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Adaptive use (also commonly called adaptive re-use) is a term preservationists use when an old or historic structure is given a new use.
An A-Frame house in one in which the sidewalls and roof junctions are omitted, with a gable roof continuing to ground level on two sides, thus forming a structure that is triangular or A-shaped. Archaeology is the scientific study of past human cultures through material remains (sites and artifacts) that people left behind. It may not occur to homeowners that the locations of their houses contain archaeological evidence of historical uses of the property, but owners of seventeenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth-century houses should be especially sensitive to the possibility that their properties may have archaeological content worthy of consideration. Asphalt, introduced for roofing in the nineteenth century, evolved into a siding material in the 1930s. Asbestos siding, commercially introduced in the 1930s as a fire-resistant exterior wall covering, is a rolled composition of cement and asbestos (to reduce weight and increase fire-resistance) which is cut into shingle-sized pieces that are nailed up individually just like wood shingles. Removal of artificial siding can be done by a trash removal contractor and should always precede any consultation with a contractor about restoring original siding and trim.
One of four historical methods for framing a house, the others being timber framing, braced framing, and Western, or platform framing (see below), balloon framing was developed in Chicago in 1832 and relied on standardized dimensional lumber, machine-made nails, and the use of thick sheathing boards to add rigidity to the structure. A baluster is one post in a continuous row of posts supporting a railing; the row is the balustrade. Barge board, also sometimes known as verge board, is an exterior trim board covering a rafter which extends beyond a gable wall along the edge of the roof from gable peak to eave.
Bilateral symmetry is the most common form of symmetry found in architecture, and is frequently found in structures using classical (Greek, Roman) design elements. Board-and-batten is a type of exterior siding or, more rarely, interior paneling that has alternating wide boards of wood with narrow wooden strips called battens placed over the seams between wider boards. By the nineteenth century, chimneys were always constructed of brick, as were most building foundations, except in areas with good indigenous building stone; brick houses are rarer, except in dense urban areas where fire codes mandated masonry construction.
Re-pointing historic brickwork requires skill and care as well as the right mortar mix for the type of brick.
A Bungalow is a type of house which became popular in the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century and often exhibits Craftsman stylistic details (thus the term Craftsman Bungalow). Calcimine is a water-based coating which was most often applied to cover plaster walls and ceilings used from the late-eighteenth century into the mid-twentieth century. A carpenter is a building tradesperson who specializes in making, finishing, or repairing wooden structures or objects. Along with other standard architectural moldings (such as the muntins in a sash window), casings have characteristic profiles that vary in style by period and can be used to ascertain the approximate date of interior or exterior construction or alterations to the house. If sections of interior casing are missing, or if new window or door openings are proposed in a renovation, it will be difficult to locate modern casing profiles to match an historic casing, particularly for a nineteenth century house, and new casing will have to be milled.
Corner-blocks, the square blocks at the top corners of a door or window casing, frequently share the same molding profile as the rest of the casing. Caulking is the process of sealing joints or seams in various structures and in the building trade is used to describe the application of flexible sealing compounds to close up gaps in buildings and other structures against water, air, dust, or insects.
A chimney is a vertical passage through which fire and gasses may escape from a fireplace, furnace or flue. A chimney can be a structural, decorative, or functional part of an old house, and often all three.
A stainless steel chimney cap with a top mounted damper will prevent water from entering the chimney and damaging historic mortar and masonry while still allowing air to circulate.
Historically, closets and cupboards in houses were rare, primarily because people had few personal goods to store.
By the end of the nineteenth century, fitted pantries and china closets and small bedroom closets were standard in middle class housing, while in elaborate houses, specialty storage included airing cupboards in attic storage rooms, bedroom closets with built-in bureaus and shelving, and kitchens supported by a battery of pantries, butler’s pantries, sculleries, and larders.
Much of the elaborate late nineteenth and early twentieth century exterior decorative ornament applied on porches, bays, and window casings, such as swags, garlands, and relief sculpture, is not, despite appearances, carved from wood, but made of composition, a malleable product made of glue, resin, chalk and linseed oil. It is important to note that Portland cement, particularly Portland cement-based mortar, is not appropriate for repairing or re-pointing historic masonry. A contractor, or more precisely a general contractor, is an individual or company providing construction services. A general contractor contracts with an owner for the construction of an entire project or building and normally hires the sub-contractors who work under contract to the general contractor. A corbel is a projecting block, usually made of stone, supporting a beam or other horizontal member.
The cornice is the topmost, projecting component of the three elements that make up a classical entablature (architrave, frieze, and cornice). Crown molding is a specific type of molding (see below) that runs along the top of an interior wall at the intersection the wall and ceiling, creating a decorative transition between the two.
Dendrochronology is the scientific dating of past events or structures through the study of annual tree-rings.
A dentil is a small, square block that is used in a sequence along the lower edge of a cornice. Doors, like windows and the casings that frame both, are among the most readily-dated features of a historic house. Water is the enemy of houses and keeping water out of, off of, or away from them is critical to every element of their construction.
Proper drainage is built into foundations at the time of construction, but can be compromised by later alterations, changing soil conditions, or the passage of time. Building a simple drywell requires somewhat more effort, but is still within the capabilities of the homeowner. Efflorescence is a white, powdery substance of soluble salts that appear on the face of bricks or concrete as moisture travels through masonry; the salts remain as a residue on the surface once the moisture evaporates. Efflorescence can be, however, an indication of rising damp, a destructive process where moisture from the ground is drawn up (or wicked) into a masonry wall if the wall is not protected with an intervening layer of impervious material, such as slate, tile, building felt, or metal. Entablature is the classical architectural term for the trim element at the roof line that consists of the architrave, frieze, and cornice. Electricians install, connect, test, and maintain electrical systems for a variety of purposes, including climate control, security, and communications.
The façade is the front or primary elevation of a house, and usually contains the main entrance.
First Period is used to distinguish structures built during the first period of settlement by this country’s colonists. A floor plan is an architectural drawing that depicts a two dimensional view of a space, such as a room or building.
In contrast, an elevation is a view of an interior or exterior wall as if you are standing back, looking directly at the wall. A house built with little consideration for fashion, folk dwellings were built to provide basic shelter and exhibit no distinctive architectural style. A foundation is the base of a building or structure, usually below (or partially below) grade that transfers and distributes the weight of the building onto the ground.
Technology to improve splitting and cutting of granite continued throughout the nineteenth century and masonry foundations of stone or brick were typical until well into the twentieth century.
An American Foursquare, also sometimes known as a Prairie Box, is a building type which was popular from the mid-1890s through the 1930s.
As a noun, the framing of a house is defined by the elements that make up the structure of a building; those elements which support the sheathing and aesthetic elements. A frieze is the portion of the Classical Entablature between the cornice (above) and the architrave (below). A French drain is a shallow linear trench, following the perimeter of the building four to six feet away from the foundation, lined with gravel and occasionally with a perforated plastic pipe that collects and directs water away from the house. A gable is the upper portion of a wall at the end of a roof or dormer; most often it is triangular. Cracked Glass: Historic glass with no more than four breaks per pane can be repaired by careful re-adhesion of the pieces. A girt is a horizontal beam, used to connect and reinforce vertical posts in a timber frame.
To remove graffiti from masonry, there are commercially available paint removers that should be safe on both granite and concrete. Wood gutters need periodic treatment, but brushing the interior of wood gutters with a mixture of raw linseed oil and minerals spirits (1:1 ratio) will extend the life of the wood and paint. The Historic American Building Survey (HABS) was created in 1933 under President Franklin D. Half-timbering is a type of construction using a timber framed structure with the space between framing members filled in with nogging (see below). HardiePlank is a proprietary name for a relatively new building material used for exterior sheathing and made out of fiber cement board. Several detailed guides with expert advice on cleaning techniques for historic houses are available, including the brief but comprehensive Housekeeping for Historic Homes and House Museums by Melissa M. Ice dams form when snow lying against the roof is melted by attic warmth from below rather than from the sun’s warmth from above. A house type or form brought over by colonists from England, the I-House was common in English communities of the mid-Atlantic region during the eighteenth century.
Interior woodwork includes all the wooden elements found inside buildings, such as: window and door casings, baseboard, crown molding, chair rails and wainscot, mantels, built-in cupboards and shelves, staircases, railings, balusters, and newel posts. For those chicken lovers out there, here is our new chicken coop just in time for the Chicken Coop Fall Tour 2011.
Since moving into the house in spring of 2005, exterior work has included a new roof with built in gutters which drain to a water holding tank. A naturally lovely redwood planter box fused with a sturdy, sophisticated iron cage is the aesthetic of our Scroll Window Box Cage with Redwood Liner. While paired with a redwood planter box here, our Scroll Window Box Cage is designed to hold a number of different window boxes from Hooks and Lattice. Jeremy Levine of Jeremy Levine Design sent me this unique shed conversion which he recently completed in Silver Lake, California. Palm trees grow through openings in the deck to further the literal and figural linkage between house and garden. During the day, the redwood wall bounces sun from the long narrow skylight and vertical slits into the house.
At night, strips of translucent polycarbonate, stitched into the wood siding, glow from the concealed fluorescents hidden inside the tilted wall.
Hi EJ – I have asked Jeremy to answer your questions, he will either respond here or to me. 4) The landscaping is all drought tolerant, xeriscaping, which uses native plants that require very little watering.
5) The kitchen countertops, the kitchen and bathroom sinks, and the bathroom shower are constructed of poured in place concrete with 50% recycled fly ash. Decking Materials are available in different aesthetics, maintenance options, and price range.
This economically priced material is chemically treated pine and is easy to cut and fasten. These western softwoods don’t contain chemicals and have natural tannins and oils that resist rot and insects. Exotic, rich grained woods like red tauari, tigerwood, ipe, Massaranduba, and Philippine mahogany are very hard, durable and naturally insect resistant.
Most plastic decking is made from polyethylene or polyvinyl chlorine and is available in a wide assortment of colors. Prices vary because of the vast choices of these products, but composites tend to be less expensive than plastic decking materials. Its definitions include architectural and building terms, as well as common agents of deterioration and issues faced by owners of old houses.
In doing so, structures that have become obsolete are given a new useful function and are therefore saved from abandonment, decay, and demolition.


This type of house became popular following WWII and is typically used for vacation and second homes, particularly in snowy climates, where its form sheds snow easily. Alligatored paint on the exterior of a house is caused by heavily built-up layers of paint that become brittle. Alligatored paint, which is paradoxically often firmly adhered, may require alternate means of removing the paint. All National Register of Historic Places nominations now require an assessment of the archaeological potential of every property listed, regardless of the structure’s age. It lists architects practicing in Massachusetts, includes suggestions on how to work with an architect, and worksheets to help you plan your project. Asphalt siding, usually produced in rectangular panels of 18 by 24 inches, retains some of the appearance of asphalt roofing shingles (a gritty aggregate surface over a flexible, tarry-looking black substrate) but, for use on walls, it was often stamped to look like brick. Having the original siding exposed allows the contractor to make a much more precise estimate on restoration work required.
Replacement of all of the original exterior siding and trim is never necessary and should be avoided. Sheathing boards covered the outside of a light frame of continuous-length sills, joists, and plates running the house from side to side and studs running from the foundation to the roof. Privies located either in a separate outdoor structure or in a distant section of a real ell, and chamber pots, were standard.
The first, more common, usage refers to an element of the building that contains additional living space or volume and that projects from or is attached to the main block of a building. Usually this siding is attached vertically, but can also be found in a horizontal configuration. Mortar must never be harder than the brick it is used with or the mortar will crack, damage, and ultimately destroy the brick.
Raking, the cleaning out old mortar joints for re-pointing cannot be done reliably using an electric carbide wheel and should be done by hand if possible. A house type or form is distinguished from an architectural style in that a type or form relates to the shape of the house and may be constructed using details of one or a combination of various styles. To remove and re-coat surfaces that have layers of calcimine, scrape, sand and then wash the surface using a mixture of one-and-one half cups of TSP (trisodium phosphate) and one gallon of water; repeat as necessary to remove as much of the calcimine as possible. Capitals from the five classical architectural orders can be readily identified, but many idiosyncratic variations are possible, particularly certain architectural styles such as Queen Anne.
Most often, and nearly always in the major rooms in a house, interior window and door casings have a decorative molding profile; typically, less important rooms in the house will have a simpler molded, or a plain, flat board, casing.
Likewise, casings often carry a significant paint history for interior and exterior decorative color schemes. Caulk, the material used for this process, is a ready-mixed compound made with silicone, polyurethane, polysulfide, sylil-terminated polyether or polyurethane and acrylic sealant. Maintaining the structure of the chimney ensures its safe operation and protects the house and its occupants from the possibility of a chimney fire, from damage through infiltration of moisture or from animal or insect infestation, and from the leakage of carbon monoxide gases into the house. Vented chimney caps are an inexpensive way to prevent rainwater from getting into the chimney while still allowing air to circulate. In the eighteenth century, cupboards were tucked into areas of dead space around chimneys, while linens and clothing were stored in chests or hung on pegs. In classical architecture, columns have three parts: a base, shaft, and capital, and have a form that tapers from bottom to top. It was used to easily and cheaply produce complex sculptural ornament for architectural applications.
Concrete is a mixture made of cement, aggregate (usually sand and small stones), and water. Portland cement is usually stronger that the surrounding masonry, meaning that any stress to the masonry will crack or damage the brick or stone rather than the more easily replaceable mortar. There are many different building trades people engaged in the repair or construction of homes. Normally, a general contractor is responsible for overseeing the entire project, including obtaining any building permits needed, coordinating building inspections, and ordering and purchasing all supplies.
Corbelling is a technique whereby brick or masonry courses are each built out beyond the one below in a series of steps. In builder’s parlance, cornice describes any projecting decorative element at the roof line of a building.
Cupolas may also crown a larger roof or dome and may be used to provide light or a look-out point. The method has been used to arrive at precise dates for the construction of timber-framed structures, such as New England’s seventeenth-century houses. For more information about dendrochronology, visit the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Tree-Ring Databank or the Oxford Dendrochronology Laboratory. Most elements of the classical orders are believed to derive from functional, structural building components of ancient masonry construction, and dentils are thought to have been the ends of rafters.
Frequently, exterior entrance doors were worn out through exposure to weather and hard use and have been replaced. A dormer contains an opening, usually a window, allowing light into the second story or attic story of a building. Any water carried to the ground from downspouts and roof drains needs to be directed away from the house as quickly as possible, while any standing water on the ground around the house must be dispersed or collected in such a way that it does not remain there for long.
For example, the grade around the house can erode, causing rain water to travel back toward the foundation.
Keeping gutters clean, and oiling and painting wood gutters regularly will keep them operating properly. A drywell can be as simple as a hole in the ground a short distance (at least ten feet) from the house which is filled with gravel and to which a PVC pipe directs water from the downspout. Panels of drywall are made of gypsum plaster pressed between two thick sheets of paper, then kiln dried.
A dutchman could be required to fill in the location of a missed lock or knob on a reused door, for example, or to repair a section of damaged flooring.
The edge of the roof is a complex bit of carpentry which includes the soffit (the underside of the eave) and the fascia (the vertical edge of the eave). An experienced masonry contractor should be consulted to determine the best way to correct rising damp. Most electricians acquire their skills by completing an apprenticeship program lasting four to five years. They are a common stylistic element of Federal architecture (commonly dating from around 1780 to 1820) where they are typically found above the main entry door.
Limited in geography to those regions settled before 1700, first period architecture in New England exhibits a strong resemblance to the building traditions of England. Its purpose is to prevent water from penetrating a building at a joint or angle, generally on the roof. It is a view of the space from above, as if the space was cut through horizontally at the windowsill level. This view of the wall shows items that cannot be clearly shown in plan such as wall moldings, signs, graphics, window sizes, or a finish pattern that is applied on the wall. Folk building traditions were handed down from generation to generation and show relatively little change over time.
Traditionally, foundations were made of stone either dry-laid (without mortar) or dressed with mortar.
Following the Second World War, the increasing availability and cheapness of Portland cement led to the use of concrete blocks and then poured concrete as a favored foundation material. The distinctive ripples and bubbles of old glass are a character-defining feature of old houses, so when possible, broken panes should be repaired or replaced in kind. Where possible, remove the glass from the sash, clean cracked edges with alcohol, and apply a bonding agent according to the manufacturer's instructions.
In two-story construction, a girt is the horizontal beam at the mid-point of the structure, also helping to support the floor of the second story. It is used to describe the portion of a wall that is transparent (usually filled with glass windows or doors). All gutters, regardless of their material, must be cleaned routinely (twice a year or more frequently if a particular gutter collects debris quickly) to allow water to flow away from the building. Short sections of rotted wood gutter can also be selectively replaced with Dutchman repairs (see above) to avoid replacing an entire wood gutter.
Meant to imitate wooden clapboards, this product is promoted as a sustainable replacement to wooden clapboards, with lower maintenance costs. The most common hip roof type has a ridge over a portion of the roof that creates two triangular sides and two polygon sides on the roof.
HVAC systems are used in buildings to control environmental conditions, meaning temperature, air quality and, to a lesser degree, relative humidity.
If water on the roof cannot drip off the eave because the gutter is blocked by leaves, ice, or snow, the water may re-freeze and push water up under the roof shingles and into the sheathing, soffit, and wall cavity. Using a special long rake, snow can be raked off the eaves after each major snowfall to keep gutters free of overlying ice and snow.
Decorated or embellished with details, interior woodwork elements often define the architectural style of a house (see also Molding).
These iron and wood window boxes successfully combine a slatted wooden flower box with a thoughtfully designed iron cage for a memorable arrangement of metal and lumber. If iron and wood window boxes doesn't fit your design, either choose an iron cage with another insert option or choose to purchase a redwood planter box on its own. Gives people inspiration to explore alternatives to new construction, a green element itself. Our customers most often request cedar or composite decks, but there are other decks available. They are difficult to install because of the wood hardness and require boring of pilot holes.
These materials are resistant to decay, cracking and have no knots for a consistent appearance. Good adaptive use projects not only find a new use for old structures, but also find a compatible use that allows a building’s original fabric and significant elements to be retained. Over time, successive layers of paint dry out, and small cracks in the paint layers (called crazing) develop. Among the newer products available are safer chemical strippers, infrared heat plates which do not heat to as high a temperature, and consequently are safer than the old heat guns (but still must be used with caution), and steam-heating the paint to soften it so it can be scraped.
Contact your State Historic Preservation Office if you encounter substantial historic archaeological remains (such as trash pits, wells, privies, or, burials) on your property as part of any large renovations or new construction. As long as they are intact, and not shredded, chipped, or sanded, they do not pose the hazard of asbestos pipe insulation because their asbestos fibres are embedded in the cement component of the shingle. Disposal of asbestos and asphalt siding may be subject to hazardous waste removal regulations. The use of continuous studs running from the sill to the plate meant that early balloon-framed houses had long vertical wall cavities that created a fire hazard. A useful resource for more information on this topic and other framing types is Dwelling House Construction by Albert G.
Balusters and balustrades are commonly found on stairs, porches and as decorative roof elements. Use of ornate barge boards is a particularly common and distinctive feature of Carpenter Gothic and Gothic Revival homes from the mid-nineteenth century. Piped, running water was generally only available in cities, and even then, in better houses.
Board-and-batten siding is also sometimes called barn-siding because it is commonly used in barn and outbuilding construction. Portland cement, a hard-fired mortar mix of ground limestone, clay, and gypsum, was developed in the 1820s in England, introduced in the United States in the 1870s, and came into standard use for masonry construction in the twentieth century.


Brick should NEVER by sandblasted as sandblasting removes the hard-fired outer layer of the brick called the fireskin and exposes the softer center to rapid decay. The Cape Cod house type is typically modest in size, one-and-one-half stories tall and two rooms deep.
Caulk is typically applied using a caulking gun which extrudes the compound in a bead that can be pressed into cracks and joints and smoothed. Working with the intrinsic structure of the chimney and understanding its materials is important to preserving a historic chimney.
The clerestory wall usually rises above adjoining roofs so that light can reach the inner space of a large building. By the 1830s, some dedicated spaces for storage were being included in houses, such as a china closet adjacent to the dining room. This material is still available today and can be obtained to restore missing architectural elements.
Cement is a powdery substance, which when mixed with water, forms a plastic mass that hardens through chemical reaction. The cement we know today, made of alumina, silica, lime, iron oxide and magnesia burned together in a kiln, is still known by this name. Those who work in one specialty area will generally be known by the name of that specialty such as electricians, carpenters, or plumbers, and are usually hired to perform a single job. This was a popular method for creating vaulted ceilings, particularly in churches or cathedrals. Cupolas are often decorative and are usually are found on large public buildings, though they can occasionally be found on high-style houses. Using small samples of wood taken from framing members of the house, dates can be determined for the felling of the timber used in the house construction, thereby ascertaining a date before which the house could not have been constructed.
A CD-ROM with original illustrations from talks given at a symposium on Dendrochronology held at Historic Deerfield in May, 2005 is also available at Historic Deerfield’s online store. Unfortunately, door manufacturers offer the consumer very few accurate or suitable modern replacements for historic doors. Dormers are found in a variety of shapes, usually defined by their roof structure, such as shed dormers, gable dormers, etc. The area around the foundation must be re-graded so that it slopes away from the foundation. Downspouts should empty onto splashblocks placed below the spout and directed away from the house; perforated plastic sleeves that unroll as water exits the downspout are another simple solution to handling drainage.
Commercially-installed drywells are a more elaborate method of dealing with runoff and involve excavating a large hole at a low point in the property, lining the hole with gravel, and installing a perforated concrete drywell in the hole. Also known as sheetrock or wallboard, drywall construction is the most common form of finish wall and ceiling construction used today; it superseded traditional plaster finish techniques beginning in the 1930s.
The most common locations for roof flashing are at valleys (where two downward sloping roof planes meet), chimneys, eaves, rakes, ridges, roof-to-wall intersections, and at roof penetrations such as skylights, stovepipes and vents. The floor plan will show the locations of walls, partitions, doors, stairs, washrooms, furniture, dimensions, etc. Interior elevations will show the inside walls of a space; exterior elevations will show the outside walls of a building and again, elevation drawings are typically drawn to scale. A combination of techniques was frequently used, with dry-laid stones below grade, and above-ground portions that were exposed to weather, laid in full beds of lime mortar.
Typical features include: a simple boxy shape of two and a half stories, simple four-room plans, low-hipped roofs with deep overhangs, large central dormers, and full-width porches with wide steps along the front elevation. Timber framing, the oldest form of structure found in New England’s domestic architecture, has evolved from simple post-and-beam construction with mortise-and-tenon joints to standardized platform framing using dimensional lumber. Where glass cannot readily be removed from the sash, try injecting the bonding agent along the cracks with a syringe.
Glazing is also used to describe the material used to seal the transition between glass window panes and the wooden framing, holding the glass panes in place and sealing the joint to prevent water from penetrating the window and protecting the wood below the way paint protects the flat surfaces of a wooden window.
Clogged gutters can damage elevation materials and structural members as roof water drips down the elevation, settles near the foundation and seeps into the cellar. The program field-tested documentation strategies still used today, such as recording contextual information; it also established quality standards for preservation documentation.
While both the American and English National Trust books present a curatorial standard for housekeeping, they provide detailed and careful advice on the full range of cleaning questions that can confront an old house owner and will be a handy reference.
When ice dams form, water is forced inside and can flow down the interior walls, damaging decorative finishes.
Alternatively, eave flashing, such as a course of roll roofing or rubber membrane ice shield installed under the roofing shingles, can prevent water infiltrating the roof sheathing. The downside of this material is that it is not dimensionally stable and has the tendency to split and warp over time.
The wood center of these trees is more desirable, because it is more weather and insect resistant than the outer parts near the bark.
These breaks in the protective paint coating allow moisture to penetrate through to the underlying wood, which then swells with moisture, causing the paint layers above to crack further. The addition of fire-stops between the studs reduced that danger in later balloon-framed buildings. Sinks, either in bathrooms, or kitchens were rare until after 1850 and flush toilet technology did not become standardized until the end of the nineteenth century.
The second use of the term defines a structural component of the building and refers to the vertical sections of a building, which are normally defined by the patterns of its fenestration (window locations): many Georgian and most Colonial Revival houses, for example, are five bays wide, with an entrance in the center bay. For more information about braced-frames and other types of framing, a good resource is Dwelling House Construction by Albert G. Prior to the advent of Portland cement mortars, all mortars were a mixture of ground limestone and sand. Other commonly found features include: raised foundations, simple floor plans, deep porches, and gently-sloped roofs with wide overhangs. Casement windows were common during the seventeenth century when they were typically hinged on the side, and opened inward. Sealing unwanted air leaks around homes is an excellent way to cut home energy costs and decrease the household carbon footprint. A general contractor is someone who will undertake a more complex job, in which the contractor may indeed perform work, but which will also involve overseeing the work of sub-contractors (also known as subs) who perform work in their specialties, such as excavation, plumbing, electrical, and finishing, such as plastering.
Particularly difficult to replace are the narrow, center-opening double doors that characterized Italianate and Second Empire houses, the simple four-panel doors of the Greek Revival and Italianate styles, and glazed entrance doors of any period.
If a rough stone foundation is visible beneath a finished brick or stone upper foundation wall, you can be sure that the grade has eroded as those rough stones were never intended to be seen. Cisterns, or rain barrels, can be placed at downspouts to capture rainwater in an above ground storage vessel so that it can later be drawn off for use in gardens.
Water is directed to the drywell from a sump pump or system of perimeter foundation drains and either allowed to filter out of the well, or directed out further by a drainage pipe. Drywall requires hand finishing with mesh tape and joint compound at the fasteners and joints, thus requiring less labor and drying time than traditional plastering.
Stone foundations were initially of rubble stone (irregular stones laid in no particular pattern). Maintaining gutters, downspouts and a positive grade to divert water away from foundations is critical; drainage systems such as French drains or drywells may also be necessary (see French Drains below or Drainage, above). Careful pruning of surrounding trees will prevent excess debris from clogging gutters and downspouts and impeding water flow.
The Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) was founded in 1969 for documentation of historic sites and structures related to engineering and industry.
Plastic sheeting placed under the attic eaves may catch water and minimize interior damage. Finally, unheated portions of the attic can be air-sealed and then vented to keep household heat from warming the underside of the roof; opening attic windows or adding soffit vents, or vents in the gable ends of the house may be needed to cool the attic sufficiently.
The first owners enjoyed living there for almost their entire lives and kept it very original.
The best grades for decking are: architect clear, custom clear, architect knotty and custom knotty. This light weight material has interlocking edges and contains built-in self-draining channels. Larger stress fractures in the paint film develop and the paint surface cracks into small, uneven boxes that resemble alligator hide. A high-lime mortar allows a brick structure to absorb movement without damage, and facilitates the transmission of moisture exiting the building.
At that time windows were also frequently covered by functional exterior shutters and the casement sash were filled with diamond panes of leaded glass.
Today, clerestory is used to describe any row of windows above eye level that allow light into a space.
Often, the only way to obtain an appropriate door is to have it made or to locate a salvaged historic door, the latter almost guaranteed not to be the same dimensions as the original. Rain barrels that are child-safe and do not encourage mosquito breeding are available commercially (two 1000-liter barrels are recommended for the average home).
Traditionally, materials such as copper, leaded-coated copper or lead are used for flashing. Improved stone-cutting technologies during the late 1700s led to the use of cut or dressed stone. Another good source for more information about various framing techniques and the elements that make up a frame is the book Dwelling House Construction by Albert G.H. Glazing compound as a material is also known as putty and was traditionally made of a mixture of linseed oil and calcium carbonate (chalk). Fitting downspouts with leaders or splash-blocks facilitates the movement of rainwater and snowmelt away from the building's foundation. Also related is the Historic American Landscape Survey (HALS) founded in October 2000 to document historic landscapes.
Ice dams often form on the north slope of a roof since this slope receives limited sunlight during the winter.
Is it just the photo angle, or is the final set-up slightly different that the drawn floorplan?
In recent years, the treatment chemical has changed from chromate copper arsenate to a less toxic material, such as copper quaternary or copper azole. Recommendations for Redwood grades for decking are: Sapwood-streaked construction common or deck common redwoods. Cape Cod houses are an enduring house type, with older capes dating anywhere from 1680 – 1800.
Downing’s books of the 1840s and 1850s, began to include linen closets and small bedroom closets (narrow from front to back because clothing was hung on hooks, not crosswise on hangers). Particularly popular were granite slabs mounted above field stone cellar walls above grade and backed by bricks (to create sufficient depth to support the building’s sills).
Clearing an ice dam is difficult and dangerous as it requires accessing the ice dam and chipping a hole through the overlying blockage to let the water out. This material also needs to be preserved with UV-blocking clear wood preservatives every three to four years. Into the twentieth century, many smaller, simpler houses lacked a bathtub and use of a hip bath was typical. Every three to four years a clear water-repellent wood preservative can be applied to maintain the color.
This decking material has ideal properties for a deck, but is also the most expensive of the decking materials available.



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Comments to «House of redwood aluminum sheds uk»

  1. Anar_KEY writes:
    Insulate the walls and roof and.
  2. INKOGNITO writes:
    Out an old storage room at a research center near.
  3. MADE_IN_9MKR writes:
    With a heating pad, towels & blankets, and coated with boards.