How to build a shed vent 01100wh,wood box patterns free 1950s,outdoor bench with storage underneath plans - Plans Download

If you want ventilation then put intermittent blocking behind you fascia board so when you attach it to the shed face there is an air space behind the fascia up into the rafter bay. This article describes inspection methods and clues to detect roof venting deficiencies, insulation defects, and attic condensation problems in buildings. At INSULATION LOCATION & QUANTITY for ATTICS we discuss the relative benefit of adding insulation to a cathedral ceiling versus building walls in the same area. Some buildings, by their shape or design, simply don't make it easy to install continuous intake venting at the eaves or lower roof edge, or continuous outlet venting along a ridge. For example, a house which has no roof overhang at all makes intake venting at the eaves difficult. Sketch (above left) is courtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates shows the two basic strategies for insulating cathedral ceilings and flat roofs.
We call this a "hot roof" design because failing to vent the roof from below not only misses a chance to avoid ice dam leaks and condensation damage in cold climates. Watch out: Be sure to inspect the roof surface from outside for leaks and damage every year and to fix any damage quickly. The sketch above is provided ourtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates and shows the two basic strategies for ventilating cathedral ceilings or cathedral roofs. Less insulation: Reduce under-roof insulation level to 3 A?a€? fiberglass (R-11) under the cathedral ceiling (not good energy savings) - not recommended but functional, just poor insulation value. Solid Foam: Install solid foam spray-in insulation under the roof a€“ a a€?hot roofa€? design. When re-roofing from the building exterior: if the roof decking and possibly roof framing have been extensively damaged by leaks it is usually necessary to repair the roof from outside the building. The insulation used in those applications is tapered to provide positive roof drainage to roof drain points as well as to improve the building insulation system and cut energy costs. Tips for insulating a cathedral ceiling, take care to seal ceiling penetrations such as around light fixtures or ceiling-mounted hard-wired smoke detector. While fiberglass insulation is an excellent and effective product for insulating most building cavities, in areas where there is extra risk of trapping moisture (and thus rot or mold infections) such as crawl spaces and cathedral ceilings where roof venting may be absent or minimal, we prefer to use closed-cell foam insulation products or spray-in icynene foam insulation: these products can seal the cavity against drafts and they do not as readily pick up moisture nor do they readily form hidden mold reservoirs. In cases where there is no under-roof venting system (no soffit intake vents, no ridge vents), a "hot roof" design is followed: the roof cavity between rafters can be filled with insulation, followed by installation of a perfect vapor barrier, followed by finish surface of drywall or whatever else.
While we prefer to avoid ice dam leaks by good building design and good under-roof ventilation, where conditions require stopping ice dam leaks on an existing structure, proper installation of heating cables may be the fastest and cheapest solution.
Continue reading at HOT ROOF DESIGNS: UN-VENTED ROOF SOLUTIONS or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
Or see INSULATION LOCATION & QUANTITY for ATTICS to discuss the relative benefit of adding insulation to a cathedral ceiling versus building walls in the same area.
Question: What is causing drip marks from leaks out of cathedral ceiling in a Northern California House? I'm not sure if I have answers to my specific issue solutions, so I'd like to give you some background and ask your opinion. A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that would permit a more accurate, complete, and authoritative answer than we can give by email alone.
I agree that it makes no sense to replace the roof covering before we have a clear diagnosis of the cause of leakage; Worse you could be wasting a lot of money re-roofing only to discover that "leaks" continue because the cause was improper venting, soaked insulation, air leaks, or that there is moldy drywall and wet insulation that need replacement in the ceiling.
Guess: the home has either one or more leaks into the roof cavity (cathedral ceiling) or condensation accumulating in that cavity. If heat is left on the water source could be an exterior leak, ice dam leaks, or interior air leaks carrying moisture into the roof cavity.
If the water source in the roof cavity is from air and moisture leaks from the interior, the passage points into the roof are most often at penetrations such as around light fixtures.
Then I would go to the two most-suspect areas in the roof cavity and make a test cut sufficient to inspect the insulation for signs of wetting and mold, the cavity side fo the drywall for water and mold, and the roof sheathing for water, mold, and to confirm the air space.
When we've done enough inspecting that we are confident of the cause of the drips you describe, only then does it make sense to start "repairing".
I'm updating insulation on my cathedral ceiling on a 1966 bungalow which currently has no vapour barrier.
You could add a layer of high-r foam insulation IF you are building a hot-roof unvented design. If interior space permits I'd consider adding solid foam on the interior ceiling and new drywall over it to increase the total R. I pose that the total project cost to R&R intact roof sheathing for this project is higher than insulating from the interior. I'm unable to tackle this from the inside do to decorative wood paneling in the cathedral part of the roof that I don't want to disturb. Rigid board between rafters -which I've done -is a lot of cutting and fitting and sealing, and costly compared with spray-foaming the whole cavity. While we prefer the vapour barrier on the ceiling warm side, it's less critical than sealing around any ceiling penetrations on the inside (lights for example). We have a drop down ceiling in our office about 1200 sq feet with only one wll return for the ac.
You need an onsite inspection by a competent HVAC or other building professional to first understand how your system is designed. Separately, if you are seeing sagging and moisture or condensation problems that is a potentially serious issue risking mold contamination and even ceiling collapse - conditions that need to be inspected as part of answering your question. I have a Big Beam house with all rooms, except bathrooms, with exposed ceilings of 2 x 6 Douglass Fir. Certainly I would not do anything about your ceilings nor add insulation before doing some investigating. I'd go to the most-suspect point where leaks occurred and make a small opening, say 2x4" to look at the cavity side of the drywall, the wood framing, the existing insulation. Questions & answers or comments about how to add or retrofit insulation to cathedral ceilings in older homes. ASHRAE resource on dew point and wall condensation - see the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, available in many libraries. Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore.
America's Favorite Homes, mail-order catalogues as a guide to popular early 20th-century houses, Robert Schweitzer, Michael W.R.
Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl flooring includes discussion which draws on Asbestos, Its Industrial Applications, D.V.
Brick Nogging, Historical Investigation and Contemporary Repair, Construction Specifier, April 2006. Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or white mold colonies on walls. Nogging: See this photo of exposed bricks on a building exterior on a building exterior in Canada. Pergo AB, division of Perstorp AB, is a Swedish manufacturer or modern laminate flooring products. Rubblestone Wall Filler: See this Lartigue House using exterior-exposed rubblestone filler between vertical timbers of a post and beam-framed Canadian building. The Stairway Manufacturers' Association, (877) 500-5759, provides a pictorial guide to the stair and railing portion of the International Residential Code. The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. This article series describes the different types and models of toilets: historical or old toilet types, wooden high wall-tank toilets, conventional reservoir tank toilets, low-flush toilets, water saving toilets, back-flush toilets, up-flush toilets, and even chemical toilets. All modern toilets receive human waste, urine, feces, and are intended to dispose of that matter in a sanitary fashion. Take a look at the simple connection between a typical reservoir-tank toilet and the soil stack (waste piping) in the Carson Dunlop Associates sketch (left). Back flush and up-flush toilets use a higher in-wall connection and are also explained in the article below along with squat toilets. Aback-flush toilet (illustrated and explained in the article below) is designed to flush horizontally out of the lower back of the bowl into a waste pipe that is mounted in the wall behind the unit.
The toilet fill valve admits water into the toilet reservoir tank or cistern to refill the cistern following a toilet flush.
Two common fill valve designs in current use are the ball-cock toilet fill valve and the concentric float toilet fill valve.
The toilet ball cock fill valve shown in our photo of a traditional side-float brass ball cock valve by Urrer, and in our sketch at below left left, the ball cock valve is the control that refills the toilet tank after a flush. Toilet ball cock fill valve control designs include older tank-bottom sill-cock valves and modern anti-siphon valves (shown at left). The diverter tube is clipped to the top of the toilet cistern tank overflow tube to deliver some water to the toilet bowl during tank refill.
The blue arrow indicates where the ball cock valve sends water into the toilet tank or cistern. Ball cock valve adjustment: Most ball cock toilet fill valves have two screw or thumbscrew adjustments. There are two basic toilet bowl profiles or shapes, round (which are not necessarily exactly round - illustrated at below left where a Church toilet seat is installed), and elongated or more of a flattened oval design (below right). Concentric float toilet fill valves (photo at left) omit the rod, side-arm, and float ball.
In our photo my finger is pressing up on the lever that stops the flow of water into the toilet tank. Electric pump operated toilets make use of a pump to operate the toilet's flushing mechanism - that is, to clean the bowl.
The toilet tank float assembly activates the toilet fill valve as water level in the toilet tank or cistern drops during and at the end of a toilet flush.
Illustrated above at concentric float toilet fill valves, the float for that device is a cylinder that moves down or up on a vertical shaft as tank (cistern) water level in the cistern falls or rises, to open or close the fill valve itself. A ball cock toilet fill valve is opened by movement of a float arm rod attached to a round float ball (illustrated at left) that drops as water level in the cistern falls during a flush, and the ball cock valve is closed as the float rises, lifting the rod to which it is attached as the water level in the toilet tank rises to the fill line. In our photo (above left) a white plastic ball cock fill valve is shown in lieu of the older traditional brass and bronze ball cock valve illustrated earlier on this page.
The toilet flush valve sends water out of the toilet tank or cistern (conventional flush valves) or directly from the building water supply without a toilet tank or cistern (flushometer valves) into the toilet bowl below to flush waste into the building drain system. Flapper type toilet flush valve: is a toilet flush valve that closes the opening at the bottom of the toilet tank using a semi-round flapper (usually rubber) rather than the rounded tank ball shown in the sketch. Like the toilet tank ball type flush valve (illustrated in the sketch below), the flapper valve is pulled up to open the toilet reservoir tank drain opening to send flush water down into the toilet. Tank ball type flush valve: the control that sends water from the toilet tank (or building water supply) into the toilet bowl to flush away waste. In a traditional side float flush valve assembly (sketch at left) the toilet is flushed by pressing on a handle outside the toilet tank that lifts a trip lever that pulls a chain or rod that lifts a tank ball or a tank flapper that otherwise seals the bottom of the toilet tank. Tankless flush-o-meter valve toilets, in widespread use in North America since the 1920's, and unlike tank reservoir toilets, do not include a reservoir tank of water.
The flushometer valve is particularly suitable to public restrooms since there is no delay between toilet uses waiting for a reservoir tank to refill. See FLUSHOMETER VALVES for TOILETS URINALS for details about these valves and how they are adjusted or repaired. Also see Toilet Types, Flush Methods for a discussion of variations in toilet flush mechanisms & methods. Overflow tube, toilet: the overflow tube (item #8 in our sketch at left), is found on virtually all modern toilet flush control valve assemblies. During toilet tank re-fill, if the tank over-fills, the overflow tube (blue #7 in sketch at left) will excess water from the toilet reservoir tank down the overflow tube (#8) into the toilet bowl. Some toilet models use a separate cistern overflow drain that conducts water to a sewer line directly rather than routing it through the toilet bowl. A second feature of most toilet fill valve assemblies and overflow tubes is that some water will be diverted from the fill valve into the overflow tube during the toilet tank fill-cycle - see the small curved blue tube marked #7 in our sketch above).
Pressure-assist flush toilet: the toilet is flushed by water that is given a velocity boost by a pressure system using a pump,compressed, air, or other means. Sewage Ejector Pumps combine an in-floor reservoir to receive waste from toilets (and often gray water as well), and a sewage grinder pump to lift wastewater to a building drain line that is higher than the plumbing fixtures served by the pump. Siphon flush valve controls on toilets eliminate the problem of running toilets caused by leakage at the tank ball or flapper valve. As you can see from our photo of an early toilet advertisement by Thomas Crapper & Cos. Modern flush toilets that use a water storage have a tank bolted to the toilet bowl or incorporate a tank and bowl in a one-piece-toilet design. The toilet flange a brass, plastic, or steel flange forming flat ring around and usually attached to the waste pipe in the floor or wall.
The toilet flange includes openings to permit the flange to be secured to the floor or wall as well as slots to accept the heads of toilet-mounting bolts that secure the toilet to the flange. A toilet flange is shown in our photo at left (white plastic, below the yellow wax ring) and another toilet flange indicated by the red arrow in this photo.
Toilet mounting bolts secure the toilet to the toilet flange and in four-bolt toilets two more lag-bolts may secure the toilet to the floor itself. Toilet rough-in dimensions locate the toilet waste pipe and flange assembly in the building rough and finished floor so that the toilet will be spaced a proper distance from the wall. The toilet rough-in dimension illustration (left) shows the standard 12" distance to the waste line center from the finished wall and are illustrated by this adaptation from a Titan toilet package observed in Menards in Duluth MN.

Side-handle flush toilet: the most common toilet flush control uses a lever mounted on the toilet tank side or front near one corner to operate the flush valve.
Top-flush toilet or top-controls toilet: the flush operating control consists of one or more buttons or rods that project through the top of the toilet tank. Toilet supply shut-off valve: (blue arrow in our photo at left) a water shut-off valve installed below or close to water-operated toilets. An up-flush toilet is located below the building's sewer line and uses water pressure to move waste vertically to a drain line that is higher than the toilet itself. Water level in the toilet tank: most toilet tanks include a mark on the tank interior indicating the proper fill level for water in the reservoir tank. Water fill or supply valves for toilets toilets: see Ball Cock Valve or toilet fill valve above. Also see Toilet Types, Design Choices where we describe the different toilet flush designs: gravity, power-assisted, and vacuum assisted flushing toilets.
The to8let wax ring is a large wax seal placed between the bottom of the toilet and the upper surface of the flange or top edge of the waste drain pipe to which the toilet is connected. Chamber pots (dating from Roman times and Garderobes (5th to 15th century toilets that simply dumped waste to the outdoors) and privies and outhouses, toilet designs that date to the 1500s or earlier are omitted from this review of modern toilets. Tank reservoir toilets like the toilet in the sketch at left and in our photo just below, have been in wide use in North America since the 1940's. Bidet toilets deliver a warm water washing oscillating stream from beneath the seat (shown) that is adjustable in temperature and water spray volume. Contemporary gravity-flush toilets use a tank attached to the toilet bowl itself, relying on improved flush valve controls to provide the water flow rate into the bowl to empty it and clean the bowl sides. At ALTERNATIVE & WATERLESS TOILETS we discuss low-water, no-water, chemical, composting, and incinerating toilets, listing models, sources, and characteristics of each model. A back-flush toilet that does use a reservoir tank is also produced for special situations such as a location that prohibits installing a drain line in the floor below the toilet. Our second back-flush toilet photo (below right) shows a reservoir-tank back-flush toilet located in a basement in the Hudson Valley of New York.
At above left is a photo of a modern tankless, back-flush, flush valve operated toilet installed in Molde, Norway. The flush control for this tankless back-flush toilet is that round button just above the toilet tissue holder. At above right is a rear-flush toilet manufactured by Crane and installed in the Mansfield Hotel in New York City. A variation on the flush valve toilet is the up-flush toilet used in bathrooms whose toilet was located below the building's sewer line exit to the sewer or septic system.
An up-flush toilet relies on building water pressure to force the waste from the toilet up to a higher sewer line. Because an up-flush toilet that relies on building water pressure to work forms a cross connection, these toilets are not permitted by plumbing codes in most jurisdictions.
In our photo of an up-flush toilet you can see the flush control lever mounted on the wall at the upper right. Like the modern flush-valve toilet shown above, the up-flush toilet is also a back flush or rear-flush model. The flush valve toilet shown above does not form a cross-connection, drains into a gravity-sewer line rather than an elevated sewer line, and it is permitted by current plumbing codes. Bathroom fixtures including toilets located in buildings whose sewer line exits high on the basement wall need a means to raise the graywater (sinks, tubs, showers, laundry) as well as blackwater or sewage from a toilet up to a height sufficient to drain into the sewer line and leave the building.
The sewage ejector pump combines a small reservoir tank, a sewage grinder pump, and piping to grind and then pump sewage and wastewater from (usually) below floor level (such as in a basement) up to an elevated sewer line that then leaves the building. In a plumbing system using a sewage ejector pump, typically all of the plumbing fixtures (sink, tub, shower, laundry sink, clothes washer) drain under the building floor by gravity into the sewage ejector pump reservoir. When the wastewater level in the ejector pump reservoir reaches a sufficient level, a float turns on the pump, forcing the wastewater past a check valve, upwards to the building sewer piping. Depending on the arrangement of building piping, we sometimes find sewage ejector pumps that are located with the top of the unit a bit above floor level - possibly reducing the available storage volume between pump operation cycles. Watch out: in the event of an electrical power failure, sewage grinders or sewage ejector pumps won't be working unless you have a backup electrical power source. Graywater ejector pumps: Also, don't confuse a sewage ejector pump with a graywater pump or lift pump that is sometimes found installed to move graywater from a basement laundry up to the building sewer drain. In separate article now at LOW COST TOILETS we illustrate and explain the operation and connections for a 1981 McSkimming plastic toilet that remains perfectly functional in a home in Christchurch, New Zealand.
This toilet uses a ceramic bowl (the toilet lower portion or body) operated by a colour-matched cistern made of plastic. Our toilet photographs below illustrate a tankless, electric-flush toilet produced by Kohler.
Pressure-assisted flush toilets may use water pressure from the water mains to improve the flush cleansing of the bowl, or they may use a pump or an air bladder system that is in turn operated by water pressure. Newer versions of the electric flush toilet made by Kohler include a reservoir tank and an electric pump that moves water from the reservoir through the bowl and toilet trap. The Kohler hatbox toilet installation we examined had been in place for some time; this product is still available at a typical retail price of $2,725. Our photo at above left of the black toilet shows a low-profile toilet design that has been popular in some communities since the 1970's.
Watch out: we have found that some installations of low-profile toilets are also low-energy flushing fixtures that do not perform satisfactorily. Check that the toilet tank is filling to the proper level (the water line marked in the tank interior). Or as our mom did in Boca Raton, replace the toilet if you cannot make it function properly. For a low-profile toilet design that does not suffer from a weak flush, see the Electric Flush Toilets discussed below.
Details about water conserving or water saving toilets begin at TOP FLUSH TOILETS and at DUAL FLUSH TOILETS. Separately at LOW WATER USAGE TOILETS we discuss toilet that use a reduced water quantity, and at FLUSHMATE TOILETS we discuss power-assisted flush toilets that also conserve water. Water saving models (typically a pair of buttons giving different flush volumes) illustrated below. Water saving toilets use several strategies to reduce the volume of water used in flushing away waste: varying flush volume, pressure or power assisgted flush using a small flush water volume, and reduced flush water volume using a reservoir barrier in th cistern or toilet tank. At LOW WATER USAGE TOILETS we give the various water volumes used by each toilet type and design. The FLUSHMATEA® system traps air and as it fills with water, it uses the water supply line pressure to compress the trapped air inside. The compressed air is what forces the water into the bowl, so instead of the a€?pullinga€? or siphon action of a gravity unit, the pressure-assist unit a€?pushesa€? waste out.
At above left is a modern squat toilet in Japan; below is a more typical waterless squat toilet in use in Mexico and widely used in India and other countries throughout Asia.
When western style flush toilest are installed in areas where people are mostly familiar with squat toilets we find instructive signs such as the one shown below. The toilet instruction sign at above left asks users to sit rather than stan when urinating into the toilet. In a 1950's visit to Rome the author, answering nature's urgent call atop the Victor Emmanuel monument, was startled to find a cleaning person's mop suddenly appearing around his feet during use of that toilet.
A flushing mechanism for a squat may be absent, may use a nearby bucket and brush, or in modern squat toilets, a wall mounted cistern and flush valve as shown in our photo (Wikipedia [5]).
With more than 1000 brands of toilets manufactured and distributed around the world, this list would be endless. Now at TOILET MANUFACTURERS & SOURCES we list common or popular toilet manufacturers or brands, models, and we give contact information for the various toilet manufacturers.
Continue reading at TOILET REPAIR GUIDE or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia.
The Alliance for Water Efficiency is a stakeholder-based 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated to the efficient and sustainable use of water.A  Located in Chicago, the Alliance serves as a North American advocate for water efficient products and programs, and provides information and assistance on water conservation efforts. Glacier Bay brand toilets, [Home Depot brand] porcelain, made in china, top flush control low-water ADA-height unit shown in this article. Quoting from Amazon's description: For the homebuilder, one mistake in estimating or installing wells and septic systems can cost thousands of dollars. Quoting an Amazon reviewer's comment, with which we agree--DF:This book is informative as far as it goes and might be most useful for someone with an older system. When thinking about verandah farming, a number of pointers need to be considered important. These fowl pen designs have a plus point that even consuming less space, they provide a spacious area for the chicken. The coops with a mesh wire window and a door enables proper light provision and other merits.
Having done with all the possible creative designs, we guide the dealers to get proper detailed information before designing the backyard chicken coop.
I started my work at the beginning of 2007 by engaging myself with detail reading and exchanging information with others. Where can I get more information on the wind regulated chicken coops for a large scale, are their existing models like this? July 2011 Fine Homebuilding's article about roof venting included a method for insulating cathedral ceilinged roofs with 6" of rigid foam topped with plywood sheathing and conventional shingles.
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Polyiso would be a better choice than XPS due to its higher R-value and much lower global warming potential. I have tried to summarize my construction posts here to make it easier for someone to get an overview of what was done.  I consider this a living document and will try to make additions and changes as my cabin progresses. One of the more well known engineers in this field is George Runkle of Runkle Consulting.  He was very helpful with my small project, and I recommend him without reservation. If you need a cheap and easy do-it-yourself foundation, piers are probably the best choice.  They also have much less impact on the site if that is important to you.
The picture below shows one of the box beams welded to the roof between two of the shipping containers. A reminder before you start removing metal, please read sections two and seven above about consulting with an engineer and reinforcing your containers.  Removing structural components of a shipping container can quickly create a dangerous structure to be in and around. This is an optional step, especially if you replaced the floors in your containers.  If you want to provide an additional physical barrier to the treatment chemicals, or you need to get above some structural remnants of the containers, then add a subfloor.
A house with a pyramid roof shape or complex roof shapes makes outlet venting at a ridge difficult.
In hot climates the roof temperature will be much higher on an un-vented roof, resulting in shorter shingle life.
In buildings where there is no roof venting anyway, and where ventilation is difficult or impossible to achieve, an un-vented, well insulated "hot roof" can provide a high-R-value ceiling and may be the second-best alternative to preventing ice dam related leaks in cold climates.
With 2x6 rafters this will give about an R-19 roof, higher if you use thicker solid foam insulation. Before replacing roof decking, consider re- decking the roof with insulated structural panels that include eaves to ridge ventilation in their design.
Adding ventilation under a solid-foam insulated pitched roof in order to dry and cool the building interior would, in turn, lose the benefit of the roof top insulation. More moisture enters building cavities through these cuts in the ceiling (or wall) drywall than permeates through the drywall itself.
In a cold climate and depending on the level of roof insulation, water entering the roof can freeze, accumulate as ice, and thus return to the interior as leaks and drips that continue for quite a while in thawing conditions. If heat is off and the house interior is at freezing temperature (not my first choice for building preservation), the water source in the ceiling is more likely to be an exterior leak.
The percentage of moisture that moves directly through solid drywall into a building cavity has been shown to be quite small.
In any event I would be cautious about leaving windows open in a home with heat off because of security risks, animal entry risks, blown snow and rain damage risks etc. The shingles need replacing so I will be tackling this from the outside by removing the roof sheathing.
Otherwise the foam layer atop the rafters and under the roof sheathing will have its R-value wasted since ventilating air would be moving between the underside of the foam and the upper side of insulation between the rafters. Should I look at going with only 2" of spray foam to provide the vapour barrier, add batting and then the rigid board insulation to cover the joists before sheeting?
If the office ceiling space above the drop ceiling is being used as a return air plenum you don't want to subvert the design by adding addtional vent openings. Finally: consider (but defer) using an insulated chimney from the ceiling up through the roof. It would be a shame to simply blow insulation into a cavity only to find later that you have to remove the whole shebang to get rid of moldy drywall that nobody attended. It was a common construction method that employed masonry as infill between the vertical uprights of wood framing." -- quoting the web article review. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively.
Here we explain how to diagnose and repair problems with toilets, leaks, flushes, odors, noises, running and wasted water.

In comparison, a standard bottom-flush toilet is connected to a waste pipe in the floor below the unit.
Most fill valve designs also send some water through the overflow tube and into the toilet bowl during cistern re-fill. A bottom-admitting ball-cock or other toilet fill valve is considered unsanitary by modern plumbing codes because in the event that the building loses water pressure, potentially unsanitary water can flow backwards from the toilet reservoir tank into the building water supply piping. Watch out when buying a replacement toilet seat, to be sure you select the proper seat profile (round or elongated) to fit your toilet, or you'll be making an extra trip back to the store.
You can see that an adjustable rod on the float (below the valve) will push up this stop lever on its own as the water level in the tank rises.
Traditionally an electric pump toilet has no reservoir tank - the flush water is delivered to the unit with sufficient force and volume by the electric pump. The two most common toilet flush valves used on toilets that make use of a tank or cistern are the flapper type toilet flush valve (illustrated just below) and the tank ball type toilet flush valve (illustrated further below). This tube prevents a malfunctioning toilet tank refill assembly from flooding the building. This is a critical function since otherwise if the toilet fill-valve malfunctions water entering the toilet tank will fill the tank to overflowing and leak into the building. Typically pressure-assist toilet designs are found on water-saving low-flush-volume toilets. Ejector pumps are often found in basement bathrooms in buildings whose sewer line exit above the height of the basement floor.
On antique flush toilets (see the article below) the cistern was mounted several feet above the toilet and secured to the building wall. A disabled person or anyone sitting down onto an insecure toilet can tip the unit over leading to serious injury. Add-on toilet rim height lifters are available that convert a standard toilet to ADA standards height. There may be some up-flush toilets with a built in electric pump but we have not found such; instead see Sewage Ejector Pumps above. Synonyms: low water toilet, low water consumption toilet, low-flush toilet, high-efficiency toilet. At below left we illustrate a back-flush toilet installed in a Two Harbors Minnesota home built in the 1960's.
This toilet is also a back-flush model, sending waste out of the bowl towards the rear of the toilet and into a waste line in the building wall rather than in the floor. Other water operated tankless toilets that are not back-flush models are discussed at Flushometer Toilets & Urinals. Some modern brands of rear-flush toilets include American Standard, Burdett, Crane, Gerber, Kohler, Sani-Flow, Toto. The toilet connected to this pump is not shown, but was located mounted on the floor nearby. So don't count on continued use of plumbing fixtures connected to one of these devices when there is no electricity.
As you can see (below-left) the toilet may be a little unfamiliar to new visitors at the New Hampshire inn where this unit was installed.
Searching for a flush lever or button finally leads to a round silver button located on the right side (if the user is seated) of the unit (photo, below right). This design offers a toilet that provides a low profile but nonetheless a very powerful flush in a compact design.
Indeed in Korea in the 1960's we discussed slip and fall hazards encountered by people who by habit or out of concern for sanitation squatted on the raised seat of western style toilets. In most basic form (found by the author at the top of the Victor Emmanuel monument public restroom in Rome) the squat toilet includes a pan with islands for the user's feet that allow the user to straddle a hole in the pan center.
Depending on the era and locale of use, a squat toilet may empty into a modern plumbing and sewer system, or simply into a cesspool or in the 5th century and later, into a pipe that simply discharged waste to outside the building.
This might include wood or cement or the bricks as the building material according to the area and the weather conditions. If you live in a hot area and lack the space for gardening and need backyard farming as well, therefore going for this option is the best solution. Due to its angles, geometry and other such features, the coops are spacious as compared to other designs covering the same land space. The upper story is wooden which helps chicken with respiratory problems and the chicken might go and have some rest due to the dark and compact portion. The area you live in, the temperature range, the house space and the price range are the determining factors for the selection of the best suitable coop design.
This is basically composed in a tunnel shape with wind regulators for ventilation and solar panels for electricity and temperature maintenance. Since then things and times have changed, but one thing remains the same and that is my passion for helping and educating people, building a successful blog and delivering quality content to the readers. We specialised in manufacturing different kinds of high quality wooden pet house which include Chicken Coops, Rabbit Hutches, Dog Kennels&Bird Cages.
This gives the best air path, eaves to ridge, but costs more for the labor to nail furring and cut insulation into pieces to fit between rafters.A  a€“ works well, costs more. Worse, once the insulation has become wet the cavity has lost insulation value so the problem is likely to be worse, especially if the source is condensation from inside. I do like eaving heat on to keep the home above freezing, say at 40 or 45F which can avoid building damage that comes from extreme temperature swings inside - conditions that are not anticipated by most modern construction; But as I suggest, let's wait on the cure until we understand the disease. From your articles you still recommend a vented design to keep the roof cool in the summer and prevent premature wear on the shingles. So, I have to use spray foam or rigid board(sealed around the edges) between the rafters vs the batting because of no vapour barrier correct?
Readers should see INSULATION R-VALUES & PROPERTIES our own table of insulation properties that includes links to articles describing each insulation material in more detail. The Manufactured Home Owners Association of America is a National Organization dedicated to the protection of the rights of all people living in Manufactured Housing in the United States. Synonyms for toilet fill valves include: ball cock valve, concentric float valve, toilet water supply valve, toilet tank fill valve. But some modern water saving toilets may employ an electric pump that adds water or air under pressure to improve the bowl cleaning action in the toilet while still using only a small volume of water. Also see the toilet odor or toilet leak troubleshooting tips at Leaky Toilet Seals - Odors.
The plumber mounted a back-flush toilet on a short concrete pedestal, raising it just enough to flush into the nearby sewer line found in the wall behind the toilet. A drain from the basement toilet was routed below the floor slab over to the black plastic holding tank shown in our photo. S001-1991, International Institute of Carpet and Upholstery Certification, Vancouver, WA, 1991. The effect of waste water reuse in irrigation on the contamination level of food crops by Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs. Survival and growth of Vibrio cholerae O1, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in alfalfa sprouts. Hazards of healthy living: Bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Evidence of association of salmonellae with tomato plants grown hydroponically in inoculated nutrient solution. Chicken coops are basically referred as the place where the chicken live and the egg laying, breeding and egg hatching processes take place. Smart, portable, sophisticated and compact- this is one of the best solutions for coop designing complications.
But more than that, the chicken house can move and adjust its position according to the requirements on its own. The roof top can be used for gardening and reduces the temperature of the coop inside, making it comfortable hen house. The chicken koop contains a glass roof and wooden structure hence providing both the light and ventilation system to the baby chicks.
This pull out tray helps maintaining proper cleanliness of the coop to ensure the disease protection. Another feature is the one entry and one exit area hence making the coop cleaner and well maintained.
The lower portion however is made of mesh wire which enables the hens watch around and feeling the area spacious. The particular interests that brought me in the world of blogging are gardening, wildlife, nature, farming and livestock.
The aluminum cover should tuck up behind the drip edge down leg and either extend below the fascia board or wrap around it.
I may have to re-roof - Has modern technology suggested a new method to vent a Big Beam home?
From talking to 4 insulation contractors, one main problem is the tight space, only 4 inches, between the slanted ceilings in the 2nd floor closets that flank our staircase and the roof sheathing. 71-78, Association for Preservation Technology International (APT), available online at JSTOR.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Also see Up-Flush toilets, Rear-flush toilets, Toilets using a Sewage Ejector Pump, and Electric or pump operated toilets in these definitions. As illustrated at below left, this toilet uses an in-wall tank or cistern to produce flush water. The white valve in the photo center, above the sewage pump's tank top, is a check valve to prevent wastewater from flowing backwards into the pump from above. Dodge Woodson packs this reader-friendly guide with guidance and information, including details on new techniques and materials that can economize and expedite jobs and advice on how to avoid mistakes in both estimating and construction.
These places should be made comfortable and the optimum temperature needs to be maintained in the coops because the comfortable and well planned designs might help get best out of the chicken. This detection is due to the solar panel system hence enabling the chicken to live in a comfortable environment. This enables the chicken to provide them with the option of suiting themselves and acting according to their will. On a 6' span, do whatever you want to, unless you are in a place that has 20' of snow a year. I have ridge vent and last year added more sofit vents so that I have a 12 inch vent every third rafter. 3 of the 4 contractors really don't want to deal with my problem, said they would get back to me, and never did. A In 1993, the Council became part of the School of Architecture, and since then has been known as the School of Architecture-Building Research Council.
Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Contact information for Toto at TOILET MANUFACTURERS & SOURCES and also at CONTEMPORARY TOILET DESIGNS. Outstanding technical reference especially on alternative septic system design alternatives. In context of such pointers, we are here to tell our web users; the most creative free backyard chicken coop designs for the chicken. Will spraying the sides of the rafter and adding some rigid board insulation between the rafter and sheeting work? Someone told us we needed to insulate the system and replace some of the tiles with plastic egg grates. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material. Thomann (eds.), Proceedings of strategies for improved chemical and biological waste management for hospitals and clinical laboratories. Written for designers and engineers, this book is not at all easy going for homeowners but is a text I recommend for professionals--DF. Considering two options; (i) foaming all of the HVAC ducts , better sealing all of the can lights and vents, then putting 4 inches of additional fiberglass (blown in) or extending the vent chutes to the ridge - in each rafter and spraying foam to the underside of the deck-removing the R-48 from the ceiling rafters. His recommendation: blow in cellulose from the top down into this 4 inch wide space and then go into the closets and blow cellulose through the interior walls between each stud making a top and bottom hole. The Council's researchers answered many critical questions that would affect the quality of the nation's housing stock.How could homes be designed and built more efficiently? Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order.
I just looked up R values and 4 inches of cellulose is only about 10; probably not good enough to prevent all future ice dams.
I called a general contractor and he said that I don't want to give up that flow of cold air from sofit vents to ridge vents by filling that space with insulation. Bottom line: if i go with this insulation contractor I will get some insulation but will eliminate the winter cold air ventilation that is also nice to have under the roof sheathing.
He said that he found gaps around the chimney, around lights and around ceiling fans) Your comments are appreciated, thank you.

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