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Liquid metal from the blast furnace is converted to steel by the LD process, the liquid steel is then taken to a ladle furnace for secondary refining, addition of Ferro-alloys for accurate control of the chemistry, to drive out the non-metallic inclusions and control of temperature for sound casting into billets of size 150x150 mm sq. In the wire rod mill, coils of TMT (size 8mm to 16mm) and wire rods (size 5.5mm to 16mm) are produced. Topics Covered Background Refractory Trends in the Steel Industry Secondary Steel Making Ladle Vacuum Degassing Benefits of Stainless Steel Fibre Addition to Snorkel Leg Refractories Benefits of Stainless Steel Fibre Addition to Sprayed Re-Lining to Snorkel Leg Refractories Benefits of Stainless Steel Fibre Addition to Soffit Protective Lining Refractories Ladle Furnace Roof Benefits of Stainless Steel Fibre Addition to Delta Section Refractories Benefits of Stainless Steel Fibre Addition to Ladle Roof Lining Refractories Benefits of Stainless Steel Fibre Addition to Ladle Up Refractories Ladle Bottom Benefits of Stainless Steel Fibre Addition to Impact Pad Refractories Benefits of Stainless Steel Fibre Addition to Nozzle and Purge Plug Refractories Benefits of Stainless Steel Fibre Addition to Soffit Protective Lining Refractories Ladle Benefits of Stainless Steel Fibre Addition to Security Lining Refractories Benefits of Stainless Steel Fibre Addition to Ladle Transfer Car Refractories Background The steel industry has benefited from the economic benefits of steel fibre reinforced refractories for over two decades. During steel production process, there is a possibility of encountering different morphology and chemistry in a given sample and these aspects may affect the quality of product.
To address this issue, RJ Lee Group teamed up with several industry partners, which included both small and large organizations. RJ Lee Group has specifically designed the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT) to meet these needs. With the combination of inclusion analysis results and process data, one can understand the role of inclusions in the process and detect the probable cause of the issue.
The ASCAT technology is provided to steel companies to evaluate and enhance the quality of products which in turn results in better productivity and subsequent cost savings.
Electromagnetic starters are being used in the continuous casting machine for getting sound casting. This mill has fourteen stands of alternate horizontal and vertical housing stands, followed by four numbers, pre finishing mill and then eight numbers no twist block and ultimately four numbers reducing sizing mill, all supplied by Morgan, USA. At both integrated and Electric Arc Furnace steel plants there are many refractory applications which benefit form the addition of fibres reinforcement.
For a trained analyst, conventional assessment of inclusions in a processed material could almost take a week using microscope methods. These organizations had to make smart and informed decisions on how to implement inclusion control to create high-quality steels, which could give them a competitive edge in the market. Inclusions at varied stages in the process do not remain the same, and hence it becomes necessary to identify their chemistry and morphology in order to understand whether the problem lies with the process or material.
An automated digital scan generator combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that uses intelligent software to imitate specialized knowledge, was developed to identify an inclusion and simultaneously determine the morphological and chemical properties, and then divide them into different morphology and chemistry classes. Leveraging this knowledge, smart decisions can be made on how to manage inclusion formation or how to assess the impact of process modifications on content or inclusion production.


For instance, one particular steel company utilizing ASCAT system had significantly improved its production, which positively impacted its process. In the coke ovens, stamp charging technology has been adopted to increase the coke strength.
In the rolling mill billets are heated in a computer controlled furnace, having regenerative burners for controlled heating at cheaper cost. Nevertheless, the examination of single or multiple samples may not be sufficient to analyze the impact of inclusions on the process or to assess the remedial action required.
With the help of this technology, as much as 1000 inclusions can be examined within 45 minutes. Yet another steel firm bought an ASCAT system so that its inclusion analysis can be performed at its research center.
The soaked billets are then rolled in bar mill, equipped with alternate horizontal and vertical housing-less stands, for twist free operation and accurate size control.
This total arrangement ensures excellent dimensional tolerance and surface quality free from scratches and other rolling defects. In spite of the requirement to understand inclusion control, fast and precise analysis technique that could provide a comprehensive inclusion data or help to acquire the number of required samples to enhance product quality and productivity does not exist.
Department of Energy (DOE) grant, resulted in the development of detailed inclusion analysis on a quick turnaround time.
Steel companies will now be able to get detailed information on multiple samples in comparatively less amount of time; this will allow them to monitor each stage of their process instead of just one. ASCAT technology offers fast, precise and comprehensive inclusion data that enhances both product quality and productivity in the steel industry. Clients choose RJLG because of our reputation as an innovative solutions firm that is reliable, ethical, and committed to quality. The finished bar then enters the Programmable logic controlled cooling (Quenching) operation, where the bar is subjected to heat treatment in three successive stages. The American Institute of Steel Technology (AIST) has presented an award for this innovation, which was the topic of contributions to peer-reviewed literature. The first stage of quenching begins when the hot rolled bar leaves the final mill stand and is rapidly quenched by special water spray system.


This converts the surface layer of the bar to a hardened structure called ‘Martensite’ while the core remains austenitic.
The second stage of self-tempering begins when the bar leaves the quenching box with a temperature gradient through its cross section, the temperature of the core being higher than that of the surface.
This allows heat to flow from core to the surface, resulting in tempering of the surface, resulting in giving a structure called ‘tempered Martensite’ which is strong and tough. The third stage of ‘atmospheric cooling’ takes place on the cooling bed, where the austenitic core adjacent to martensitic ring is transformed to a tough banitic structure ring and the core of the bar to ductile pearlite. Thus the final structure consists of a combination of strong outer layer of tempered martensite followed by banite ring and a ductile core of pearlite. Areas in secondary steel making furnaces that can benefit from stainless steel fibre reinforcement. By adding fibres further cracking and spalling of the sprayed relining is inhibited and the vessel's campaign life improved still further. ME fibres minimise these costs, particularly in the thin refractory walls between electrodes, denying heat an escape path and keeping energy and production costs down. ME fibres hold the lining intact for longer, thereby improving thermal insulation and energy conservation. A fibre reinforced lip is more resistant to distortion so even if cracked, heat retention and energy costs are optimised. Even when cracked the refractory is held tight, maintaining a more consistent shape thereby improving durability and service life and reducing production costs. A fibre reinforced block can last as long as the bottom lining, significantly cutting ladle downtime and yielding important savings in energy and maintenance. Fibres reduce both these risks, ensuring a longer ladle compaign, reduced downtime and lower maintenance costs. A fibre-reinforced lining resists thermal and mechanical shock, avoiding the need for frequent costly repairs.



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