But they did have a faith, Buddhism, in common, something they also shared with successive Ming rulers.


Some historians think his ashes were returned to his homeland when the fleet reached the Chinese coast in July of that year. But no connection was made between the bronze tower and the Fahai frescoes until Zheng Zihai visited the temple years later. Between 1412 and 1428, under the supervision of Zheng He, a grand Buddhist temple was built in Nanjing and known as Da Bao En Temple, or the Temple of Gratitude. Many even blame them for the fall of the Ming 276 years after its founding, in 1644," says Lu, the tour guide. The master clock restorer, 55, looks after hundreds of timepieces at the museum, also known as the Forbidden City. Today, he shares a 60-square-meter studio with two other craftsmen in a closed section of the museum. With a Rolleiflex twin lens camera and a heart captivated by the beauty of oriental art, she recorded in black and white the stunning frescoes on the walls of the temple's main hall. Since the frescoes remained in the shadows, she had to remove some of the roof tiles to allow in sufficient light. For me it was reignited one morning early last month as the lady who was my guide led me into the ancient hall and switched on a flashlight. Built between 1439 and 1443, Fahai Temple was commissioned and funded by Li Tong, a powerful eunuch of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) who is believed to have served five successive emperors.
The original design featured a main hall and four ancillary halls as well as a bell and drum tower and several side rooms.
This flimsy, barely-there piece of clothing is made up of little hexagonal flowers, each petal measuring less than one square of a centimeter, composed of eight veins. By the late 19th century the temple compound had been reduced to an ad hoc refugee camp, colonized by paupers and tramps.
It did not take long before it reached other important cultural figures, and ultimately, the Beijing municipal government, which alerted the army. As thin as hair but much shorter, the material is mingled with mud and plaster to form the wall. And according to Lu, the darkness inside the main hall also helped, since the vandals did not realize how sumptuous the frescoes were. However, very few people know that Zheng, who lived between 1371 and 1433, was a devout Buddhist. And it became a trend among powerful eunuchs, who had no blood offspring to pass their fortunes to, to build temples.
Some historians believe ashes of his bones were carried back to his homeland when the fleet reached the Chinese coast in July that year.
Inscribed on it were the words "offered by Buddhist disciple, court eunuch Li Fushan", fushan echoing Zheng He's and Li Tong's religious name. It made comments on the human rights situation in many countries once again while being tight-lipped about its own terrible human rights record and showing not a bit of intention to reflect on it. The frequent occurrence of shooting incidents was the deepest impression left to the world concerning the United States in 2015. Police shot dead 965 people last year as of December 24, and the abuse of power by the police did not result in discipline.
The guards in a prison in Florida scalded a mentally-ill inmate Darren Rainey to death in hot shower. Companies and individuals were able to donate an unlimited size to super Political Action Committees (super PACs) to influence the presidential election. All of the four world maps attributed to Leardo have characteristic features of both the T-O diagrams of Isidore (Book II, #205), and the zonal maps of Macrobius (Book II, #201).
This map does share a special feature with the others, namely the exceptional addition of a series of rings surrounding the circular map-disk, which constitute an elaborate calendar.
In the third circle the first nineteen letters of the alphabet represent, in order, the years of the Metonic Luni-solar cycle. From this we see that the vernal equinox fell on March 11, inasmuch as the calendar was constructed before the Gregorian reform.
Other features reflecting the religious or scriptural influence are Noaha€™s Ark resting on top of Mt. In most cases the names have been written upon the vignettes themselves; since the latter are also colored pink or green, the letters are frequently obscured and quite illegible.
Those to the north, northwest and northeast are blue, suggesting cold blasts from these quarters; the other faces are ruddy. In its general outlines it is so similar to the Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246) that we may assume a common cartographic ancestor of recent vintage. The gulf (item #11), which contains three islands, appears in almost the same position and form on the Estense map, where there is a legend explaining that on the islands griffons and falcons are found and that the natives are not allowed to kill them without the permission of the Grand Khan of the Tatars. In the 12th century, reports spread through Europe of the vast realm of a fabulous Christian monarch in the heart of Asia. The least successful portion of Leardoa€™s Mediterranean coast is that of Spain: the shore here is unduly elongated as compared with that of the Catalan-Estense map, Barcelona (#475) and Ampurias (#476) being placed too far northeast on what ought to be the French shore line. The Red Sea is red, Gog and Magog are confined in the northeast, along with griffins and cannibals, and Noaha€™s Ark and Mt.
Modern features are included where that can be done without violating the integrity of the model, but the basic format is the traditional one. However, Leardo does not specify the years to which the dominical letters in his calendar refer. Furthermore, his two legends relating to the fiery and frozen deserts echo a theory that was propounded in classical times and based upon the hypothesis of a spherical earth. Wrighta€™s analysis).A  For a more detailed account of all of the numbered features of this outline map see Wrighta€™s monograph. A  Marco Polo adds that at the time of the funeral of Mongol Khan 20,000 persons were thus slain. This mis-location error is also to be found on the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235) and the Catalan-Estense map of 1450 (#246). Many of the place-names in India correspond with those of the Catalan maps and in turn were derived from Marco Polo.A  The scene of St. Moslem scholars, however, were aware of its existence.A  Leardo places the castles of Organa and of Organzia [Urganj] (items #120, #121) at the mouth of the Jaxartes and his place-name Orcania (item #132) on the Oxus. The largest of these islands, lying off the coast of India, is marked Taprobana (#269) and probably represents Sumatra. Ptolemy, however, seems to have had a more correct view, placing the sources of the river in the Mountains of the Moon in eastern Africa. This is probably because of failure on the part of the makers of the original portolan charts to take into consideration the declination of the compass. 10, 1905 --This morn after dressing I went to meet my Niece [this would be Sarah Tinman Hinton, who was then living in Belfast, and was the daughter of Sarah Lindsay Tinman] at the 9 Oa€™c train and her two children, bringing them home to breakfast, and then went on to M. 9, 1905 -- Accompanied by Elder Scott I paid my promised visit to my new found Niece [Sarah Tinman Hinton]. 14 May 1905 -- This morning my companion and I went out as far as Clonroot to pay our promised visit to Willie Holmes.
11 June 1905 -- Another Saboth [sic] day, going out as far as Clonroot, and I may say we all spent a very enjoyable time.
Keelya€? and had this girl--born about 1906.A  Remember too that Alexander referred to his niece as Mrs. Anyone who challenges great numbers of people to fight against the shallow mind control of pop culture is a dangerous man.
Pete's knowledge of the historical role of music and its power is vast and he is generous in sprinkling enlightenment between the songs he sings. Whatever associations Pete chose, they were always directed at social justice, and later, environmental preservation.
In 1936, at age 16, he heard the five-string banjo for the first time at the Mountain Dance and Folk Festival in Asheville, North Carolina.
Pete could back Woody up and wound up hitting the road with him, hitch-hiking and riding trains.
Pete got the word to Woody that they'd sung for the striking transport workers union at Madison Square Garden and Woody came east and joined the group.
In 1961, he was sentenced to ten years (for 10 charges) but the years could be served concurrently - so the sentence was actually for one year and a day. Although he was blacklisted from radio and TV and many concert venues, he had so many sources of income that the detractors were unable to ruin his career the way they had other performers'. It sails mostly on the Hudson River between New York City and Albany, New York, primarily to offer environmental and biological education programs to school groups, touching on river biology, environmental protection of waterways and related topics, Every year The Great Hudson River revival and Clearwater Festival takes place in mid-June at the incomparably lovely Croton State Park.
Pete got the word to Woody that they'd sung for the striking transport workers union at Madison Square Garden and Woody came east and joined the group.A  Later, Bess Lomax (Alan's sister) and Sis Cunningham also joined the group. In 1943, during his first leave from the Army, he married Toshi, whom he credits with being the support that helped make the rest of his life possible. High-resolution imaging of the microresonator requires a probe that is able to reach the surface without disturbing the near fields. The sharply focused ion beam essentially gives researchers the ability to edit the tone of a resonator and makes it possible to tune two resonators to have the same vibrational qualities.
Imaging nanophotonic modes of microresonators using a focused ion beam, Nature Photonics (2015). But this does not mean cities cannot learn from each other or seek ideas, inspiration and lessons from one another. I think more of that can happen," he says, adding that it is a different sort of model for delivery than the government paying for something and doing the installation itself. However, anyone carefully leafing through the pages of Order: The Story of Fangyuan Bookshop, is likely to be touched and amused by the ordinariness that is presented ingeniously through the airy and light interaction of text and image. It was a brave move, given that China was in turmoil - the Taiping Rebellion (1850-64) was in full swing - and with the Second Opium War (1856-60) about to reach its bloody conclusion, British adventurers were far from welcome in the country.
Whenever they spotted us, one of them would mutter, 'It's those guys again!'" recalled the 52-year-old author, with a laugh.
He then set up a youth association to promote communication between young people from Taiwan and the Chinese mainland. The progress over the past several months has been incredible," said the Spaniard, who used to be a youth trainer with La Liga club Celta Vigo. But they need to improve the organization of the school league system to provide more competitions for the children," he said. China will be a likely bidder for construction contracts on the UK's HS2 high-speed rail link. His religious pursuits eventually led him to share his Buddhist mentor with his contemporary, Li Tong, who was 18 years his junior. For childless eunuchs, these edifices could also function as ancestral halls, where they were venerated by pilgrims who had come to worship Buddha. Emperor Xuande, the Ming emperor of the day, ordered Zheng He's grand burial on a mountain slope in Nanjing. Emperor Yongle (1360-1424) ordered its construction to honor the late emperor and empress, who were founders of the dynasty. The studio recently featured in a three-part TV documentary, Masters in the Forbidden City, about the work behind the scenes at the museum. A photographer with her tried to blow magnesia powder onto blazing paraldehyde to illuminate what can only be called a darkroom. As the beam of yellowish light swept across the wall, patches of fresco emerged one by one from the pitch black darkness to charm me with warm hues and myriad images, before retreating back into the shadows to resume their silent, self-effacing existence. According to the historical records, Li built the temple to express his gratitude for royal favor.
Today the main hall is the only building that has survived the ages, the others being reproductions.
The temple, once a popular site of pilgrimage, gradually fell into disrepair, a state in which it remained during the tumult in the country in the first half of the 20th century, until the spring 1950, the year following the founding of the People's Republic of China. She points out for me a horizontal line that goes through the 11-meter-long frescoes on both the eastern and western walls. And the goddess, looking down with her willow leaf-shaped eyes, never takes her silent gaze off me.
And his religious pursuits eventually led him to share his Buddhist mentor with Li Tong, who was 18 years his junior.
For childless eunuchs these edifices could also function as ancestral halls, where they were worshipped by people who had come on a pilgrimage to worship Buddha.
Some histories have said the Chinese character li here means messenger and has nothing to do with the widely used Chinese surname. Emperor Yongle (1360-1424) ordered its construction to honor the late emperor and empress, who were founders of the Ming Dynasty.
People have long argued that although Li built the Fahai Temple, ostensibly to show his indebtedness to Emperor Yingzong (1427-1464), the third Ming Emperor he served, the eunuch had his own agenda, as his tomb sits just a few hundred meters away down the slope, in the temple's southwest. In 2015, the United States saw no improvement in its existent human rights issues, but reported numerous new problems. There were a total of 51,675 gun violence incidents in the United States in 2015 as of December 28, leaving 13,136 killed and 26,493 injured.
The guards in Lowell Correctional Institution, the nation's largest women's prison, pressured hundreds of female inmates to barter sex for basic necessities and a shield from abuse, and 57 inmates have died in this prison over the past 10 years. However, Leardoa€™s use of a more precise delineation of the Mediterranean area based upon contemporary nautical or portolano charts and place names culled from the accounts of medieval travelers to the Far East, combine to make these maps significant improvements over many of the more stylized mappaemundi of the period.
The third, from 1448, is somewhat more elaborate in design and belongs to the Museo Civico at Vicenza. The description and explanation of these rings or circles is found as part of a broader text in the frame or panel located below the map itself. He mis-quotes the Nicene Creed and runs the Trinity and the person of Christ together as if they were the same thing. These years were usually designated by the golden numbers, but before the Gregorian reform letters were frequently employed in place of the numbers. Islands are tinted either red or yellow, with green patches in the interior of Great Britain and Ireland. There are certain legends and place names that are found on one and not the other, however, their real similarity lies in their coastal outlines. This is also from Marco Polo, who writes that a€?the islands where these birds are bred lie so far north that the North Star is left behind you in the southa€?.
Briefly, this theory, ascribed to Crates of Mallos (#113, Book I), states that around the equatorial circumference of the globe is a fiery zone so intensely hot that no man can cross it. Islands are tinted either red or yellow, with green patches in the interior of Great Britain and Ireland.A  The only other natural features depicted are mountains, rivers and lakes, although certain deserts are mentioned in legends. The actual place of burial of the Mongol Khans was in Cathay, far away from northern Russia where Leardo, following the model of Catalan maps, draws it.A  European cartographers of the 14th and 15th centuries seem to have known and cared little about the relative positions of places in Asia; as Italian merchants by this time had established contacts with the Mongols in southern Russia, what was more natural than to place the Mongol overlorda€™s tomb in the hinterland of the Black Sea? Thomasa€™ mission and of the early introduction of Christianity into India is indicated by the inscription: Here preached St. 1920.A  His widow, Fannie, continued to reside in the old Lindsay home until her passing on 7 Aug. 207].A A  She may have known him in her earlier years and may have married when he was on leave from the Army, as we believe he was a soldier. Nugent, and her two daughters, Lizzie and Sarah.A  Sarah was already married by this date, and she was the a€?Mrs.
10, 1905 -- This morning found all the Elders ready for Con[ference].A  Roy went and met Sis. Many episodes of our nation's mistreatment of Afro-Americans and Native Americans have been swept under the rug. From his book, The Incompleat Folk Singer, we learn that he got a ukelele at age eight and, with a friend, performed sea chanteys for the rest of his school.
He was not one to knuckle under to any form of dogma, however, and, after about eight years, walked away from the party in 1950, a profoundly anti-Stalinist left winger.
They simply wanted to establish that he had belonged to an entity that dared challenge their governance. This session took place at the height of the Vietnam War and, of course, so much of it is relevant today. They performed in shantytowns, earning little or no money singing anti-authoritarian folk songs.
ThisA  session took place at the height of the Vietnam War and, of course, so much of it is relevant today. Aksyuk believes that the lithium ions the group used are particularly well suited for this kind of work because of their low mass.
The deft creativity of the designer of the flip-book presentation of the caricature faces of the man to the left of the strings that bind the book are something to marvel at. Zheng Zihai, who has done extensive research into his ancestor's burial, says Li was responsible for construction of a temple tower in Zheng He's memory. But those efforts went unrewarded, filming being abandoned when Morrison was accidentally burned.
It was like being tantalized by a siren call, the frescoes under dim, wandering light seeming to call for attention but at the same time wanting to be left alone.
And to create the murals, artists were recruited from all over China and worked under the supervision of the most celebrated court painters of the day, among whom 15 had their names inscribed in a stele placed inside the temple. And the frescoes inside are the sole reminder of the length all those involved went to in creating this ultimate tribute to Buddha, and to the Ming emperors who were among the Buddha's most powerful worldly followers.
Zheng Zihai, who has done extensive research into the circumstances surrounding his ancestor's burial, says Li was responsible for the construction of a temple tower in Zheng He's memory. So, "Li Fushan", or "Fushan the messenger of Buddhism", refers to Zheng He himself rather than his friend and colleague Li Tong. Bearing in mind that Emperor Yongle moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing in 1421, the Temple of Gratitude is often viewed as the ultimate commemorative gesture from the emperor who, rather ironically, ascended the throne by rebelling against and killing his nephew Emperor Huizong, to whom his father had originally passed the crown. There were comments that the political system of the United States had been subverted to be a tool that provided returns to major political donors.
The inscription on this particular Leardo map is somewhat awkwardly phrased in the Venetian dialect of the 15th century; but, although the beginning of each line is missing, the meaning is fairly clear, especially when certain of the missing lines are reconstructed from the corresponding inscription on the map in Vicenza of 1448. This passage is followed by a statement that the map shows how the land and islands stand in relation to the seas and how the many provinces and mountains and principal rivers are distributed on the land. Leardo explains that C (golden number 10) stands for 1453, D for 1454, and so on until T is reached, after which we begin over again at A.
Sinai, the exaggerated length of the River Jordan and an inscription in the far northeast referring to Gog and Magog. The mountains southeast of the gulf make an enclosure shaped something like a A? (items #42-47). Within this conventional structure, however, Leardo has found it possible to incorporate some modern material.
Here there was more available space than in the Far East, and here also, on the Leardo map, the Grand Khana€™s tomb could be made symmetrically to provide balance for Prester Johna€™s palace on the other side of the map in Africa (item #299).
The latter stream represents, perhaps, a combination of the Niger and Senegal, of which some faint knowledge may have been gained through traders who had crossed the Sahara.
Nugentsa€™s [Mary Ann Lindsay Nugent--another sister of Alexandar Lindsay who was then living in Portadown], talked some time and then proceeded out as far as Wma€™s [Alexa€™s older brother, William Lindsay] calling in on the way to see Mr. Little Eddie Hinton [age about 10] just alls in on me just now.A  Hea€™s on a visit to his Aunt Mrs.
He'd harmonize with his brother on Christmas carols, school and camp songs, and he learned the pop songs of the day. Later, back in New York, Pete met Lee Hays, who, like Pete, was planning to write a book of union songs.
It contains a great number of quotes from Pete that describe the core of his philosophical beliefs and some wonderful sing-a-longs.
And Zheng He, as an active participant in the military campaign, fought personally for the soon-to-be Emperor Yongle and gained his lifelong favor. Then, on the asserted authority of Macrobius, a very excellent astrologer and geometrician, figures are given for the dimensions of the earth and various heavenly bodies. Nothing daunted, most of the 15th century cartographers who used the writings of Ptolemy boldly transferred the Mountains of the Moon to West Africa to suit their theory of the rivera€™s course. The Mediterranean and Black Seas are drawn according to the model of the sea chart, though the mapa€™s small size does not allow for many place-names, and the winds are eight, in seaman fashion, rather than the classical twelve. The Iron Gate was built by Alexander in the wall enclosing Gog and Magog, and the statues represent trumpeters set up to keep guard over these unclean hordes. The lower Nile is joined by the River Stapus (#313), doubtless the Astapus of Ptolemy or the modern Blue Nile. The crux of his stance on social justice can be found in a statement near the beginning: "Are the light-skinned people of the world going to treat the dark skinned people of the world as human beings or as something less than human beings? These estimates are quite fanciful, bearing little relation to the corresponding figures actually cited by Macrobius. Ptolemaic names appear, especially in Africa, where the Nile flows from the Mountains of the Moon, located in West Africa.
On the Catalan-Estense map this tributary rises in the Terrestrial Paradise, there placed in East Africa. Tinman [Thomas Tinman--brother of Edward] and his daughter made me feel at home and asked me to call every time I could.
Hinton asking me to bring Eddy with me to Belfast tomorrow, so I got supper and went out into the country to tell the folks, and they treated me fine and asked me to call as often as I passed.
Tinman [Thomas Tinman--brother of Edward] and his daughter made me feel at home and asked me to call every time I could.A  {ALJ p. Elder Lindsay of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints and I may say that we had a spiritual feast.A  The Lord has greatly blessed me in all ways for which I am truly grateful. But I felt that the world was so messed up that the only honest thing to do was to be a hermit. The popular will was abducted by factionalism in the United States, because the interests involved in election made it unable for the Democratic Party and the Republican Party to coordinate on and work out policies that were in line with the popular will. To the mountain range of North Africa, the Carena of the Catalan maps, Leardo has added Ptolemaic names. The southern region is described as uninhabitable due to the heat and is colored red on all three maps.
1877, after living with her husband for 18 years, two months, and sixteen days, aged 36 yrs. Africa is indented by a deep gulf on either side, while the southern part of the continent is fanned out as it is on the Catalan Modena map (#246), producing an Indian Ocean with an opening to the east. You're going to be pure yourself and let the rest of the world go to hell?' Whatever you decide to do, don't sit back and say 'Nothing can be done.' The people who will tell you that the human race is going to be 'all over' in a few generationsa€¦ throw their cocksureness right back in their face!
The Persian Gulf runs from east to west, cutting off the Arabian peninsula on the north, while the Red Sea has a right-angle bend in it, oriented north-south in Egypt and turning to run into the Indian Ocean from the west. A large Scandinavian peninsula lies along the northwestern section of the map, taking up so much room that the British Isles are pushed down to a location off the western coast of France. We then bid them good bye coming on with their invitation ringing in our ears to be sure and come again which we promised to do if possible. There are several references to the spice trade in the Indian Ocean, and in the Sahara are some of the towns that began appearing on Catalan maps in the previous century. 1848 date for her birth, which means that she would have been just past her 33 birthday at the time of her death on 14 Feb.
Hewitt and family good bye, we started on our return to Portadown Accompanied part of the way by Mr.
Willie Holmes my Sister Dolliea€™s Son, arriving here about 11 Oa€™c pretty tired but highly elated at the successful termination of my first meeting with the people of Conroot.



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