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Northern Illinois UniversityCollege of Engineering and Engineering TechnologyBridging Theory With Practice. A certificate in Lean Six Sigma prepares you to eliminate waste or inefficiency in your workplace. If you are a professional working in a hospital, a manufacturing facility, or any service industry, a certificate in Lean Six Sigma helps you learn the tools necessary to undertake continuous improvement projects aimed at reducing and eliminating waste, reducing project variations, improving customer satisfaction, and increasing your organization's bottom line. Participants are required to complete a small project and present the project findings to a panel of judges in order to obtain a green belt. Our professors have doctoral degrees, Master Black Belts and continue to work in the industry. Six Sigma diagram depicting different quality management tools with a downtown business skyscraper background. Lean production was originated in the Toyota Production System (TPS).The purpose of lean production is to realize the objective of ?°cutting costs, eliminating wastes and deriving maximum output from minimum input?±. The primary purpose of lean production is to realize extremely high productivity, excellent production quality and great production flexibility in an enterprise.
Value stream mapping is one of the systematic improvement tools widely used by European and American firms. This course enables the participants to understand how to apply the systematic tools of TPM and learn how to do team work and share experiences and improvement results so that they can set up a suitable TPM system for your enterprise by leveraging role model effects. As one of the lean production tools, Poka Yoke helps staff identify defect-reduction opportunities. The JIT production concept mentioned in this course is exactly what we need at the present time. This course enables us to systematically understand the concepts and contents of TPM, learn the technical terms of TPM and the related calculation formulas and gain valuable insight into the actual implementation and realization of TPM. The Big Idea a€“ Every process has a constraint (bottleneck) and focusing improvement efforts on that constraint is the fastest and most effective path to improved profitability. The Theory of Constraints is a methodology for identifying the most important limiting factor (i.e. One of the appealing characteristics of the Theory of Constraints is that it inherently prioritizes improvement activities. The core concept of the Theory of Constraints is that every process has a single constraint and that total process throughput can only be improved when the constraint is improved. Thus, TOC seeks to provide precise and sustained focus on improving the current constraint until it no longer limits throughput, at which point the focus moves to the next constraint. The Theory of Constraints provides a specific methodology for identifying and eliminating constraints, referred to as the Five Focusing Steps. The Theory of Constraints uses a process known as the Five Focusing Steps to identify and eliminate constraints (i.e.
Identify the current constraint (the single part of the process that limits the rate at which the goal is achieved).
Review all other activities in the process to ensure that they are aligned with and truly support the needs of the constraint. The Theory of Constraints includes a sophisticated problem solving methodology called the Thinking Processes. Diagram that shows the future state, which reflects the results of injecting changes into the system that are designed to eliminate UDEs. Throughput Accounting is an alternative accounting methodology that attempts to eliminate harmful distortions introduced from traditional accounting practices a€“ distortions that promote behaviors contrary to the goal of increasing profit in the long term. In traditional accounting, inventory is an asset (in theory, it can be converted to cash by selling it).
These and other conflicts result in the Theory of Constraints emphasizing Throughput Accounting, which uses as its core measures: Throughput, Investment, and Operating Expense. The rate at which customer sales are generated less truly variable costs (typically raw materials, sales commissions, and freight).
Money that is tied up in physical things: product inventory, machinery and equipment, real estate, etc. In addition, Throughput Accounting has four key derived measures: Net Profit, Return on Investment, Productivity, and Investment Turns. Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR) is a method of synchronizing production to the constraint while minimizing inventory and work-in-process. The a€?Ropea€? is a signal generated by the constraint indicating that some amount of inventory has been consumed.
Constraints are anything that prevents the organization from making progress towards its goal. Typically equipment, but can also be other tangible items, such as material shortages, lack of people, or lack of space. Occurs when production capacity exceeds sales (the external marketplace is constraining throughput).
In manufacturing plants where a mix of products is produced, it is possible for each product to take a unique manufacturing path and the constraint may a€?movea€? depending on the path taken.
Since policy constraints often stem from long-established and widely accepted policies, they can be particularly difficult to identify and even harder to overcome. The Thinking Processes are designed to effectively work through these questions and resolve conflicts that may arise from changing existing policies. An excellent way to deepen your understanding of the Theory of Constraints is to walk through a simple implementation example. Cycle TimeReview equipment performance data to determine which equipment has the longest average cycle time.
The deliverable for this step is the identification of the single piece of equipment that is constraining process throughput.
In this step, the objective is to make the most of what you have a€“ maximize throughput of the constraint using currently available resources. BufferCreate a suitably sized inventory buffer immediately in front of the constraint to ensure that it can keep operating even if an upstream process stops. QualityCheck quality immediately before the constraint so only known good parts are processed by the constraint. Continuous OperationEnsure that the constraint is continuously scheduled for operation (e.g.
The deliverable for this step is improved utilization of the constraint, which in turn will result in improved throughput for the process. UpstreamUpstream equipment has excess capacity that ensures that the constraint buffer is continuously filled (but not overfilled) so that the constraint is never a€?starveda€? by the upstream process.
DownstreamDownstream equipment has excess capacity that ensures that material from the constraint is continually processed so the constraint is never a€?blockeda€? by the downstream process. DBRImplement DBR (Drum-Buffer-Rope) on the constraint as a way of synchronizing the manufacturing process to the needs of the constraint.
PrioritySubordinate maintenance to the constraint by ensuring that the constraint is always the highest priority for maintenance calls.
SprintAdd sprint capacity to non-constraint equipment to ensure that interruptions to their operation (e.g. The deliverable for this step is fewer instances of constraint operation being stopped by upstream or downstream equipment, which in turn results in improved throughput for the process.
Top LossesTarget the largest sources of lost productive time, one-by-one, with cross-functional teams. ReviewsImplement ongoing plant floor reviews within shifts (a technique called Short Interval Control) to identify tactical actions that will improve constraint performance. Setup ReductionImplement a setup reduction program to reduce the amount of productive time lost to changeovers. The deliverable for this step is a significant enough performance improvement to break the constraint (i.e.
In this step, the objective is to ensure that the Five Focusing Steps are not implemented as a one-off improvement project. Constraint BrokenIf the constraint has been broken (the normal case), recognize that there is a new constraint. Constraint Not BrokenIf the constraint has not been broken, recognize that more work is required, and a fresh look needs to be taken, including verifying that the constraint has been correctly identified (restart at Step One).
The Theory of Constraints and Lean Manufacturing are both systematic methods for improving manufacturing effectiveness. The Theory of Constraints focuses on identifying and removing constraints that limit throughput.
Both methodologies have a strong customer focus and are capable of transforming companies to be faster, stronger, and more agile. From the perspective of the Theory of Constraints, it is more practical and less expensive to maintain a degree of excess capacity for non-constraints (i.e. One of the most powerful aspects of the Theory of Constraints is its laser-like focus on improving the constraint. In the real world, there is always a need to compromise, since all companies have finite resources. While Lean Manufacturing tools and techniques are primarily applied to the constraint, they can also be applied to equipment that is subordinated to the constraint (e.g. The remainder of this section describes how to apply a range of Lean Manufacturing tools and techniques to the Five Focusing Steps. The Five Focusing Steps of the Theory of Constraints can utilize established lean manufacturing tools as shown in the above diagram. Lean Manufacturing provides an excellent tool for visually mapping the flow of production (Value Stream Mapping) as well as a philosophy that promotes spending time on the plant floor (Gemba). Value Stream Mapping (VSM) visually maps the flow of production (current and future states) using a defined set of symbols and techniques.
Walking the plant floor, observing production, and interacting with employees can be a very effective way to gather information that helps identify the constraint.
Lean Manufacturing strongly supports the idea of making the most of what you have, which is also the underlying theme for exploiting the constraint.
Visual Factory is a strategy for conveying information through easily seen plant floor visuals.
Standardized Work captures best practices in work area documents that are consistently applied by all operators and that are kept up-to-date with the current best practices. Kaizen provides a framework for employees to work in small groups that suggest and implement incremental improvements for the manufacturing process.


Lean Manufacturing techniques for regulating flow (Kanban) and synchronizing automated lines (Line Control) can be applied towards subordinating and synchronizing to the constraint. Kanban is a method for regulating the flow of materials, which provides for automatic replenishment through signal cards that indicate when more materials are needed. Synchronizes material usage at the constraint with material usage in the upstream process by controlling when new materials are released into the process. Line Control is a sophisticated technique used with synchronous automated lines, such as FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) lines, which slaves non-constraint equipment to the constraint in such a way as to increase overall system throughput. Optimizes constraint and non-constraint running speeds to maximize throughput and reduce the frequency of minor stops. Lean Manufacturing techniques for proactively maintaining equipment (TPM), dramatically reducing changeover times (SMED), building defect detection and prevention into production processes (Poka-Yoke), and partially automating equipment (Jidoka) all have direct application when elevating the constraint. TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) offers a holistic approach to maintenance that focuses on proactive and preventative maintenance to maximize the operational time of the constraint (increasing up time, reducing cycle times, and eliminating defects).
SMED (Single-Minute Exchange of Dies) is a method for dramatically reducing changeover time at the constraint. Enables smoother startups, since a simplified and standardized changeover process improves quality and consistency. Poka-Yoke (also referred to as a€?mistake proofinga€?) designs defect detection and prevention into equipment with the goal of achieving zero defects.
Call us for answers to all your questions on how we can help you quickly improve your manufacturing productivity.
Volgens 'business visualisator' Tom Wujec vindt een visuele revolutie plaats waarbij organisaties meer-en-meer ontdekken dat het gezamenlijk visualiseren van problemen, helpt bij het oplossen ervan. There's a visual revolution that's taking place as more organizations are addressing their wicked problems by collaboratively drawing them out. So this simple act of visualizing and doing over and over again produces some really remarkable outcomes. Visual thinking can reveal a deeper structure within our mental models: how we think things work and how we feel things should work. Nodes represent parts of the whole, mental objects or containers that describe who, what where and when.
Volgens Willem Mastenbroek kan een management-informatiesysteem een belangrijke bijdrage leveren aan resultaatgericht werken, kostenbewustzijn, kwaliteit en klantgerichtheid. De administratieve automatisering draagt vaak bij tot een wildgroei van informatie, kengetallen en bestanden. Het werken met resultaatsindicatoren komt pas goed van de grond als eenheden een duidelijke verantwoordelijkheid dragen voor specifieke resultaatgebieden. Een Makigami is vooral goed bruikbaar in organisaties waar het 'product' of het proces niet direct zichtbaar is (lees: administratieve informatie-intensieve processen). Werkstroom: korte beschrijving van de activiteiten binnen het proces, uitgevoerd door de verschillende functies. Het maken van een Makigami kost - afhankelijk van de complexiteit van het proces en de kennis en ervaring van de deelnemers een tot drie dagen. Lean is een van oorsprong Japanse managementmethode die erop gericht is om in een organisatie verspilling te elimineren.
Bij Six Sigma-opleidingen leer je vaak vele mogelijke statistische technieken toe te passen, in elke fase van DMAIC. In het artikel Verbeterborden bekeken - gebruik van het verbeterbord, theorie en praktijk gaan Oskar Roemeling, Kees Ahaus en Jannes Slomp in op het nut en de noodzaak van het werken met verbeterborden bij het continu verbeteren op basis van een Lean-filosofie. Roemeling, Ahaus en Slomp onderkennen 12 doelen van een verbeterbord, waarbij ze onderscheid maken tussen expliciete doelen en impliciete doelen.
Het actief delen van problemen en oplossingen gebeurt in alle teams tijdens het wekelijks verbeterbordoverleg, hier worden de verbetermogelijkheden behandeld en worden problemen zichtbaar gemaakt.
Veel organisaties (en vooral zorgorganisaties) werken met verbeterborden die een centrale plek hebben in ruimten waar medewerkers overleggen, pauzeren of zelfs rusten. Veel verbeterborden kennen een vergelijkbare opbouw, een A0-formaat whiteboard met daarop vaak de volgende categorieen: omschrijving van het probleem, voorstel ter verbetering, verantwoordelijken en datum voor terugkoppeling.
Voor een aantal organisaties is het gebruik van staand werkoverleg, dagstarts en verbeterbordoverleg een rituele dans geworden, en wordt het meer als doel dan als middel gezien. Businesses nowadays are struggling to increase their profit margins as economy challenging competition is bigger than ever in evolving markets. Lean- six sigma is a business performance tool to increase the customer satisfaction by reducing waste and process variations, and can be applied to almost any business process to see substantial bottom-line results and also customer satisfaction. Please contact us to increase the customer satisfaction by improve your business operations. Depending upon your availability and the nature of the support that one receives from the organization in which the project is conducted, it could take any where from three to four months to complete the project. The lean production system takes ?°relentless pursuit of excellence?± as a business objective and pursues continuous improvement in product quality, cost and service. To realize this purpose, the production system must be built upon a solid basis and structure.
As a result, the participants will learn the history, general principles and key points of lean production and gain full mastery of lean production techniques. Visual factories are more conducive to onsite management improvement and productivity increase. The purpose of this course is to help your company or enterprise understand the principles and methods of 5S and why an enterprise needs to implement 5S.
It enables you to ?°see?± the material flow and information flow from order placement to product delivery.
The purpose of thiscourse is to introduce the 8-step fast changeover method and apply it at the workshop in order to guide the participants to systematically analyze and solve problems, set targets and realize rapid changeover within a short time and promote an improvement culture of taking immediate action. The purpose of this course is to introduce the characteristics and working principles of the JIT Kanban system and to enable the participants to grasp Kanban system setup and application techniques through real-world practice. This course enables us to understand the JIT production concept and the five principles of JIT production. As a result of this training, I have understood the relation of SEIRI and SEITON to factory image, product quality and profitability. It hypothesizes that every complex system, including manufacturing processes, consists of multiple linked activities, one of which acts as a constraint upon the entire system (i.e. Eliyahu Goldratt conceived the Theory of Constraints (TOC), and introduced it to a wide audience through his bestselling 1984 novel, a€?The Goala€?. A very important corollary to this is that spending time optimizing non-constraints will not provide significant benefits; only improvements to the constraint will further the goal (achieving more profit). The underlying power of TOC flows from its ability to generate a tremendously strong focus towards a single goal (profit) and to removing the principal impediment (the constraint) to achieving more of that goal. Therefore, once a constraint is resolved the next constraint should immediately be addressed. When creating the diagram, UDEs (symptoms of the problem) are identified and traced back to their root cause (the underlying problem). It is particularly useful for resolving conflicts between different approaches to solving a problem. This often drives undesirable behavior at companies a€“ manufacturing items that are not truly needed.
The Theory of Constraints, on the other hand, considers cutting expenses to be of much less importance than increasing throughput. In essence, TOC is saying to focus less on cutting expenses (Investment and Operating Expenses) and focus more on building sales (Throughput). The speed at which the constraint runs sets the a€?beata€? for the process and determines total throughput.
It ensures that brief interruptions and fluctuations in non-constraints do not affect the constraint. For example, the belief that a€?we must always keep our equipment running to lower the manufacturing cost per piecea€?. If there is an effective ongoing application of the Theory of Constraints, eventually the constraint is likely to move to the marketplace. The conventional wisdom is that most systems have one constraint, and occasionally a system may have two or three constraints. This environment can be modeled as multiple systems a€“ one for each unique manufacturing path. It may come as a surprise that the most common form of constraint (by far) is the policy constraint.
It is typically much easier for an external party to identify policy constraints, since an external party is less likely to take existing policies for granted. In this example, the Five Focusing Steps are used to identify and eliminate an equipment constraint (i.e. A simple but often effective technique is to literally walk through the manufacturing process looking for indications of the constraint. Special attention and handholding are often needed at the constraint to ensure that critical orders are completed on time. Adjust out time where the equipment is not operating due to external factors, such as being starved by an upstream process or blocked by a downstream process.
The line between exploiting the constraint (this step) and elevating the constraint (the fourth step) is not always clear. Even if they are less efficient, the improved system throughput is likely to improve overall profitability. This should be a last resort if other techniques are not sufficient to relieve the constraint. Overall Equipment Effectiveness metrics plus down time analytics) to identify the largest sources of lost productive time at the constraint.
While Lean Manufacturing can be focused, more typically it is implemented as a broad-spectrum tool. Not every aspect of every process is truly worth optimizing, and not all waste is truly worth eliminating. This promotes a deep and thorough understanding of real-world manufacturing issues a€“ by first-hand observation and by talking with plant floor employees.
It consists of five elements: Sort (eliminate that which is not needed), Set In Order (organize the remaining items), Shine (clean and inspect the area), Standardize (create standards for 5S), and Sustain (consistently apply the standards).
Andons are visual displays that indicate production status and enable operators to bring immediate attention to problems a€“ so they can be instantly addressed.


It combines the collective talents of a company to create an engine for continuous improvement. TPM and SMED can also be viewed as exploitation techniques (maximizing throughput using currently available resources); however, they are fairly complex and are likely to benefit from working with outside experts. As many steps as possible are converted to external (performed while the process is running) and remaining steps are streamlined (e.g. It recognizes that partial automation is significantly less expensive than full automation.
So nodes represent the tangible objects like the toaster and people, and links represent the connections between the nodes.
First, drawing helps us understand the situations as systems with nodes and their relationships. And I'm convinced that those who see their world as movable nodes and links really have an edge. What's really important to know is that it's the conversations that are the important aspects, not just the models themselves.
So the seemingly trivial design exercise of drawing toast helps us get clear, engaged and aligned.So next time you're confronted with an interesting challenge, remember what design has to teach us. Links represent connections between nodes and can illustrate relationships, flows of information or material.
Deze bijdrage bestaat uit het bieden van indicatoren die regelmatig de resultaten van de organisatorische eenheden zichtbaar maken in de vorm van kort-cyclische feedback. Het probleem dat dan ontstaat is het zodanig indikken van de beschikbare informatie tot gegevens die aan management en medewerkers daadwerkelijk houvast verschaffen. Bij het maken van een Makigami worden minder symbolen gebruik dan bij de toepassing van Value Stream Mapping. Six Sigma is een van oorsprong Amerikaanse en op statistiek gebaseerde methode om organisatieprocessen drastisch en met een duidelijke deadline te verbeteren.De basis van Six Sigma is het stappenplan DMAIC, wat staat voor ‘De?ne, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control’. Roemeling, Ahaus en Slomp analyseerden het gebruik van verbeterborden binnen zorgorganisaties.
Continue verbetering is het systematisch en voortdurend zoeken naar en implementeren van nieuwe manieren om werk uit te voeren. Dit streven gaat stap voor stap door continue verbetering, waardoor verspilling aanwezig in het werkproces wordt verwijderd. Expliciete doelen zijn gericht op het verbeteren van de operationele performance, het zijn doelstellingen die duidelijk worden gecommuniceerd en bij de medewerkers bekend zijn. Het verbeterbord wordt gebruikt om verbetervoorstellen te delen met collega's door de problemen in het werk te visualiseren gedurende staandoverleg-meetings en dagstarts. Ook Roemeling, Ahaus & Slomp geven aan dat de doelen bij het verbeterbord vaak niet expliciet gecommuniceerd worden en dus vaak niet bekend zijn bij de medewerkers.
The Professional Academy for Quality has assisted numerous mid-scale and industry leading organizations in improving business processes and customer satisfaction. A How can you maximize the benefit?A  Our six sigma program combines the lean rules with six sigma methodology to maximize the financial and organizational benefit.
The series courses represent the multiyear experiences of BESTWAY in providing lean production training coaching services for corporate clients.
After the completion of this course, the participants should be able to better understand some practices currently adopted in the lean production process; change their conventional notions and proactively discover, analyze and solve problems under lean thinking mode.
The course is intended to help the participants gain an in-depth understanding of the principles and tools of administrative office 5S and learn how to apply them in their daily work; thus rapidly boost administrative efficiency, reduce error rates and quickly merge administrative support teams into the lean enterprise revolution process. By way of current status analysis and future prospect planning, you can identify and eliminate wastes, realize flow and customer-driven balanced production and eventually realize the goal of systematic improvement. In this course, we obtained enormous benefits from value stream analysis and U-shaped production line. Since then, TOC has continued to evolve and develop, and today it is a significant factor within the world of management best practices. In environments where there is an urgent need to improve, TOC offers a highly focused methodology for creating rapid improvement. Normally, actions are continued at this step until the constraint has been a€?brokena€? (until it has moved somewhere else).
This step is a reminder to never become complacent a€“ aggressively improve the current constrainta€¦and then immediately move on to the next constraint.
It is used as part of the process for progressing from the Current Reality Tree to the Future Reality Tree. Note: this tool is intended to replace the formerly used Prerequisite Tree in the Thinking Processes.
Accumulating inventory inflates assets and generates a a€?paper profita€? based on inventory that may or may not ever be sold (e.g.
Cutting expenses is limited by reaching zero expenses, whereas increasing throughput has no such limitations. Buffers represent time; the amount of time (usually measured in hours) that work-in-process should arrive in advance of being used to ensure steady operation of the protected resource.
The role of the rope is to maintain throughput without creating an accumulation of excess inventory. This step focuses on quick wins and rapid relief; leaving more complex and substantive changes for later. The Five Focusing Steps are kind of like a€?Whac-A-Molea€?a€¦pound one constraint down and then move right on to the next!
Eliminating variation is still desirable in TOC; it is simply given less attention than improving throughput. In this light, the Theory of Constraints can serve as a highly effective mechanism for prioritizing improvement projects, while Lean Manufacturing can provide a rich toolbox of improvement techniques. And it's the combination of links and nodes that produces a full systems model, and it makes our private mental models visible about how we think something works. Het zou ideaal zijn als elk onderdeel en elk niveau van de organisatie over een beperkt aantal indicatoren beschikken, die periodiek de behaalde resultaten zichtbaar maken. Een Makigami visualiseert niet alleen de processtappen, maar ook de gebruikte informatie, de benodigde tijd, de waardetoevoeging en de verspillingen. Dit betekent dat deze techniek eenvoudiger is toe te passen dan het maken van een Value Stream Map (VSM).
De vijf stappen bieden een gemeenschappelijke taal op die iedereen kan begrijpen, een leidraad om op alle niveaus van de organisatie – zelfs in je eigen leven – knelpunten op te lossen. Wat het vooral lastig maakt is dat binnen een dienstenomgeving er vaak geen of weinig data beschikbaar zijn; bij dienstverleners ontbreekt de natuurlijke neiging om te meten (meetcultuur).
Het doel van deze verbeteringen is het vergroten van waarde voor de client door het verwijderen van niet-waarde toevoegende activiteiten, procesvariaties en slechte werkomstandigheden. Om de gewenste situatie, ofwel future state, te bereiken worden onder meer verbeterborden gebruikt.
Impliciete doelen zijn gericht op het lerend vermogen en de motivatie van medewerkers om continu te verbeteren. Vanuit de goalsettingtheorie is namelijk bekend dat het stellen van duidelijke en expliciete doelen leidt tot een stijging in enthousiasme en doorzettingsvermogen bij de medewerkers .
A The consulting services we offer are not just a training or course materials which placed on the shelf after you taken.
The success of lean production is not the result of applying a couple of new management techniques but the outcome of applying a series of lean production techniques and tools on an ongoing basis.
They are designed as scientific a€?cause and effecta€? tools, which strive to first identify the root causes of undesirable effects (referred to as UDEs), and then remove the UDEs without creating new ones. There are differing opinions on how to best categorize constraints; a common approach is shown in the following table.
Efficiency of non-constraint equipment is a secondary concern as long as constraint operation is not adversely impacted. The key is to ensure that all such investments are evaluated for effectiveness (preferably using Throughput Accounting metrics). The result a€“ manufacturing effectiveness is significantly increased by eliminating waste from the parts of the system that are the largest constraints on opportunity and profitability.
And then the group notes produce the most comprehensive models because we synthesize several points of view.
Op afdelingsniveau worden vaak verbeterborden gebruikt ter ondersteuning van het continu verbeteren.
De impliciete doelen worden vaak niet specifiek als doel genoemd bij het in gebruik nemen van een verbeterbord. Het doel van dergelijke meetings is te bespreken wat er gedaan moet worden, welke problemen er zijn, welke problemen zijn opgelost en hoe dat is gedaan. In meer flexibele omgevingen leidt het echter al gauw tot starheid en verdwijnt het actieve gebruik zodra er (tijdelijk) minder aandacht is vanwege drukte of ziekte van de teamleider of andere sleutelfiguren.
From the inception of Six-Sigma methodology to date, fortune 500 companies saved more than billions of $ dollars by using Six-Sigma and lean six-sigma tools. Instead, we take it to the next step helping you to apply at your organization to make a difference!
The Theory of Constraints, on the other hand, considers inventory to be a liability a€“ inventory ties up cash that could be used more productively elsewhere. An alternative to large buffer inventories is sprint capacity (intentional overcapacity) at non-constraints. They can be simple, such as toast-making or complex such as government legislation and nutrient flow. Hier zijn vaak wel cijfers beschikbaar - nog even los van de juistheid en betrouwbaarheid - maar is dus wel een meetcultuur waarin het normaal is om processen te meten.De ING-blackbelts adviseren om de statistische en cijfermatige aanpak van Six Sigma niet te overdrijven.
Het gaat dus niet alleen om doelen stellen, maar ook m feedback te geven en te krijgen van wat er is verbeterd. When people work together under the right circumstances, group models are much better than individual models.



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