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Warehousing and storage (NAICS 493) is one of the nation’s fastest-growing industries, with 38% growth since 2001.
The industry has the biggest presence in California (80,568 jobs), Pennsylvania (61,591), Texas (60,433), Illinois (47,651), and Ohio (40,930). Wyoming (533%), Texas (153%), and Pennsylvania (108%) have seen the biggest growth in jobs, but all except for seven states have grown at least a bit. Maryland ($54,283), Massachusetts ($54,255),  Michigan ($53,224), and New Jersey ($52,953) boast the highest annual wages.
STAFFING PATTERNSHalf of the top 14 most common occupations in the warehousing & storage industry are related to real estate & rental & leasing (SOC 53). Amazing data analysis,this analysis shows that, the industry of Warehousing and Storage will grow in future.
Emsi's blog features articles, case studies, and resources that connect our data to market trends, regional economies, workforce development, higher education, and much more. Wikibon is a professional community solving technology and business problems through an open source sharing of free advisory knowledge. New data center deployment philosophies that allow data to be shared across the enterprise rather than stove-piped in storage pools dedicated to particular types of applications.
This research discusses the key trends in flash and disk technologies in detail and the potential impact of new application design philosophies. CXOs and senior enterprise business leaders will need to restore their faith that IT can and will improve its dismal record of delivering on complex deployments. IT senior management will need to change and reorganize IT infrastructure management, slim down infrastructure staffing, automate and orchestrate deployment of IT resources, and move rapidly towards a shared data philosophy enabled by flash storage deployment for almost all enterprise data. All-flash array vendors and other flash architectures will need to focus on developing scale-out architectures and maximize the potential for data sharing. The end-point of the adoption of flash-only persistent storage is a completely "electronic data center", with no mechanical components except for a few pumps and fans. When magnetic drum technology was first introduced, access time to data was as fast as the compute technology of its day. The history of storage array development has been the application of technologies to mitigate this disparity in cycle time. The attempts to mitigate the mechanical problems have been significant, but the impact of disk storage limitations on application design has also been stark. The bottom line is that current applications are dependent on very complex infrastructure software to mitigate the ever increasing gap between compute and persistent storage cycle times. Has very low maintenance (not yet passed on by vendors), and very low power & space costs. The bottom line is flash is not “perfect”, and disk is currently better at sequential writes. Buffers are a partial solution, not nearly as good to (say) a PC enduser as all-flash storage as Apple has shown with the success of the all-flash “Air” products. Separate buffers on each disk is a sub-optimum way of designing buffers, both for IO average latency and more important IO latency variance (jitter). Disk technology is used in consumer PCs and enterprise storage in servers and storage arrays.
The bottom line is that there is no development of performance hard disk disks and some limited potential innovation in capacity disks but not sufficient to stop the deployment of the electronic data center. All mobile devices have used only flash and ARM technology, and increasingly PCs are flash-only. The bottom line is that data centers are able to take advantage of the huge flash volumes for the consumer market. There has been much discussion about replacing flash with some other type of Non-volative Memory (NVM) technology.
Understanding exactly how the technologies work and how they can be produced in volume and at high yield; MRAM is in production on low-density chip technology, and may make some inroads into DRAM, but other technologies are still at the university stage and are a long way from volume production. Developing sufficient demand to enable the investment necessary to deploy them on the latest chip technology (and therefore attain the performance gains); the catch 22 of new technologies, the challenge of securing investment to deploy on the latest technology to increase the volume and lower cost in the long run. Flash has a strong future path laid out to 3D technology and has shown that investment has managed to solve the problems that the pundits for new NVM technologies said were impossible to solve. MRAM is in limited production, and has a potential role as an alternative for capacitor-protected DRAM.
The bottom line, as Wikibon has stated before (See Note 2 in the linked reference), is that flash will be the only NVM technology of importance for enterprise computing for at least the next five years (end of this decade) and very probably for the next decade. Disk drives can crash, and, as the name implies, they crash catastrophically from a user perspective. Flash drives “wear”, that is the more times you write data to a flash cell, the higher the probability that a cell will fail. The bottom line is that flash drives are much more reliable that disk drives, and will continue to increase in reliability. De-duplication and compression have been around for a long time, introduced by Microsoft on PCs and NetApp on arrays and now provided by most disk-storage array vendors. The storage controller overhead for data reduction processing and management is very high, and in traditional two-controller array architectures can itself lead to significant performance impacts, especially when combined with other storage array software such as replication.
Permabit has introduced the advanced data reduction technology for traditional storage arrays, and have recently announced partnerships with EMC, NetApp and others.
The reason that flash can support de-duplication and compression is that the access density for flash is much higher, 100s of times higher than mechanical disk drives. The bottom line is that flash can support data reduction techniques such as de-duplication and compression as standard, an important contribution in the journey to the electronic data center. Another potential example is the development of applications that analyze large amounts of data in real-time and then adjust the operational systems in real time. The biggest constraint in moving to this type of environment will be persuading senior storage administrators and DBAs, who have grown up with the current constraints of existing arrays, to utilize completely new ways of managing production storage. The bottom line is that management has a significant role in driving attitude change in IT management and IT vendors (software & hardware), necessary for the full deployment of the electronic data center. The level of data sharing that can be achieved, by building large scale-out flash architectures to increase the amount of data sharing; the purple line shows the increase from just over 1 to a factor of 6 as the shared data model is adopted in data centers. Work which does produce high de-duplication rates will be migrated to their storage arrays. The potential for shared copy data is greater that de-duplication and compression, as can be seen in Figure 2. To achieve higher levels of data sharing, the architectures of all-flash arrays and the business practices of data sharing will need to evolve.
Figure 1 below shows the projection of the true cost of raw HDD and SSD technology, with all the costs (except for infrastructure personnel costs) included. The bottom line is that the era of the electronic data center is cost justified now, that data sharing is a key metric to optimize, and with speed to deploy advantages it will be a major factor in establishing business differentiation.
Whenever a new technology is introduced, the initial imperative is to minimize the cost of migration by avoiding having to make any changes to applications or the infrastructure supporting them. This initial implementation of flash allowed confidence to grow in flash as a medium for persistent enterprise storage.
A number of hybrid architecture storage arrays have been introduced with much higher amounts of flash and where the master copy of data is written through to a disk back-end. This approach leads to more consistent IO response times and higher IOPS but still maintains disk as the ultimate storage. Because of the foundation of hybrid storage arrays linked to disk drives, it is not a foundation for a modern shared storage architecture.
These architectures are limited by the dual controller in both function that can be deployed and in the amount of de-duplication that can be achieved.
This is the subject of the next section, and is key to the adoption of the electronic data center.
Adopting a shared data philosophy within the data center mandates that the flash persistent storage arrays supporting this deployment have a number of architecture attributes. To allow sharing of data across an enterprise, the storage arrays must scale beyond the traditional dual-controller architecture. A scale-out architecture must allow access by all nodes to all the metadata describing the data, snapshots of data and applications accessing the data.
With traditional disk arrays, snapshot management is a challenge in production workloads, especially large-scale production workloads.
With all-flash arrays, the access density of flash allows snapshot copies of data to have potentially the same performance as the original and enables multiple snapshot copies to be made of the original and derivative snapshots. Full-performance, space-efficient writeable snapshots with full metadata support are key to data sharing. The management of snapshots must include a full-function catalog describing when copies were taken, how presented, and when they were used by other applications (this function can be within the array or can be provided by external software with APIs to the array).
Advanced snapshot technologies will completely alter the way that high-performance systems are backed up, allowing specific RPO and RTO SLAs to be adopted dynamically for different applications, and eliminating the requirement for de-duplication appliances. Quality of service should ideally include minimum and maximum performance on an application basis to map directly to application SLAs. Quality of service should allow a view by physical use of shared data as well as the normal logical use by LUN or equivalent, so as to provide management tools to enable full performance management. The bottom line is that scale-out architectures with rich metadata support, consistent latency, advanced snapshot technologies and advanced quality of service are a prerequisite for fourth generation all-flash storage arrays. Figure 1 shows the worldwide All-Flash array revenues by vendor, taken from a recent report from IDC. The data shows that the leading scale-out architectures are EMC (23% share) and SolidFire (7% share) making scale-out architecture about one third of the marketplace. No current all-flash array meets all the requirements laid out in the “Ideal Scale-out Shared Data Architectures” section above. EMC is well positioned with the XtremIO scale-out all-flash array with a fundamentally good data reduction-led (de-duplication & compression) architecture, with good metadata management and data sharing characteristics.
SolidFire also has a solid scale-out architecture with good QoS functionality, focused initially on storage service providers.
Wikibon believes that general purpose dual-controller all-flash array vendors such as Pure Storage and Nimbus will be restricted to IT enterprises that do not accept the benefits of shared data, unless they move to a scale-out architecture.
The bottom line is that the scale-out all-flash sector is set to explode, and enterprises embracing the benefits of a shared data philosophy will benefit greatly from lower IT costs and improved application functionality.
Wikibon is developing a case study of a financial enterprise managing more than $150 billion in assets that is rapidly completing its journey to the electronic data center. Wikibon has written about other trends in flash architectures, in particular with Server SAN or Hyperscale architectures. This research shows that flash will become the lowest cost media for almost all storage from 2016 and beyond, and that a shared data philosophy is required to maximize the potential from both storage cost and application functionality perspectives. The continual reduction in flash costs driven by consumer demand for flash - this is inexorable as mobile phones, tablets, phablets and wearable devices continue to roll-out, along with new markets such as the Internet-of-things.
New Scale-out flash array architectures that allow physical data to be shared across many applications without performance impact. New data center deployment philosophies that allow data to be shared across the enterprise, rather than stove-piped in storage pools dedicated to particular types of application.
Wikibon recommends that deployment of a data sharing philosophy is an important step in the deployment of the electronic data center. Is the timescale for migration of all mission critical workloads to an electronic data center infrastructure less than 2-years? What are the most important applications that will use the electronic data center to improve enterprise productivity and revenue? I sometimes think Chojin is actually a sentient conspiracy theory with fingers and a keyboard, but in this case, I actually agree. The momentum in consumer SSDs has been driven by the adoption of less robust NAND and smaller process geometries. As for the RAID reliability concerns, you need to remember something: The protection RAID offers in reality is smaller than theory suggests. NAND flash has a part to play in the modern datacenter; the advantages over HDDs in seek times and transfer speeds are too huge to ignore.
The high cost of enterprise-quality NAND means that SSDs won’t *entirely* replace enterprise drives anytime soon.
I have worked at a handful of different companies, ranging from the largest CDNs, financial services and medical imaging industry; and in each position I have pushed the transition to consumer grade solid state drives using LSI controllers to produce great results.
My preferred vendors are Intel and Samsung, and I will continue to spread their usage to any company I work for in the future. Compared to large arrays of spinning 15k SAS drives, a small cluster of 8-10 consumer SSDs will decimate even the fastest vendor (Read EMC2, Netapp, etc) solutions. This makes no sense, Why would cache drives somehow be more reliable than several in a RAID?
When bringing up the floods that diminished global HDD supply and ramped prices the human thing to do is still to at least try to work in a few words of compassion for the immense loss of life and human tragedy as well.
Most SSDs now ship with an absurd abstraction: they pretend to the controller to be spinning disks so as to fit inside our existing disk-centrist mindset. Prices may be down to pre-flood levels, but manufacturers also cut the warranty length drastically. But that’s got nothing to do with whether or not HDD prices have fallen back to previous levels.
We now pay the same price for the same storage capacity, but we’re not getting as much for our money as we did before the flood.
I commented because I was surprised that your article did not mention this important aspect of the current consumer drive market vs. So, if $90 buys the same 2TB of storage today, but with a 1 or 2 year warranty, I’m still getting less for my $90 than I did 2 years ago. I *could* break down a list like this into an examination of how drives with a constant warranty period have changed in price, but that’s of very limited value.
While the value of the warranty *is* an important component to the entire drive, it’s impossible for me to model the sustained added value without knowing more about when drives are likely to fail. If no drives failed *before* 12 months and *all* drives failed between 12-23 months or lasted for 10 years, then the value of a two year warranty would be equivalent to the value of a new drive ($50-$150).


Since we know drives fail in a much more complicated fashion than that, we have no idea what the value of the warranty is. The closest thing to a comprehensive survey of the topic is a whitepaper Google released a few years back. Update: As a follow-on to this post, I run the numbers on how cheap can energy storage get? I’ve been writing about exponential decline in the price of energy storage since I was researching The Infinite Resource. Energy storage is hitting an inflection point sooner than I expected, going from being a novelty, to being suddenly economically extremely sensible. The Price of Energy Storage Technology is Plummeting. Indeed, while high compared to grid electricity, the price of energy storage has been plummeting for twenty years.
A Larger Market Drives Down the Cost of Energy Storage. Batteries and other storage technologies have learning curves. Lithium-ion batteries have been seeing rapidly declining prices for more than 20 years, dropping in price for laptop and consumer electronic uses by 90% between 1990 and 2005, and continuing to drop since then. A widely reported study at Nature Climate Change finds that, since 2005, electric vehicle battery costs have plunged faster than almost anyone projected, and are now below most forecasts for the year 2020. And the electric car market, in turn, is making large-format lithium-ion batteries cheaper for grid use. Traditional lithium ion-batteries begin to degrade after a few hundred cycles of fully charging and fully discharging, or 1,000 cycles at most. All of those battery costs, by the way, are functions of what the ultimate buyer pays, including installation and maintenance.
But there are other technologies that may be ultimately more suitable for grid energy storage than lithium-ion. 1. Flow Batteries, just starting to come to market, can theoretically operate for 5,000 charge cycles or more.
Capital costs for these technologies are likely to be broadly similar to lithium-ion costs over the long term and at similar scale. Of course, neither flow batteries nor compressed air are as commercially proven as lithium-ion. Now let’s turn away from the technology and towards the economics that make it appealing. The net result is that electricity in the afternoon and early evening is more expensive, and this is (increasingly) being passed on to consumers. Rooftop solar customers love net metering, the rules that allow solar-equipped homes to sell excess electricity back to the grid. Under what circumstances would the second scenario be economically advantageous over the first? There’s now roughly a 20 euro cent gap between the price of grid electricity and the feed-in-tariff for supplying excess solar back to the grid (the gold bands) in Germany, roughly the same gap as exists between cheapest and most expensive time of use electricity in California. Almost any sunny state in the US that did away with net metering would be at or near solar + battery parity in the next 5 years.
Both of the previous scenarios have looked at this from the standpoint of installation in homes (or businesses – the same logic applies). The study authors concluded that this additional battery storage would slightly lower consumer electrical bills, reduce outages, reduce the need to build added capacity (by shifting the peak, much as a home battery would), and similarly reduce the need to build additional transmission and distribution lines. Energy storage, because of its flexibility, and because it can sit in so many different places in the grid, doesn’t have to compete with wholesale grid power prices. This report specifically looked at the viability of replacing some of California’s natural gas peaker plans. While the EPRI California study was asking a different question than the ERCOT study that looked at storage at the edge, it came to a similar conclusion. Flow batteries, compressed air, and pumped hydro (where geography supports it) also were economically viable. California alone has 71 natural gas peaker plants, with a combined capacity of 7,418 MW (pdf link).
But what we know is this: Batteries (and other storage technologies) will keep dropping in cost. I take a deeper look at how fast battery prices will drop in this post: How Cheap Can Energy Storage Get? Storage has plenty of benefits – higher reliability, lower costs, fewer outages, more resilience. But I wouldn’t have written these three thousand words without a deep interest in carbon-free energy. Let me be clear: A great deal can be done with solar and wind with minimal storage, by integrating over a wider region and intelligently balancing wind and solar against one another.
Today, in many parts of the US, wind power is the cheapest source of new electricity, when the wind is blowing. This entry was posted in Uncategorized and tagged batteries, economics, energy, energy storage, nuclear, renewables, solar, wind.
For the 95% on $10 a day, see Martin Ravallion, Shaohua Chen and Prem Sangraula, Dollar a day revisited, World Bank, May 2008.
This figure is based on purchasing power parity (PPP), which basically suggests that prices of goods in countries tend to equate under floating exchange rates and therefore people would be able to purchase the same quantity of goods in any country for a given sum of money. 2007 Human Development Report (HDR), United Nations Development Program, November 27, 2007, p.25. Holding Transnationals Accountable, IPS, August 11, 1998Top 200: The Rise of Corporate Global Power, by Sarah Anderson and John Cavanagh, Institute for Policy Studies, November 2000backLog cabin to White House? Business game-changing potential waits for enterprises that develop and deploy new data-rich applications that can profoundly improve productivity and revenue potential.
Within the electronic data center, electronic storage will allow logical sharing of the same physical data to be fully enabled. Improved magnetic heads reduced the size of magnetic “blob”, so tracks could be closer, with more data per track. Read buffers and smart algorithms attempt to maximize the probability that data required by applications would be found in DRAM. As Wikibon has pointed out in previous research, applications have been written and designed with small working sets that fit into small buffers. This complex software is spread between the controllers of storage arrays and ever more complex databases from Oracle, IBM, Microsoft, and others that protect applications. The complexity and resultant cost of deploying additional database, storage array software and storage management software to enable moderate or large-scale applications is very high.
However, this research will show that flash is cheaper now than disk for active data and will become cheaper than disk for almost all applications in the data center. The disk market for mobile devices (laptops, phones, wearable devices, etc.) is rapidly dwindling as flash takes over, and bulk data requirements are provided in the cloud. For example, HGST is planning to introduce helium drives with Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR). The first introduction of flash in a large-scale consumer product was for the Apple iPod in September 2005, powered by ARM chip technology. Flash technology has improved at a faster rate than Moore’s Law, with more than 50% improvement in annual price performance and density.
The proponents of these technologies usually start presentations at IEEE meetings with the premise that flash has reached the end of the line and cannot be developed further. Flash, warts and all, is the persistent storage medium for the foreseeable future in the electronic data center. Most PC users have experienced the impact of a disk crash, and recovery takes a long time and is often incomplete. The average maintenance cost of disk drives is about 18% of the acquisition price per year.
Wikibon research shows that there is a compelling case to used compression & de-duplication on the flash storage component within hybrid arrays, but few applications can support it on disk-based arrays. The overhead on storage and array controllers is still high, and flash storage arrays will have to be designed to reduce the overhead as much as possible. Deeply imbedded in disk storage practice is avoiding applications accessing the same data on the same drives and avoiding the same database tables being accessed from multiple applications in database environments. Space-efficient snapshots capture the blocks that have changed since the last snapshot, in the same way as a traditional differential backup, and allow rapid rollback to previous versions of data.
Using space-efficient snapshots together with high-performance metadata, a logical copy of data can be made available to other applications in seconds, but sharing the same physical data where it has not been changed. This type of system is much easier to implement if the data is shared between operational and analytic applications.
The biggest constraint for storage vendors with new types of flash arrays will be persuading them that the architecture and metadata management of storage arrays has to be completely different for this new environment. The all-flash storage vendors often argue that all data can produce data reduction rates of five or higher and show “call home” figures that prove that their arrays achieve that. In six years time, the cost of data center storage will be 40 times lower than today, will be flash only, will have higher data transfer and IO rates, and IO densities that are thousands of times greater than today. EMC announced its first flash SSD drives in early 2008, less than three years after the first large-scale consumer introduction into the Apple nano in September 2005. As an example, Tintri introduced a “flash-first” design that writes all data to flash, and then trickles down storage to high-capacity disk as the number of accesses to data decrease over time. Wikibon predicts that this percentage will increase dramatically over the next few years, as the value of a shared data philosophy permeates IT infrastructure management.
They have been successful in this space but will have to provide a broader portfolio to break into enterprises which follow a shared data philosophy.
It is too early to judge FlashRay against the criteria in the “Ideal Scale-out Shared Data Architectures” section. Functions such as atomic writes will allow flash to become an extension of DRAM, and improve the functionality of large scale database driven applications. This is probably the biggest challenge in educating senior storage executives to reverse the storage management principles of a lifetime.
This again will need significant re-education of senior application analysts and architects as to what is now possible with new technologies.
18 months after the Thailand floods that critically damaged vital hard drive production facilities, what do prices look like? While the chances of two drives failing simultaneously are theoretically random, in practice, studies have shown that two drives, bought and installed on the same day, in the same system, and used together (with the same usage patterns) tend to fail in a much more predictable fashion than simple random chance suggests. Flash that meets enterprise needs, however, is far too expensive to simply replace HDDs altogether.
It’s a way more reliable solution that using just SSD in any RAID array with no HDUs.
My point is that the value of data far exceeds the value of warranty, such that changes in the value of the warranty have very little impact on the value of the drive.
It captures data only for those people who will actually bother to send the drive in and wait for a replacement, as opposed to ordering something on NewEgg immediately.
If every drive failed within 12 months, than the added value of a 2 year warranty would be nothing. Recently, though, I delivered a talk to the executives of a large energy company, the preparation of which forced me to crystallize my thinking on recent developments in the energy storage market. That, in turn, is kicking off a virtuous cycle of new markets opening, new scale, further declining costs, and additional markets opening. So naively we’d take the capital cost of the battery and divide it by 1,000 to find the cost per kwh round-tripped through it (the LCOE).
I’m sure many will be skeptical of them, though 2015 and 2016 look likely to be quite big years.
Right now that means charging consumers a low rate in the middle of the night (when demand is low) and a high rate in the afternoon and early evening (when demand is at its peak, often twice as high as the middle of the night). Software preferentially uses that cheap power from the battery during the peak of demand, instead of drawing it from the grid.
A battery that is more expensive than the average price of grid electricity can nonetheless arbitrage the grid and save one money.
Utility operators can deploy storage as well, Two recent studies have assessed the economics of just that. The assumption is that there are 3 MWh of storage per MW of power output in the storage system.
Storage would cost money, but the economic benefit to the grid of replacing natural gas peaker plants with battery storage was greater than the cost. And the increasing economic viability of energy storage is profoundly to the benefit of both solar and wind. Storage added to add reliability the grid can soak up extra solar power for the hours just after sunset. It can help nuclear power follow the curve of electrical demand (something I didn’t explore here).
Please note that preliminary 2012 data is still a projection.See our main post in this series here.
No hefty degree requirements for these jobs; they require short- to medium-term on-the-job training, or simply work experience in a related field. It shows that flash (the blue line) will become a lower cost media than disk (the red line) for almost all storage in 2016, as scale-out storage technologies enable higher levels of data sharing, and lower storage costs. These application that combine operation with in-line analytics can only be realized on flash-only shared-data environments. CEOs should be asking IT about definitive plans to move to an electronic data center, the timescale of the migration, and information about the first application(s) to employ the electronic storage to radically improve enterprise productivity and revenue. Compute and persistent storage were balanced, with ten microseconds for compute and ten microseconds for access to persistent storage (See Note 3 of linked reference for more detail). The technology to fabricate magnetic heads was the same fundamental technology used to fabricate memory and logic chips. Battery and capacitance protect DRAM write buffers, allowing high burst rates of data to be written with low latency. NoSQL databases offer apparent relief for some applications but in most instances just move the complexity from the database back to the programmer.


The disappointment felt by business leaders in the failure of IT to meet its potential to decrease business costs can be placed squarely in this complexity, caused almost exclusively by the failure of mechanical persistent storage to keep up with compute and network technologies. It will show that flash is much better as a foundation for the next generation of big data applications and will become the foundation for the electronic data center.
Desktop PCs are a sharply declining market with multiple alternatives including VDI and PC cloud services from Google and Microsoft. This overlaps the tracks and is expected to eventually enable data densities as high as 3 trillion bits per square inch. It had far less capacity than the “classic” hard-disk alternative iPod but allowed smaller and lighter devices, needed less power and less recharging and was much more resilient when dropped.
The technologies are exciting and include MRAM, RRAM (HP’s Memristor is in this category), PCM & racetrack technologies.
With atomic writes, the access time between disk and flash is reduced by 10,000 times, from a best of 1 milliseconds to 100 nanoseconds for a line write of 64 bytes (See Note 3 in the link for a technical deep dive).
However, “wear leveling" software has advanced dramatically and is now implemented in the controllers of solid state drives.
For example, a clone of the current production environment is made for the members of the development team. They are also a very useful type of snapshot for taking logical copies of the same data; however on traditional disk storage the performance characteristics and metadata management largely made these copies useless for active disk-sharing process workflows. For example, the development team at a European investment management company gets a copy of the production database and then publishes the latest full version of this application and data to all the developers, testers and QA. The key question now is when all disk drives systems will be more expensive than flash drives. The data in Figure 2 below was generated using the data and assumptions from that study, adding in the cost of power, space and maintenance, and adding in the potential improvement in practical de-duplication rate that can be achieved for all workloads. As was discussed earlier, the uplift of storage arrays over raw technology is very high at the moment (10-15x).
Most importantly, it will remove IO as a constraint to application innovation, and allow real-time deployment of big data systems. EMC with the VNX and others have re-written their controller software to facilitate the adoption of larger amounts of flash storage. Wikibon believes that EMC will grow faster than the overall rate of the all-Flash array industry. This will be another way of improving the productivity of users and organizations, and further integrating big data analytics with operational systems.
Only if you call wear leveling and failure prediction in flash drives reliable, yes - it is reliable to assume that flash drive will fail inevitably at some point because those cells do wear out at a very predictable rate. How have SSD costs changed over the same period — and what sort of drives are people buying?Kris Kubicki, of Dynamite Data, helped provide a comprehensive data set that answers these questions stretching back to April, 2011. The chance of a second drive failure is highest when the controller and media are under the strain of rebuilding the array.
And such proof can only be gathered my surveying tens of thousands of drives of multiple makes and models.
If you want a drive with a >1 year warranty, you can buy a WD Caviar Blue or Caviar Green, which have two years. Expanding the scale of the storage industry pushes forward on these curves, dropping the price. However, we also have to factor in that some electricity is lost due to less than 100% efficiency (Li-ion is perhaps 90% efficient in round trip).
But heavier, bulkier storage technologies that last for more cycles will be long-term cheaper. In addition, the electrolyte in a flow battery is a liquid that can be replaced, refurbishing the battery at a fraction of the cost of installing a new one. It’s likely, in the US, that the rate at which consumers are paid for their excess electricity will drop, that caps will be imposed, or both.
In Germany, where electricity is expensive, and feed-in-tariffs have been plunging, this gap is opening wide. So this study is claiming that in Texas alone, the economic case for energy storage is strong enough to motivate storage capacity equivalent to 2% of the US’s average power draw. Let me point you to one in-depth report, by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI): Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Storage in California (pdf).
And in the short term, storage helps whichever energy source is cheapest overcome intermittence and achieve flexibility.
On the horizon, an increasing chorus of voices, even the normally pessimistic-on-renewables IEA, see solar as the cheapest source of electricity on the planet, heading towards 4 cents per kwh. The richest 20 percent accounts for three-quarters of world income.Source 3According to UNICEF, 22,000 children die each day due to poverty. Using 2005 population numbers, this is equivalent to just under 79.7% of world population, and does not include populations living on less than $10 a day from industrialized nations. One-half of all rural children [in India] are underweight for their agea€”roughly the same proportion as in 1992.a€?)Millennium Development Goals Report 2007 backMillennium Development Goals Report 2007 . The number of database calls within a business transaction have been severely limited by the high variance of disk-based storage; this is necessary in order to reduce operational and application maintenance complexity and cost. Previous Wikibon research has shown the design of application suites such as SAP and many others are also constrained by disk-based storage, and apparently “simple” projects combining multiple landscapes and integrating business processes are in reality difficult, time-consuming and risky. The magnetic disk drive is the last mechanical device in the path of the electronic data center.
The high-speed enterprise disks are a rapidly declining market as flash dominates with lower costs of IO performance and lower costs of maintenance by storage administrators and DBAs. SMR is designed for continuous writing and erasing rather than random updates, and especially suitable for write-once-read-never (WORN) applications. The “Classic” iPod with a 1.8 inch hard drive and up to 160 GB of space was finally withdrawn in September 2014 as cloud service offerings made the higher capacities irrelevant.
With relatively little additional investment, flash technologies can be used in the enterprise datacenter. History teaches us that only two successful major volume memory technologies have been introduced in the last fifty years - DRAM & flash.
RRAM and PCM technologies have military potential in niche usage, and these technologies may have uses in micro-sensors for the Internet-of-things. Where disks are bound together in RAID groups, the data is not lost if a single disk fails. Wear leveling is now a problem that NAND flash suppliers have solved and will continue to improve.
Flash drives can be loaded in hours, compared with the days or months that it takes in a typical migration from one disk-based array to another.
Full clones are invariably used if multiple copies are needed for (say) application developers, and often only a subset of the data is used.
The developers have gone from an IO constrained to a processor constrained development environment - they needed faster processors to improve development time.
The assumptions used in the chart are detailed in Table Footnotes-1 in the Footnotes below. This ratio will drop significantly over the next five years but will not matter to the final outcome because flash arrays will have the ability to match or exceed these drops in uplift ratio. These drives were used to release storage volumes that are a bottleneck in applications, especially in databases. This trend will also result in many storage services to migrate from the SAN array to the server. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of Ziff Davis, LLC.
They only operate for a few hours each day, so their construction costs are amortized over a smaller amount of electricity.
Some of the peak load is being diverted to another time when there’s excess capacity in the system.
Or it can dispatch saved up power to cover for an unexpected degree of cloudiness or a shortfall of wind. And they a€?die quietly in some of the poorest villages on earth, far removed from the scrutiny and the conscience of the world. The report importantly notes that a€?As high as this number seems, surveys show that it underestimates the actual number of children who, though enrolled, are not attending school. All these technologies help if applications are designed in a certain way, with small working sets and limited functionality. Large applications are still designed as a series of modules with loosely coupled databases. Disk vendor CEO claims that there is not enough money to build enough flash capacity to replace disk drives are simply false - the consumer flash market's virtual elimination of consumer disk is proof positive. However, Wikibon believes that unless a new NVM technology is adopted in consumer products in volume, the continued investment in flash technologies driven by consumer demand will make volume adoption of any NVM alternative very unlikely, and make their adoption in enterprise computing economically impossible.
SSDs are now offered with longer life-time guarantees than disk drives (5-10 years and expected to increase).
The write off-period for flash arrays will be longer and less risky that current disk-drive arrays, which will contribute to the early deployment of the electronic data center. They have gone from a subset of production to a full production copy, so testing and QA is far more effective. The use of these drives was enhanced by the introduction of tiering software such as EMC's FAST VP that allowed automatic migration of volumes and parts of volumes to flash.
The complexity of dealing with occasional very high latencies still exists within this flash implementation, and it is not suitable as a basis for new application design. This switch will require changes to the functionality of databases and file-systems and is not going to be adopted quickly, but rather as a slow 10-year migration. What really matters when we talk about energy storage for electricity that can be used in homes and buildings is the impact on Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) that the battery imposes. Solar + a small battery may get someone in Germany to 70%, and someone in Southern California to 85%, but the amount of storage you need to deploy to increase that reliability goes up steeply as you approach 99.99%.
Being meek and weak in life makes these dying multitudes even more invisible in death.a€?Source 4Around 27-28 percent of all children in developing countries are estimated to be underweight or stunted.
Moreover, neither enrolment nor attendance figures reflect children who do not attend school regularly. However, the rate magnetic data could be read or written (bandwidth) has only improved by less than the square root of the improvement of the data density (~10-12% per year). A whole major industrial market and supply chain has been built around “standard” disks from Seagate, HGST, and others housed in disk shelves and surrounded by proprietary software on Intel processors.
There will be sufficient flash capacity available to enable the deployment of the electronic data center.
In arrays such as the IBM XIV, recovery times are reduced by spreading all the data over all the disks, which improves recovery time at the cost of doubling the storage required. All-flash arrays will dominate new storage arrays in the early part of the evolution of the electronic data center. SSD prices tend to vary considerably depending on product age, controller configuration, and performance — you can beat the SSD per GB figure by a fair margin if you shop around and watch for sales. In other words, if I put a kwh of electricity into the battery, and then pull a kwh of electricity out, over the lifetime of the battery (and including maintenance costs, installation costs, and all the rest), what did that cost me? To make matters worse, official data are not usually available from countries in conflict or post-conflict situations. The physics of spinning the media faster soon reached a plateau, as the outer edge of disk drives approached the speed of sound. The proprietary software from EMC, NetApp, HP, IBM, and others has been the “glue” that has allowed high functionality with very high uplifts (10-15:1) on the “Fry’s Price”, the base cost of a single disk drive. Often the data copies are a subset - for example, developers may be given a small subset of the production database. The characteristics of flash mean that the overhead is near zero, and the time to produce a new development copy is reduced by factors of 10 or more.
The value of this software has decreased as flash prices have dropped much faster than disk. Disks became smaller, heads moved across the magnetic media from one track to another, but nothing has had much impact on the time to access data. The reason is the elapsed time taken to make these copies, as well as the physical space taken.
Some customer quotes are included in the "Case Study: Implementing The Electronic Data Center" section below.
In any situation where electricity demand is growing, for instance, widespread use of this scenario can postpone the data at which new distribution lines need to be installed.
Magnetic disks are limited by rotation speed, and access times are measured in milliseconds, while compute cycles are measured in nanoseconds. 4TB drives started off with a small price premium, but have since fallen as low as $189 (4.7 cents per GB).
In the United Kingdom the average person uses more than 50 litres of water a day flushing toilets (where average daily water usage is about 150 liters a day. The price spike delivered some strong profits to Western Digital and Seagate, but as we predicted at the time, those jumps were temporary; neither manufacturer has taken advantage of the situation to gouge consumers. Urban slum growth is outpacing urban growth by a wide margin.Source 12Approximately half the worlda€™s population now live in cities and towns. In sub-Saharan Africa, over 80 percent of the population depends on traditional biomass for cooking, as do over half of the populations of India and China.Source 14Indoor air pollution resulting from the use of solid fuels [by poorer segments of society] is a major killer. For each indicator, countries were divided into five roughly equal groups, according to what level the countries had achieved by the start of the period (1960 or 1980).



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