Storage places around binghamton,plastic sheds at homebase xhose,garden sheds kettering uk weather - Review

We're sorry, earlier versions of Internet Explorer have become too unsafe to use, and we can not allow them access to the secure part of our website. We will never pass your personal information on to any third parties, which is why we don't ask you whether or not we need your permission to do so!Find out more about our Privacy Policy. One more thing, we need to confirm your email address just to make sure we only send our newsletter out to those who really want it. After lunch we drove along the picturesque riverside parkway, stopping to check out the new golf course at A’SmugglerA•s Glen.A“ It had been carved out of the Pines and rock.
We walked by and admired a casting of females in bronze, a tribute to the early leaders of the Canadian Suffragette movement. Behind the Main Parliament building sits an elegant Library, circular in shape and faced in brown brick. From Parliament Hill, we walked along busy Rideau Street, passing another eye catcher in stone.
If you here the name A’RideauA“ mentioned several times, it is because it is on many named places in Ottawa. Next to the VeteranA•s Monument is an architectural vision in steel, glass and gray granite. The Cathedral of Notre Dame and a seminary, both on the PLace De Armes, had been their earliest constructions. The business district has broad boulevards and many, many new glass-faced and towering office buildings. The huge complex of the Montreal hospital completes the crowded space on Rue Sherbrooke, just below the A’Mount,A“ for which Montreal is named. We walked along the busy River front street of Rue Commune, watching the horse drawn buggies and bicycles compete with congested people and auto traffic. We ventured into Simons and took the escalator down into the A’underground city.A“ It is a connected stretch, of all of the stores above ground, with many more food courts , coffee shops and shopping centers. La starbucks and then climbed up to the surface, like some latter day Eloi, from the movie Time Machine. I asked the hotel concierge to book us reservations at the A’Auberge Vieux PortA“ on Rue Commune, for dinner. After the fireworks, like a huge receding tidal flow, the many thousands of visitors began to recede and exit the old port area. Gboth had to figure out the French translation for the English idiom A’to each his own.A“ It was sunny and pleasant out.
The first floor contained 18th century French furnishings and a panoply of silver ware and Canadian tea services from the 1800A•s.
We descended, by elevator, to the basement and walked across the street using the underground tunnel. We watched and enjoyed the street performers and the thousands of strollers as we finished lunch. It was late afternoon as we walked back to the hotel, stopping by for wine and cheese in Suite #701.
Situated in the centre of Chicago this accommodation is also perfectly placed to see the windy city (below). There are plenty of quirky places available including this cute Cornish cabin called Jack Sparrow's House located in Cornwall (below).
Across the North Sea these cubehouses put everything on their end in the port city of Rotterdam. DESCRIPTION: Although few ancient Chinese maps are extant, it is evident from various descriptions in early geographical literature and Korean copies and imitations of old Chinese maps that the Terrestrial Continent was centered around China, encircled by a large ring of water quite similar to Homera€™s Oceanus, and further enclosed by an imaginary outer continent (#105, #254, #255, #256).
The subject of this monograph is a map referred to as Yoktae chewang honil kangnido [Map of historical emperors and kings and of integrated borders and terrain], also known as the Honil kangni yoktae kukto chi to [Map of integrated regions and terrains and of historical countries and capitals], and hereafter will be simply referred to as the Kangnido. According to the preface found in China€™s Yangcha€™on chip, the map is a synthesis of two earlier Chinese maps, an early 14th century (~1330) map by Li Tse-min [Zemin] and another map from the late 14th century (~1370) by Cha€™ing Cha€™n [Qing Jun], both maps now lost however. The place to begin discussion of this very unusual map is with its preface, the crucial part of which is translated here from the text on the Ryukoku copy, with reference to the closely similar version in Cha€™A?an Chin's collected works, the Yangcha€™on chip. Takahashi Tadashi has shown that the Kangnidoa€™s Chinese transcriptions of place-names in southwest Asia, Africa, and Europe come from Persianized Arabic originals.
The European part of the map, which is said to contain some 100 names, has not yet been the object of an individual study, and no details of this section of the Kangnido seem to have been published.
Cha€™A?an Chin observed in his preface that the Kuang yu ta€™u had only sketchy treatment of the area east of the Liao River and of Korea. The last major element of the map to be supplied, as far as the Koreans were concerned, was Japan.
It is generally assumed by Korean cartographical specialists that this map, brought back in 1401, was the basis for the representation of Japan on the Kangnido. The northeastern coast of Africa, as well as Arabia, Asia Minor and the Mediterranean Sea with Italy and Spain were, as a whole, known to the Chinese from the 12th century, either by description, or, in the case of the African and Arabian coasts, from their own experience.
Prior to the Age of Great Discoveries, the African world below the Sahara, by all indications, was essentially an enigma to geographers in Europe.
From the other side, the Arabs undoubtedly possessed considerable advantages that enabled them to venture across the dry lands and beyond.
While numerous places in North Africa were mentioned by Chinese authors of the 8th and 9th centuries, it is more difficult to establish a clear milestone for the advance of Chinaa€™s knowledge concerning tropical Africa. Returning to Cha€™A?an Chin and Li Huia€™s map, the delineation of the southern half of Africa is of particular interest. The fact that the names of the Chinese cities on China€™s map are all the same as on the maps from 1320, further substantiates that the basic content of the map, as a whole, must date back to the famous Chinese cartographer Chu Ssu-pena€™s own time. Whatever the emphasis of the cartographer, rivers as a rule, were the most prominent landmarks in every Chinese map; and for the inland areas (central Asia especially) China€™s map is a good example of the Korean conformity to Chinese tradition, and we see the magnitude of rivers and other water bodies greatly exaggerated. Another contributing factor in the mapa€™s remarkable knowledge of the West is that which was obtained as a result of the near conquest of the entire known [inhabited] world, or oikoumene, by the Mongols during the 13th century.
The overall disposition and bulk of the different components of the Kangnido at first make an odd appearance. Little is known about how the Kangnido came to Japan, but it probably arrived there independently on three separate occasions. The graphic above illustrates a proposed hypothetical development or a€?transitiona€? of the Korean world map, beginning with the Kangnido of 1402 through to the Cha€™onhado [map of all under heaven] in the 16th century (see #231).
This information permits the conclusion that the Kangnido was probably often copied in Korea during the 15th and 16th centuries. Thus Japan is righted and put in its proper place, the respective masses of Korea, China, and Africa are brought into more accurate relation, and England and Scandinavia emerge from Europe. Movable type printing with cast metal movable type, which Korea had pioneered among the East Asian nations in 1242, underwent considerable development and refinement under the 15th century kings; by the time Gutenberg perfected his press in 1454, hundreds of editions of books in Chinese and several in Korean had been printed in Korea with movable type.
The spirit that animated all of these projects, and that marks the 15th century as perhaps Koreaa€™s greatest, was both national and international in character, and showed a high degree of independent thinking. In addition to practical administrative concerns, mapmaking served to strengthen the national prestige and royal power.
The Honil kangni yoktae kukto chi to [Map of Integrated Lands and Regions of Historical Countries and Capitals, short name Kangnido] is a world map that was made in Korea in 1402, the second year of the reign of Taejong of Joseon.
It is the second oldest surviving world map from East Asia, after the similar Chinese Da Ming Hun Yi Tu, part of a tradition begun in the 1320s when geographical information about western countries became available via Islamic geographers in the Mongol empire.
Chin had returned from a trip to China in the summer of 1399, probably bringing the two Chinese maps with him, and both ministers had just completed reporting on land surveys of Koreaa€™s northern frontiers to the royal court. In the fourth year of the Jianwen era (1402), Gim Sahyeong and Yi Mu, and later Li Hui, analyzed the two Chinese maps and combined these two maps into a single map. The map depicts the general form of the Old World, from Africa and Europe in the west to Japan in the east although the western portion is much smaller than its actual size.
Place names based on traditional Chinese knowledge and Islamic knowledge coexist separately. Chinese Exploration: Some have used this map as evidence of early global exploration by China.
It is one of the oldest surviving world maps from East Asia although the exact date of creation remains unknown. The place names of China on the map reflect the political situation in 1389, or the 22nd year of the reign of the Hongwu Emperor. Relationship to other maps: Maps had for centuries played an important role in the government of such a vast country, and surviving examples on stone dating from AD 1137 (Book II, #218) but based on much earlier surveys, show great accuracy, using a grid system. By the early years of the 14th century, when Mongol domination over much of Eurasia created favorable conditions for east-west communication, Islamic maps of Europe and Africa had found their way to China, encouraging Chinese cartographers to create world maps incorporating the new information. Scholars consider that the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu was ultimately based on a world map named Shengjiao Guangbei Tu (e???•™a»?e?«a?–). Compared to the Kangnido, the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu provides more detailed information on Mongolia and Central Asia and India.
It replicates the curvature of the Earth by compression of areas furthest away from China (most obviously the extreme horizontal squeeze of Europe), their reduced size making both a geographical and a political statement. The European coverage goes only as far as the new portolan mapping, showing the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas.
Hunyi jiangli lidai guodu zhi tu[General map of the distances and the historic capitals]: Honkoo-ji Tokiwa Museum of Historical Materials, Shimabara, Nagasaki prefecture. Chinaa€™s towns and cities, its river systems, and the Great Wall are all shown on the map. Cha€™A?ana€™s own role was probably important, even though he insists that he only stood in the background and a€?enjoyably watched the making of the map.a€? But he was being modest and tactful, since he was younger in age and junior in rank to the two ministers.
A A A  The European part of the map, which is said to contain some 100 names, has not yet been the object of an individual study, and no details of this section of the Kangnido seem to have been published.
They eat and contaminate food, damage structures and property, and transmit parasites and diseases to other animals and humans.
Your current browser won't work with any of the secure areas of our website - including logging into the member area and, if you're booking a place on Canopy and Stars, the online booking feature. You can find out more about our hand-picked places to stay, be the first to receive some fantastic offers and gain an insight into the inner-workings of the collective Sawday's brain (don't say we didn't warn you). Please update to a modern browser to improve your general internet experience on our site as well as others. The rascally Americans had burned the place, during the War of 1812, to shut the British military supply line down.
He was the unlucky British Subaltern who had been routed from town by the rascally Americans, before they torched everything.
We enjoyed the meal and our surroundings, counting ourselves lucky to be here hale and healthy, sipping wine and enjoying a meal at a nice resort. We walked along the River for a bit then sat in front of our rooms, admiring the visage of the River and the comings and goings along it.
Check-in was a bit hectic, as the beleaguered valet scurried to the hotel lot to retrieve exiting cars and park incoming. It sits strategically on the Ottawa River, astride the border of Ontario and Quebec Provinces.
In 1867, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Ontario and New Brunswick had been merged into the New Nation of Canada. Then we wandered a bit enjoying the spectacle of a NationA•s Capitol in Summer, tourist throngs enjoying their heritage.
The Chateau Fairmont Laurier is a turreted fairy style castle in the grand manner of the Canadian Rail Road mega hotels. The British had originally constructed the canal as a system for military transport from 1826-1832. Canada is self sufficient in its oil needs, getting most of its supply from the oil fields in Alberta. A’ (Darcy had beena founder of the Candian Republic but was assiassinated near Parliament Hill in 1867.) It sits at the end of the Sparks St. They marched, wheeled and stood at arms in synchronized movement to the delight of the crowd. Finally, the pipers wailed out the stirring melody of A’Oh Canada,A“ the Canadian National Anthem. For $6, we entered this stone and glass pyramid, marveling at the size and grandeur of the facility. It is an interesting portrait of native Canadian life on the far shores of the Arctic Ocean. Throngs of tourists were already headed up to Parliament Hill to watch the nightly sound and light show projected onto parliament Building. We walked back along Elgin to our hotel, where we settled in with our books and waited for Morpheus to claim us.
A party of 39 French Missionaries, Sulpician Fathers from Paris, under the direction of Monsignor Maisoneauve comprised the entourage. It is a single-story collection of pricey artistA•s shops, featuring hand-made pottery, jewelry, paintings and other items for the discerning shopper. It really is an A’underground cityA“ that frozen Montrealers can use during the harsh Winter. On etage quatre, we found an entire collection of Dutch and Italian painters from the 1600A•s and 1700A•s. A monsoon rainstorm, the night before, had given us water in the basement, and that awful armpit smell of mold, as a return present.
This map of the world was made in Korea in 1402, the second year of the reign of Taejong of Joseon. Li Tse-min, of whom we know nothing save that he flourished around 1330, produced a ShA?ng-chiao kuang-pei ta€™u [Map for the Diffusion of Instruction]. We do not know how many tens of millions of li there are from China in the center to the four seas at the outer limits, but in compressing and mapping it on a folio sheet several feet in size, it is indeed difficult to achieve precision; that is why [the results of] the mapmakers have generally been either too diffuse or too abbreviated.
But the real cartographer, even though Cha€™A?an minimizes his role, was Li Hui, whose entire career was in rather low-ranking but often special positions.
While some of Takahashia€™s matches do not command credence in early-modern Chinese phonological terms, he generally makes a convincing case.
The Mediterranean is clearly recognizable, as are the Iberian and Italian peninsulas and the Adriatic, but until the place-names can be read and interpreted it will be impossible to come to any firm understanding of it.
His language suggests that some image of Korea, however deficient, was on the original Kuang yu ta€™u (#227) and that this was supplemented or replaced by Li Hui. At this particular moment in time, Koreaa€™s relations with the Japanese were very difficult owing to the continuing problem of Japanese marauders, who were beyond the ability of the Ashikaga Shogunate to control. As maps of Japan go in this period, the outline on this one is unusually good: the positioning of Kyushu with respect to Honshu is quite accurate, and the bend north of the Kanto area is indicated better than on many of the Gyoki - style maps then current. Aside from the effect of the inhospitable barriers surrounding the region, two great retarding factors that hindered the Europeans from crossing the immense waste, or from sailing into the tropical waters, was their belief in the Ocean of Darkness [Atlantic] and the fear of extreme heat on land and in the water further south.
The earliest Chinese reference to North Africa can be found in the Ching-hsing-chi [An Account of Travels and Experiences], written by Ta Huan in 762 A.D. In the first place, the shape of the continent, which is basically triangular, and its general orientation, south, are clearly recognizable. However, the Kangnido map of the world presents a totally different emphasis from that of Chu Ssu-pen. Similarly along the coast from China to Africa, major rivers such as the Red, Mekong, Menam, Salween, Ganges, Indus, Tigris, and Euphrates are laid out in an unmistakable sequence in order to bring forth the locations of the many states and cities between them.a€?The treatment of the western regions is also very interesting in that it includes about 100 place-names for Europe and about 35 for Africa (unfortunately, though, it has not been possible for scholars to identify many of them). And a final point of interest concerning this remarkable map is that it could not possibly have benefited from the information which the Chinese explorer Cheng Ho certainly had brought back five years later concerning the peninsularity of India. On the one hand, there is nothing formulaic or mandated about its structure, such as the traditional European T-in-O scheme, or the wheel arrangement of the quasi-cosmographic cha€™onhado of later Korean popularity (see #231).
China and India, like a monstrous cell that had not yet divided, make up a dominating mass that overfills the entire center of the map. A map whose composition was guided by the nation's top educator and Confucian ideologist, and presided over by two ministers of state, was surely destined for display in a prominent, central place in the capital. Both the Ryukoku and Honmyo-ji copies were evidently part of the loot from Hideyoshia€™s invasion of Korea (1592-1598).
However, there are some scholars that will argue that this illustration should be reversed and that the Cha€™onhado design preceded the Kangnido world concept, at least in China.
But the map as a whole, and particularly its treatment of India and Africa, strongly evokes the Kangnido. Finally, King Sejong in 1443 invented the Korean alphabet, an amazingly original and scientific system which still serves as the writing system of Korea and which is the only indigenous alphabetic system in use among the East Asian countries. Koreans did not merely copy the Chinese culture they imported, but recast and it into forms and institutions that were distinctively different from Chinaa€™s. At this time, Joseon needed comprehensive maps for the reform of administrative districts and a move of the capital. It depicts the general form of the Old World, from Africa and Europe in the west to Japan in the east.
The map currently in RyA«koku University (hereafter referred to as the RyA«koku map) has gathered scholarly attention since the early 20th century.
Since Li Zemina€™s map had problems, they added the enlarged Korea, and also appended a map of Japan. It contains the cartographic knowledge of Afro-Eurasia that cannot be found in the east in the pre-Mongol period. These areas are depicted in great detail while place names are sparsely distributed in northwestern Eurasia.
The knowledge of the contour of Africa predates the European explorations of Vasco da Gama. China began to explore the territories to the west from the embassy of Zhang Qian in 126 B.C.
The original text was written in classical Chinese, but Manchu labels were later superimposed on them. It depicts the general form of the Old World, placing China in the center and stretching northward to Mongolia, southward to Java, eastward to central Japan, and westward to Africa and Europe. Japanese scholar Miya Noriko speculated on the motivation behind it: Although the Hongwu Emperor, first of the Ming dynasty, drove the Mongol Yuan Dynasty out of China in 1368, Mongols maintained military power that posed a real threat to the new dynasty.
By then the Chinese had also developed the magnetic compass, and in the 13th century western versions of that device allowed European cartography, almost abandoned after the fall of the western Roman Empire, to catch up with Chinese standards of accuracy. In Manchuria, Changbai Mountain, where the foundation myth of the Manchu Aisin Gioro imperial family was set, is overly portrayed. Outside China, sub-Saharan Africa is depicted in a good approximation of the correct shape, complete with mountains near the southern tip. Unlike the African lake, those seas are not shaded with wave symbols, and nor is the nearby Caspian Sea, mapped in Islamic style with two islands, suggesting that the whole area is based on a single Islamic map. Rats live and thrive in a wide variety of climates and conditions and are often found in and around homes and other buildings, on farms, and in gardens and open fields.A IDENTIFICATIONPeople dona€™t often see rats, but signs of their presence are easy to detect. It sits across the road from where we were staying for the evening, at A’The Glen House resort.A“ It is a small complex, of two story buildings, that sits along a quiet inlet of the St. We checked into our room, #147 of the Hickory Woods section, ($170 night) and then walked down to the water to sit and enjoy the bright sunshine on the river. We sipped a glass of Cabernet, as we read our books and then drifted off to sleep for a pleasant conversation with Ozzie nelson. It is a six-blocks long string of open air restaurants, tourist shops, street performers and office workers, lolling for lunch or a break. They are an eye catching combination of London and Paris in the 1600A•s, though constructed here in the 1860A•s. It had originally been founded by ex patriate Americans, fleeing the American Revolution in the 1770A•s. I wrote up my notes as we sipped a glass of cabernet and then drifted into a conversation with Ozzie Nelson. We settled into our room, read for a time and then drifted into the welcome abyss of sleep. After coffee, we found the A’Canadian Hall.A“ It is an interesting collection of rural and Winter tableaus celebrating Beau Canada. It is a two story , comfortable place with brick walls, wrought iron railings and lots of charm. It thrived as a fur trading center between Europe and all of the interior of North America.
The Casino, Dome and stadium stand against the skyline as markers of the cityA•s prominence. The temp was warm and in the 80A•s out now, but in the Winter, this place is frigid, with temps falling well below zero.
We sat in dimly lit elegance in the 5 star basement restaurant.Obviously our hotel concierge had mistaken us for people of means instead of the casual types that we are. Hebert, Suzor-Cote, Paul Peel, Helen McNichols and others were represented in a delightful gallery of oils that pleases the eye. We cranked up the air conditioning and drove to a nearby Tim HortonA•s for soup and sandwiches, while the condo cooled off. It easily predates any world map known from either China or Japan and is therefore the oldest such work surviving in the East Asian cartographical tradition, and the only one prior to the Ricci world maps of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The map by the Tiantai monk Cha€™ing ChA?n (1328-1392) must have been made some forty or fifty years later; it was called Hun-i chiang-li ta€™u [Map of the Territories of the One World]. His map of Korea, which was separately known, was almost certainly the basis for the Korean part of the world map. One of the more interesting correspondences is the name placed by the mountains near the Ptolemaic twin lakes that are the source of the Nile. Li is known to have produced a map of Korea, called the Pa€™altodo, [Map of the Eight Provinces], and it was probably a version of this that appears today on the Kangnido. Diplomatic initiatives were in progress, and coastal defenses and strategies were undergoing constant development. But for the joining of Shikoku to Honshu, the three main islands (adding Kyushu; Hokkaido, of course, not included at that time) make a very decent appearance.
As a matter of fact, the first terrestrial globe ever manufactured in China (1267) owes its existence to the Arabic scholar Djamal-ud-Din.
In spite of the dangers, real and imagined, adventurers from the Greco-Roman days down to the time of Henry the Navigator persisted in probing the unknown beyond the Canaries, some passing by Cape Verde and others reaching as far as the coast of Sierre Leone. As the map title suggests, it aims at showing the locations of a€?all the countries and major cities in history in a comprehensive coveragea€?. For those areas that are identifiable, in the northern part of Africa the Sahara is colored in black, like the Gobi in so many Chinese maps (including the famous Kuang Yu Ta€™u, #227), and the position of Alexandria is indicated by the placement of a prominent pagoda-like object representing the famous Pharos. Only in a subsequent version of about 1580 (in the Imperial Palace at Peking) is India shown as a pronounced, separate peninsula between southeast Asia and Africa. The attempt here was to study the best maps available in China, Korea, and Japan, and put together a comprehensive, indeed a€?integrateda€? [honil], map that included every known part of the world, truly a breathtaking objective by the cartographic standards of any nation at that time.


It was probably on a screen or a wall in some important palace building frequented by the king and senior officials. The Ryukoku map was reportedly given by Hideyoshi to the Honganji, an important Buddhist temple in Kyoto. According to Korean historian Gari Ledyard the key element in this proposed hypothetical development is the Arabian peninsula, which with the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea forms a peninsula between the two rivers on the Cha€™onhado. It also seems conceivable that it is reflected in an interesting map entitled Yoji chondo (Yeoji jeondo) [the Complete Terrestrial Map], dated about 1775 (illustrated below). This is good evidence that the Kangnido tradition was not broken by the Hideyoshi wars, but stayed alive in Korea for two more centuries.
It is similar to the 15th century Kangnido in general structure: large Asia, small Africa and Europe, undefined India.
1419-1450) and his son King Sejo (r.1455-1468) extended Korean cartographical foundations by standardizing linear measurement and assembling detailed distance data between Seoul and the approximately 335 districts of the country. The Kangnido is a perfect example of this process: China, either as originator or transmitter, provided Korea with most of the materials for the map, but the transformation and processing of those materials into a genuine world map was conceived and executed in Korea. It was also pursuing a restoration of its northern border and relocation of its population, as well as responding to coastal raids by Japanese pirates. Although, overall, it is less geographically accurate than its Chinese cousin, most obviously in the depiction of rivers and small islands, it does feature some improvements (particularly the depictions of Korea and Japan, and a less cramped version of Africa).
The other map is the Tenri map, located in Tenri University and is called by a similar name (a¤§??Za?‹a?–). Li Hui supplemented many gaps and omissions on Li Zemina€™s map with Koreaa€™s own map, and added a map of Japan, making an entirely new map. Place names presented on the map suggest that the western portion of the map reflects roughly the situation of the early 14th century.
Names based on the former were placed to the north and east of Besh Baliq even if they are actually located to the west.
They correspond to the territories of Ilkhanate and the rival Golden Horde respectively, reinforcing Ilkhanate as the main source of information.
In particular, the southern tip of Africa is quite clearly depicted, as well as a river that may correspond to the Orange River in Southern Africa.
The map was created in China sometime during the Ming Dynasty and handed over to the new rulers of China, the Manchus. Others maintain a cautious attitude, suggesting that what was revised in 1389 is probably a source map of the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu and that the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu itself was created much later.
The situation was changed in 1388 when Uskhal Khan of Northern Yuan was killed and the Khubilaid line of succession was terminated. Other extant maps considered to be based on Lia€™s map are some copies of the Kangnido (1402) and a pair of maps named Dongnan Haiyi Tu (??±a?—?µ·a¤·a?–) and Xinan Haiyi Tu (e??a?—?µ·a¤·a?–), which is recorded in the Kuang Yu Tu (a»?e?‡a?–)(1555) by Luo Hongxian (#227). It presents India as a peninsula while it sinks into the a€?Chinese continenta€? on the Kangnido.
The use of color is particularly effective within China itself, including elegant touches like the ochre tint of the Huang He [Yellow River]. The interior of the continent is extraordinary: a river with twin sources (the common depiction in Classical and Islamic maps of the Nile) starts in the south of the continent, but enters the Red Sea, while the Nile, contrary to the information in non-Chinese maps of the era (though in conformity with a reported Arab geographical legend that farther south from the Sahara Desert is a great lake, far greater than the Caspian Sea) has its source in a vast inland sea.
The original text was written in Classical Chinese, but Manchu labels were later superimposed on them. In California, the most troublesome rats are two introduced species, the roof rat (Figure 1) and the Norway rat (Figure 2).
You can either update your current web browser to the latest version, or you could use an alternative browser. The fir trees, and the bucolic scenery of the area, much belie the horrendous snowfalls that blanket the area in Winter.
Maybe that's why Indians and British soldiers, from the ButlerA•s Rangers, burned Buffalo to the ground a few months later. We listened to a musical group, watched another street actor and then browsed a few shops, buying some postcards and stamps.
The 1867 Act of Confederation, by the British Parliament, had established Canada as a separate nation. Roof lines, flourished in black wrought iron, and the cathedral shaped windows reflected the beauty of the French influence on the two flanking buildings. We looked out, from our perch on Parliament hill, and could see the twin silver spires of the Cathedral of Notre Dame and the beginnings of A’Embassy RowA“ along Sussex Street.
We drove by the enormous Beau Arts Center, the huge War Museum and the much used Museum of Civilization.
Noting the the waterfall on the Ottawa River, he remarked that it looked like the curtains (Rideau) in his apartment in Paris.
Americans had looked down the sights of their rifles at these men in two wars and fought alongside of them in a dozen others.
It is carved from the Northwest Territories and is peopled by native Inuits along the Arctic shores of Canada. We found and entered the A’Blue Cactus Grille.A“ It is open and airy like Sloppy JoeA•s Grille in Key West.
At Darcy Mc GeeA•s Irish Pub, we stood for a time and listened to the Sons of Scotland play some stirring music on their bag pipes.
We got our tickets at the kiosk and boarded a delightful, open-air, double-decker bus for the ride.($35 each) it was 80 degrees, cloudy and comfortable out. From 1715 through 1815 the small settlement had been surrounded by a stone wall, like cities in medieval Europe. In 1759, at the climactic battle of Montreal (fought in Quebec City) France lost all of Canada to the English. To combat the harsh temperatures, the city had developed over 33 km of A’underground.A“ Two underground boulevards, paralleling busy Rue Ste. We climbed down from our lofty perch and sought out our chatty van driver for a ride back to the Hotel Place De Armes. The Main altar is a series of gilded carvings, on three levels, depicting various religious themes. On this end of the waterfront, sits a distinctive tower clock, It rests on a point overlooking the Cartier Bridge and the St. We stopped at a Burger King, for bottles of Eau Dasani, and let our body temperatures cool down.
On Rue Francis Xavier, we found something promising called A’Cafe De Mateo.A“ It was hot and we were tiring. It seemed that half of Montreal was in the old port area having dinner and getting ready for the fire works. This massive Cathedral holds a smaller version of the enormous, four-collumned Throne of St.
We sat for a time in the PLace de Armes, watching the interesting throngs wander to and fro. We chose the outside patio of A’Le Grande TerraceA“ and settled in for Caesar salads with Salmon.
We retreated to our room, where we had cheese, croissants and finished off the Mondavi Cabernet as we read our books and awaited sleep. However, by the middle of the eighth century the overland route across Central Asia had become paralyzed, and China was compelled to reorient herself to the warm seas and thus embarked on nearly seven centuries of commercial relations with the Near East. Although it is no longer preserved in Korea itself, there are three versions in Japan; of these the copy in the Ryukoku University Library (Kyoto) is acknowledged to be the earliest, and in the best condition. Both of these maps made their way to Korea in 1399 through the agency of the Korean ambassador, Chin Shih-Heng (1341-1407), and were combined in 1402 by Li Hui and Cha€™A?an.
In the 4th year of the Jianwen era (1402), Left Minister Chin [Shih-Heng] of Sangju, and Right Minister Yi [Mu] of Tanyang, during moments of rest from their governing duties, made a comparative study of these maps and ordered Li Hui, an orderly, to collate them carefully and then combine them into a single map.
Judging by Cha€™A?ana€™s description of the monk Cha€™ing ChA?na€™s Hun-i chiang-li ta€™u, it was probably an ordinary historical map of China, compiled in the late 14th century. Though not on the Ryukoku copy of the Kangnido, the Tenri University copy shows the Chinese transcription Zhebulu hama, which Takahashi identifies with Persianized Arabic Djebel alqamar [Mountains of the Moon]. All this was backed by a general Korean effort to improve the governmenta€™s knowledge of Japan, and this involved maps in particular.
But this splendid effort seems to be vitiated by orienting the Japanese portion so that west is at the top.
The same holds true for the western half of one of the previously mentioned sources, Li Tse-mina€™s map of ca. The source of the Nile and the actual shape of the African continent, however, remained largely subject to speculation among the Europeans. The former treatise mentions, among other things, Mo-lin [Maghrib el Aksa, or the Western Territory] and Cha€™iu-sa-lo [Djezyret], the desert expanse between them, and the customs of the inhabitants. The only European exceptions seem to be the world maps of Albertinus de Virga (1415, #240) and the one in the so-called Medicean or Laurentian Sea Atlas (#233), the lattera€™s presumptive date of 1351 being subject to controversy primarily because of its remarkable depiction of the continent of Africa. Hence, no names are given for the southern half of Africa and the Indian Ocean except for the area around Zanzibar that was already the key trading center in East Africa.
The interior of the continent is filled in by a body of water surrounding an island that is designated as Huang-sha [desert].
The maps of this type are rightly regarded by such authorities as Fuchs as the most magnificent examples of Yuan cartography, completely over-shadowing all contemporary European or Arabic world maps.
To the west, the Arabian peninsula, with a clearly delineated Persian Gulf, and the African continent, with its tip correctly pointing south (and not east, as on many early European maps), hang thinly but with assurance, as if they belonged exactly where they are. But a good understanding of its function is hampered by the fact that we know nothing of its history after its completion. This institution ultimately was divided into two branches, east and west, of which the latter (Nishi Honganji) is today associated with Ryukoku University, which explains the mapa€™s present location. This map, while clearly influenced by some Sino-Jesuit world map, also shows a strong structural similarity to the Kangnido, as its owner, Yi Cha€™an, has pointed out. Europe and Africa are much more precisely drawn however, and it is possible to make out words such as a€?Atlantic Oceana€? (a¤§e????‹) Mediterranean sea (a?°a?­?µ·), or Italy (?„?a¤§e‡?a?z).
As a result of these efforts, an excellent national map was produced in 1463, and a complete geographical survey of the nation, the Tongguk yoji sungam, was compiled in 1481. At least since Unified Silla and Goryeo periods, Korea was actively trading with Arab nations.
It has been suggested that, despite showing most of the rest of the world, the Korean officials who produced the map were less interested in portraying current images of neighboring Asian countries than in presenting an up-to-date image of Korea itself. It is presumed that the RyA«koku map was copied in Korea but it is not clear when the copy was brought to Japan. It is currently located at the Honkoo-ji Tokiwa Museum of Historical Materials, Shimabara, Nagasaki prefecture in Japan.
In the East, geographic information about the west was not updated in the post-Mongol period unless Europeans such as Matteo Ricci brought Western knowledge. For example, the Talas River, which was important for the Tang Dynasty was placed to the northeast of Besh Baliq although its actual direction is northwest. To the north of the African continent, beyond the unexplored a€?blacka€? central mass, a pagoda is represented for the lighthouse of Alexandria, and the Arab word Misr for Cairo (al-QA?hira) and Mogadishu (Maqdashaw) are shown among others. The Buddhist monk Faxian was the first Chinese to sail into the Indian Ocean in the beginning of the fifth century AD, visiting India and Sri Lanka by ship.
It has been kept in the Imperial Palace under the title Qingzi Qian Yitong Tu (??…a­—c°?a?€cµ±a?–) in some catalogs. Comparative studies of these extant maps are conducted to restore the content of Lia€™s original world map. It is presumed that India was portrayed as a peninsula on Lia€™s map but shrunk by Korean Confucians due to their anti-Buddhist policy.
This is likely to be based on vague information about the several great lakes in the region of modern Tanzania, gained during the course of direct trade between China and southeast Africa. The prominent peninsula on the west coast of the Chinese landmass is Malaysia, but India is represented merely as a collection of place-names northwest of Arabia. Hand-colored woodcut map of China and the World, printed on multiple sheets and folding into later orange-papered covers decorated in lotus flower designs.
Ita€™s important to know which species of rat is present in order to choose effective control strategies.Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, sometimes called brown or sewer rats, are stocky burrowing rodents that are larger than roof rats. It lies on the East end of Lake Ontario and gets the same A’lake effectA“ snow fall that Buffalo gets from Lake Erie. It is a marvelous Queen Anne style Inn, with rear porches, porticos and a steeply gabled roof line. The surrounding countryside is rural, with conical silos, the odd brace of horses and farm houses dotting the countryside. The green copper roofs, waving Maple leaf flags and crowds of tourists gave it a holiday flavor.
He has little actual official power, but is the ceremonial representative of Queen Elizabeth in Canada. Then, the departing troops lifted their colors and marched off down Rideau and Elgin to their barracks, pipers piping and drums drumming. We walked back to the hotel, had coffee in the outdoor star bucks and then retreated to out air conditioned room for a glass of Cabernet and a conversation with Ozzie Nelson.
Historians say that at first neither knew what the land comprised, or indeed wanted to own it, but fate gave it to the English. Catherine, have emerged as shopping centers, featuring bistros, cafes and all other forms of urban commerce.
McGill University, founded in 1821, is the major presence here, with over 20,000 students. We sat there for a bit and then retired to our room, where I wrote up my notes, and enjoyed a glass of cabernet. Porno shops, strip joints and sleezy bars announced that this is the place to come and slum in Montreal.
We wandered back to Rue Francis Xavier and stopped in the small Cafe De Mateo, that we had noticed earlier in the day. Today would be A’une beau jour.A“ We prepped for the day, enjoying the luxurious amenities of this grand suite. One notable consequence of this 700-year contact was the stretching of the world in Chinese maps farther westward and southwestward, and the appearance of an ever-increasing number of Arabic place-names. The principal distinguishing characteristics of the Ryukoku copy are its generally excellent condition and its preservation of the original Ch'an Chin preface. Insofar as the area east of the Liao River and our own countrya€™s territory were concerned, Tse-mina€™s map had many gaps and omissions, so Li Hui supplemented and expanded the map of our country, and added a map of Japan, making it a new map entirely, nicely organized and well worth admiration. Cha€™ing Cha€™A?n (1328-1392) was a close advisor to the Hongwu emperor (r.1368-1398), who was the founder of the Ming dynasty and himself an erstwhile monk. All in all there are about thirty-five names indicated on or near the African continent, most of them in the Mediterranean area. Pak Tonji, a military man and diplomatic specialist in Japanese affairs, made at least two trips to Japan, one in 1398-99, the other in 1401, and the second visit resulted in a map. Worse, the whole ensemble is positioned far to the south, so that the first impression of a modern observer is that the Philippines, not Japan, is under view. In fact, during the heyday of Arab settlement in southern China, Canton alone accounted for no less than 100,000 Arab residents. The Kangnido map, however, proves that the Chinese, via their Arab sources, at least as early as the end of the 13th century, had a more or less correct view of the southern extension of Africa, whereas its northwestern bulge had not been as yet recognized.
On the other hand, its broader coverage of Africa and the rest of the known world in the same scale provides a very valuable supplement to Chu Ssu-pena€™s map of southern Africa (#227). In contrast, the Mediterranean Sea is almost entirely shown as terra firma failing to blacken it in as he has other water areas, perhaps because he was not quite sure that it was indeed an ordinary sea. The extent of the lead which the Yuan cartographers had, however, may perhaps best be appreciated by comparing the Korean map with the renown Catalan Atlas of 1375, which also purported to show Asia as well as Europe, or the 14th century oikoumene (for this comparison, see #235). At the top of Africa the Mediterranean supports a less securely grasped Europe, and the entire north fades into mountains and clouds. The Ryukoku Kangnido, judging by Korean place-name indications, is a copy reflecting place-name changes made around 1460. The Honmyo-ji copy (paper scroll), which is entitled Dai Minkoku Chizu [Map of Great Ming], was given to that institution by Kato Kiyomasa, its major patron and one of the senior Japanese commanders on the Korean expedition.
During the 1430a€™s Sejong built an astronomical observatory and a variety of astronomical instruments and clocks.
One claims that it was purchased by A?tani KA?zui and others assume that it was obtained during the invasion of Korea (1592-1598) and given to the West Honganji temple by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The most important difference is that the place names of China have been updated to those of the Ming Dynasty while the original showed administrative divisions of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. Based on two Chinese maps from the 14th century, the Shengjiao guangbei tu [Big map that shows the pronunciation of place names] and the Hunyi jiangli tu [General map of the distances also showing historical capitals [of China]]. Similarly, India and Tibet are based on traditional Chinese knowledge, mainly gained by Buddhist pilgrimage up to the Tang Dynasty. Afterwards, China engaged heavily in sea travel, especially following the expansion of Islam on the continent in the eighth century.
It is currently kept in protective storage at the First Historical Archive of China, in Beijing. The Da Ming Hun Yi Tu is especially important because Luoa€™s copies dropped most place names except for coastal areas and islands and the Kangnido was influenced by Korean cartography. Africa and Arabia on the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu resemble those on the Kangnido while Europe is considerably different. Another manifestation of the same problem, dependence on external sources for geographical information, can be seen to the south of Korea, at the far right side of the map, where Japan, over-sized and misshapen, confusingly meets the much more correctly sized and positioned Taiwan. The texts taken from the Chinese original are particularly interesting: the legend on the right gives details of the 29 strategic border crossings, and that on the left describes 33 foreign countries, with the European and African place names taken from Jesuit sources such as Riccia€™s 1602 map. Their burrows are found along building foundations, beneath rubbish or woodpiles, and in moist areas in and around gardens and fields (Figure 3). Even today many of the settlements, along the 120 miles canal, are peopled by descendants of the original diggers in distinctive irish conclaves.In Winter, the canal is drained to a depth of two feet. Two of the A’toy soldiers,A“ with their red jackets and black bear helmets, stood guard at the gates of the home. The Rideau Canal, the Ottawa River and the government complexes and embassies all create a tapestry of forested urban beauty. It is spacious, airy and luxurious, befitting the arm and the leg that they charge you to stay here.
Much of the old Brownstone mansions, from those who had made it in Montreal, had been converted for college use. It looks like city officials allow A’Le BumsA“ to sleep and congregate on this far stretch of the waterfront. Laurent and then walked up and into the small but distinctive area known as A’China Town.A“ The requisite signs, in neon red and yellow announcing the lord knows what in Chinese characters, caught our attention. A perusal of the menu, in French, told us that this was going to be a $300 dinner, with few choices for Vegetarians. While the Terrestrial Continent remained intact until the Jesuit era in Chinese cartography with Fr. Painted on silk and still preserving its colors well, it is a very large map, nearly square at 171 x 164 cm (5 x 4 ft). Apart from its use as a source for the Kangnido, nothing is known of Cha€™ing ChA?na€™s map. A later report quoted his statement that in 1402 he had been given a map by the title: Bishu no kami, Minamoto Mitsusuke.
A possible explanation for this is that the cartographers had run out of space on the right (east) edge of the Kangnido, and so had to place Japan in the open sea to the south.
It too must go back to an Islamic prototype that, like the globe, belonged to the later 13th century. Through the ensuing long period of Sino-Arab trade and intellectual exchange, the Chinese, on their part, were able to accumulate a good deal of this valuable information concerning the Indian Ocean and the continent of Africa. Also his statement concerning the a€?Giant Birdsa€™ there that could swallow camels, appears almost identical to the description by Marco Polo a century later. It is hardly believable that such a representation should be casual or the result of mere speculation. The relief features and an additional stream flowing westward in South Africa roughly corresponding to the Orange River, indicates that Cha€™A?an Chin was not entirely negligent on the least inhabited part of that continent. On the eastern side of the map, a relatively massive Korea, easily occupying as much space as the whole African continent (which, to be sure, is unduly small) identifies itself as a very important place, while Japan, as if randomly flipped off the fingers into the ocean, floats uncertainly in the South China Sea.
Nothing is reported concerning the provenance of the Tenri University copy (silk scroll, no title), but according to a study by Unno Kazutaka, it is a a€?sister mapa€? to the Honmyo-ji scroll; his persuasive analysis of the place names indicates that both maps were copied in Korea about 1568, from a version already cartographically distant from the Ryukoku copy. This provided a foundation for continued research and observation in the reigns of his successors.
To the west of the a€?olda€? India, contemporary place names of India such as Delhi, Badaun and Duwayjir Duwayqir (Persianized form of Devagiri) are shown.
The Maghreb and the Iberian peninsulas are depicted in detail, while Genoa and Venice are omitted. The Tang Dynasty writer Duan Chengshi, along with other writers, wrote detailed descriptions of Africa, its coastal commerce, and slave trade. It is also distinct from the Kangnido in the depiction of the source of the Yellow River, which looks very similar to that in Luoa€™s Kuang Yu Tu (#227). Far to the South, across the St.Lawrence, we could see the dim flashes of lightning illuminating the sky. Only the dull, matte finish of the lethal looking M-16 rifle, that they carried, alerted you to the actual reason for their presence. They were to stand in pairs, in one hour shifts as guards, at the gate of the Governor GeneralA•s house on Sussex street.
Just across from the Cathedral sits the large VeteranA•s Monument, a tribute to CanadaA•s fallen. Tourists were already strolling the small pedestrian walkway, browsing the ducks and other things you usually find in the windows of Chinese restaurants. Eatons, Simons and a score of other big name Canadian retailers were drawing them in by the hundreds.
It was first brought to scholarly notice by the Japanese historical geographer Ogawa Takuji, in 1928. By looking at maps one can know terrestrial distances and get help in the work of government. Its chief contribution to the latter is believed to have been the Chinese historical dimension, the indication of the areas and capitals of the earlier dynasties, which was accomplished by a combination of textual notes and cartographic devices. But since Japan had always appeared east of southern China on Chinese maps, there was some earlier cartographic basis for its placement there.


This being the case, the picture of Africa as given on the lower left of the reproduction is of particular interest. That China was indeed a beneficiary of this Arab monopoly can be evidenced by several Chinese world maps such as those by Chu Ssu-pen ca. Chao Ju-kuo, commissioner of the maritime trade office at Cha€™A?an-chou (Marco Poloa€™s Zaiton) which had extensive contact with the Arab merchants, and author of Chu-fan-chih (1226), provided the first account of the products from the East African coast, Somalia to Zanzibar, including an elaborate description of the ostrich and the giraffe. Most scholars such as Walter Fuchs are inclined to assume that the cartographic heritage of the Arabs had been transmitted to the Chinese, albeit incompletely and probably did not always reflect the actual experiences of their seafarers. To the left of it lies Spain, and to the southeast Arabia is outlined as a long protruding peninsula. The relative size and disposition of the three major East Asian countries reflects a plausible Korean view of the world in the early 15th century: Korea projecting itself as a major East Asian state, refurbishing its traditional view of China as the major center of civilization, and playing its eternal game of keeping Japan as far away as possible. Many projects were also carried out in meteorology and agronomy which not only led to new scientific understanding in Korea but which provided for rationalized administration and taxation.
The most obvious feature distinguishing this later version from the original Kangnido map is the more correct size and orientation of Japan. There are over 100 names for the European countries alone, including Alumangia for the Latin word Alemania [Germany]. Wang Dayuan was the first Chinese ship captain to sail into the Mediterranean Sea (by Mamluk Egypt) and as far as Morocco in North Africa during the 14th century. Matteo Ricci in the late 15th century, it is clearly evident that by the middle of the 15th century, Chinaa€™s own centrality in her concept of the world had been substantially reduced. Nearby are the home of the Canadian Premier, Stephen Harper, at 24 Sussex, and several other magnificent mansions, housing various embassies and officials. A film, depicting the early founding of Montreal and its religious history was projected upon the sheets. The entire land area was on it, all but the islands of Iki and Tsushima, so added them and doubled the scale.a€? In 1420, this report states, he formally presented this map to the Board of Rites, which was the branch of the Choson [Korean] government that handled foreign affairs. 1320 (#227), the nautical charts from Cheng Hoa€™s expedition of 1405-1433, preserved in the Wu-pei-chih (1621), and, of course, the present map under consideration, Cha€™A?an China€™s. This north-south extension and shape of Africa can be seen in the cartography of the Arabs as early as the 13th century on Ibn Saa€™ida€™s world map (Book II, #216). The large, round island east of Arabia is simply named Hai-tao [island], which apparently represents Sri Lanka (Ceylon). On the other hand, Koreans were telling themselves that theirs was not just an East Asian country, but part of the larger world.
The geographical knowledge represented in the map beyond China and Korea seems mainly a result of 14th century trade connections within the Mongol Empire. It was a 30 minute version of A’La Belle Canada,A“ featuring, in light and sound, the considerable bounty of the Canadian Republic. Actions in India, South Africa, and other venues of the British Raj, had been supported by Colonials from all members of her Common Wealth. An eccentric monk, Brother Anthony, had taken as his life's work, the task of raising money and building this huge complex in honor of St. Our French wasnA•t good enough to understand much of the rapid fire patter on the French stations. Li is mentioned by the Ming cartographer Lo Hung-Hsien (1504-64) as a contemporary and possibly as an associate of Chu Ssu-Pen (see #227).
Interestingly, the Korean makers of the Tenri and Honmyo-ji copies corrected the orientation to the north, even while substituting more conventional Gyoki-style outlines.
These cartographic portrayals of the continent of Africa pre-date the Portuguese exploratory efforts by nearly a century. It should also be mentioned that the southern tip of Africa is shown in almost the same form on Chu Ssu-pena€™s atlas Kuang YuA? Ta€™u, preserved in a copy dated 1541 - 1555 (#227) the original edition of which, the YuA?-Ta€™u, again, is dated 1320, i.e. To the east of Sri Lanka, India betrays its triangular shape only by a river, obviously the Ganges. While generally found at lower elevations, this species can occur wherever people live.Roof rats, R. After the 30 minute film, the sheets dropped and we got to spend 15 minutes wandering around this beautiful edifice.
The scholar Aoyamaa€™s careful study of the Chinese place-names on the Kangnido shows them in general accord with those on Chua€™s map, as preserved in Loa€™s Kuang yu ta€™u, but with variants that would indicate place-name changes made in 1328-1329; this suggests that the Kangnidoa€™s source map was made around 1330. They also represent the culmination of an era of Sino-Arab exchange of geographical information long before the Jesuit scholars, beginning with Matteo Ricci, ushered in another era in the late 16th century. The long river emerging to the south is the Hei-shui [Salween], and the great lake in the upper center combines the Black and the Caspian Seas. Since Chu explicitly excluded most non-Chinese areas from his map, Aoyama and others have reasoned that Li Tse-min must have found his cartographic sources for these areas elsewhere, the only plausible source being Islamic maps, which made their appearance in China under Mongol rule. Thus the cartographic expression manifested in this map of China€™s reflects the last phase of traditional Chinese cartography that, again, was conceptually based upon the idea of one single Terrestrial Continent of which Africa became considered as an arm. In the utmost northwest, Germany and France are marked phonetically, A-lu-mang-ni-a and Fa-li-si-na; here, in the West, the Azores are also shown. We sat for 90 minutes as they went through the whole extensive A’customs procedures.A“ We had grown up on the Canadian border and always resented the A’thorough look overA“ by overly officious knuckleheads. This knowledge, presumably acquired from first-hand experience and Arab contact, not only manifested itself in the emerging world concept of Chinese cartography, but also served to facilitate the spurt of maritime activities in the Indian Ocean and along the coast of East Africa in the early Ming Dynasty (late 14th, early 15th centuries). This representation of the Atlantic island group is indeed remarkable, especially on a map produced in the Far East at such an early time, when comparable detail of the Far East is scant on European maps of the same period.
In the Kyujanggak Library of Seoul National University there is a modern Korean hand copy done during the 1980s, considered highly researched and beautifully executed.
Roof rats are agile climbers and usually live and nest above ground in shrubs, trees, and dense vegetation such as ivy. A large and ornate complex, that now is a functioning gambling Casino, had been the French Pavilion at the WorldA•s Fair. But for the missing or incomplete detail in the eastern areas of Manchuria, Korea, and Japan, that map bears a very close resemblance to the Kangnido.
Of the two largest capitals in the world, as judged from the selection of symbols adopted by Chin, one is obviously Pyongyang in Korea, and the other is a European city of apparent equal importance, the position of which would suggest the city of Budapest.
Based on a legend of the temple, it has been believed naively that the HonmyA?ji map was given to KatA? Kiyomasa by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in preparation for the Korean campaigns.
In buildings, they are most often found in enclosed or elevated spaces such as attics, walls, false ceilings, and cabinets. However, the Seonjo Sillok of Korea reports that in 1593 the son of a Korean official who had surrendered to KatA? copied and offered map(s) of China and Korea to him. The roof rat has a more limited geographical range (Figure 4) than the Norway rat, preferring ocean-influenced, warmer climates. This map was discovered in the HonkA?ji temple of Shimabara, Nagasaki in 1988 and is much larger than the RyA«koku map. If you are unsure of the species, look for rats at night with a bright flashlight, or trap a few. Figure 5 illustrates some of the key physical differences between the two species of rats, while Table 1 summarizes identifying characteristics.While rats are much larger than the common house mouse or meadow vole, a young rat is occasionally confused with a mouse.
In general, very young rats have large heads and feet in proportion to their bodies, whereas those of adult mice are proportionately much smaller (Fig. They have poor eyesight, but they make up for this with their keen senses of hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Rats constantly explore and learn, memorizing the locations of pathways, obstacles, food and water, shelter, and features of their environment.
Thus, they often avoid traps and baits for several days or more following their initial placement.
While both species exhibit this avoidance of new objects, this neophobia is usually more pronounced in roof rats than in Norway rats.Both Norway and roof rats can gain entry to structures by gnawing, climbing, jumping, or swimming through sewers and entering through toilets or broken drains. While Norway rats are more powerful swimmers, roof rats are more agile and are better climbers.Norway and roof rats dona€™t get along. The Norway rat is larger and the more dominant species; it will kill a roof rat in a fight. When the two species occupy the same building, Norway rats may dominate the basement and ground floors, with roof rats occupying the attic or second and third floors. If the door is made of wood, the rat might gnaw to enlarge the gap, but this might not be necessary.Norway RatsNorway rats eat a wide variety of foods but mostly prefer cereal grains, meats, fish, nuts, and some fruits. When searching for food and water, Norway rats usually travel an area of about 100 to 150 feet in diameter; seldom do they travel any further than 300 feet from their burrows or nests. The average female Norway rat has 4 to 6 litters per year and can successfully wean 20 or more offspring annually.Roof RatsLike Norway rats, roof rats eat a wide variety of foods, but they prefer fruits, nuts, berries, slugs, and snails. Roof rats are especially fond of avocados and citrus, and they often eat fruit that is still on the tree. When feeding on a mature orange, they make a small hole through which they completely remove the contents of the fruit, leaving only the hollowed-out rind hanging on the tree.
Theya€™ll often eat the rind of a lemon, leaving the flesh of the sour fruit still hanging.
Residential or industrial areas with mature landscaping provide good habitat as does riparian vegetation of riverbanks and streams. Roof rats prefer to nest in locations off the ground and rarely dig burrows for living quarters if off-the-ground sites exist.Roof rats routinely travel up to 300 feet for food. They have an excellent sense of balance and use their long tails to steady themselves while traveling along overhead utility lines.
They move faster than Norway rats and are very agile climbers, which enables them to quickly escape predators. The average number of litters a female roof rat has per year depends on many factors, but generally it is 3 to 5 with 5 to 8 young in each litter.DAMAGERats eat and contaminate foodstuffs and animal feed. Both rat species cause problems by gnawing on electrical wires and wooden structures such as doors, ledges, corners, and wall material, and they tear up insulation in walls and ceilings for nesting.Norway rats can undermine building foundations and slabs with their burrowing activities and can gnaw on all types of materials, including soft metals such as copper and lead, as well as plastic and wood. If roof rats are living in the attic of a residence, they can cause considerable damage with their gnawing and nest-building activities. They also damage garden crops and ornamental plantings.Among the diseases rats can transmit to humans or livestock are murine typhus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis (food poisoning), and ratbite fever. If sanitation measures arena€™t properly maintained, the benefits of other measures will be lost and rats will quickly return.
Good housekeeping in and around buildings will reduce available shelter and food sources for Norway rats and, to some extent, roof rats. Neat, off-the-ground storage of pipes, lumber, firewood, crates, boxes, gardening equipment, and other household goods will help reduce the suitability of the area for rats and also will make their detection easier. Collect garbage, trash, and garden debris frequently, and ensure all garbage receptacles have tight-fitting covers. Where dogs are kept and fed outdoors, rats can become a problem if there is a ready supply of dog food.
Feed your pet only the amount of food it will eat at a feeding, and store pet food in rodent-proof containers.For roof rats in particular, thinning dense vegetation will make the habitat less desirable. Climbing hedges such as Algerian or English ivy, star jasmine, and honeysuckle on fences or buildings are conducive to roof rat infestations and should be thinned or removed if possible, as should overhanging tree limbs within 3 feet of the roof.
Coarse steel wool, wire screen, and lightweight sheet metal are excellent materials for plugging gaps and holes. Norway and roof rats are likely to gnaw away plastic sheeting, wood, caulking, and other less sturdy materials.Because rats and house mice are excellent climbers, openings above ground level must also be plugged.
Rodent proofing against roof rats, because of their greater climbing ability, usually requires more time to find entry points than for Norway rats. Roof rats often enter buildings at the roofline, so be sure that all access points in the roof are sealed. If roof rats are traveling on overhead utility wires, contact a pest control professional or the utility company for information and assistance with measures that can be taken to prevent this.Population ControlWhen food, water, and shelter are available, rat populations can increase quickly.
While the most permanent form of control is to limit food, water, shelter, and access to buildings, direct population control often is necessary.A For controlling rats indoors, using traps is best. When rodenticides (toxic baits) are used in structures, rats can die in inaccessible locations such as within walls or ceilings. In hot weather, the stench of a dead rat can be unbearable and can necessitate cutting a hole in the wall to remove the carcass. Also, ectoparasites such as fleas and mites often leave dead rat carcasses and can infest the entire house if the carcass isna€™t removed promptly.Trapping.
Trapping is the safest and most effective method for controlling rats in and around homes, garages, and other structures.
Because snap traps can be used over and over, trapping is less costly than poison baits but more labor intensive. Traps can be set and left indefinitely in areas such as attics where rats have been a problem in the past. The simple, wooden rat-size snap trap is the least expensive option, but some people prefer the newer plastic, single-kill rat traps, because they are easier to set and to clean. Snap traps with large plastic treadles are especially effective, but finding the best locations to set traps is often more important than what type of trap is used. Generally, young rats cana€™t be trapped until they are about a month old, which is when they leave the nest to venture out for food.Nutmeats, dried fruit, bacon, or a piece of kibbled pet food can be an attractive bait for traps.
Fasten the bait securely to the trigger of the trap with light string, thread, or fine wire so the rodent will spring the trap when attempting to remove the food.
Soft baits such as peanut butter and cheese can be used, but rats sometimes take soft baits without setting off the trap.
Set traps so the trigger is sensitive and will spring easily.The best places to set traps are in secluded areas where rats are likely to travel and seek shelter. Droppings, gnawings, and damage indicate the presence of rodents, and areas where such evidence is found usually are the best places to set traps, especially when these areas are located between their shelter and food sources. Place traps in natural travel ways, such as along walls, so the rodents will pass directly over the trigger of the trap.For Norway rats, set traps close to walls, behind objects, in dark corners, and in places where rat signs, such as droppings, have been seen. Position traps along a wall so that they extend from the wall at right angles, with the trigger end nearly touching the wall (Figure 7).
If traps are set parallel to the wall, they should be set in pairs to intercept rodents traveling from either direction.For roof rats, the best places for traps are off the ground in locations where rats might be coming down from their nests to find fooda€”such as on ledges, shelves, branches, fences, pipes, or overhead beamsa€”where they can be fastened with screws or wire (Figure 8). In homes, the attic and garage rafters close to the infestation are good trapping sites (Figure 9). In areas where children, pets, or birds might contact traps, place the trap in a box or use a barrier to keep them away.A Use as many traps as are practical so trapping time will be short and decisive. If a rat sets off a trap without getting caught, it will be very difficult to catch the rat with a trap again.
To reduce the likelihood of a€?trap shyness,a€? one strategy is to leave traps baited but unset until the bait has been taken overnight.
As with snap traps, for existing rodent populations ita€™s important to use enough traps to achieve control in a timely manner.
These traps need to be checked frequently, and dead rodents should be removed for disposal.Dona€™t touch rodents with your bare hands, and wash thoroughly after handling traps.
A major drawback with glue boards and other live-catch traps is the trapped rat might not die quickly, and you will need to kill it by delivering a sharp blow to the base of the skull using a sturdy rod or stick.
Rats caught in glue traps can struggle for quite some time, often dragging the trap as they try to escape. Live traps arena€™t preferred, because trapped rats must be either humanely killed or released elsewhere. Releasing rats outdoors isna€™t recommended, as they can cause health concerns to people, pets, and other domestic animals. Because neither the roof rat nor the Norway rat is native to the United States, their presence in the wild is very detrimental to native ecosystems. They have been known to decimate some bird populations.Rodenticides (Toxic Baits)While trapping is generally recommended for controlling rats indoors, when the number of rats around a building is high, you might need to use toxic baits to achieve adequate control, especially if there is a continuous reinfestation from surrounding areas. If this is the case, consider hiring a licensed pest control applicator who is trained to use rodenticides safely.Baits to control rodents are formulated with an attractant (generally food) and a rodenticide (toxin). Changes in rodenticide regulations went into effect in mid-2011 in an effort to prevent rodenticide hazards to wildlife and pets and to reduce accidental exposure to children.
These federal EPA restrictions now permit manufacturers to produce, for sale to the general public, only wax block, gel, or paste rat and mouse baits that are packaged in ready-to-use, disposable bait stations.
Agricultural producers and professional pest control personnel are able to obtain more types of rodenticides in various formulations, some of which are restricted use pesticides.Anticoagulant Rodenticides.
Anticoagulants are blood-thinning drugs that cause an animala€™s blood to lose the ability to clot, damaging capillaries and resulting in internal bleeding that is fatal.
These active ingredients are used at very low levels and the onset of symptoms is delayed for several days, so the rodent doesna€™t avoid the bait because of its taste or the onset of illness.
When prepared with good-quality cereals and other ingredients, anticoagulant baits provide good to excellent control when baits are fresh and when placed in suitable locations so as to attract rats.The various anticoagulant active ingredients currently registered for use against rats in California are listed in Table 2.
Anticoagulants fall into two groupsa€”the older a€?first-generationa€? compounds such as warfarin, chlorophacinone, and diphacinone, which require a rodent to consume multiple doses over a period of several days; and the newer a€?second-generationa€? compounds such as brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, and difethialone, which can be fatal after a single feeding. Since not all rats will consume bait when it first becomes available, bait application directions typically recommend providing an uninterrupted supply of bait for at least 10 or 15 days or until evidence of rodent activity ceases.
A rodent feeding on anticoagulant bait usually wona€™t die until 2 to 6 days following ingestion of a lethal dose. This slow action is a safety advantage, allowing accidental poisoning to be treated before serious illness occurs.The recommended strategy of bait application, which is often needed for optimum rodent control, can result in a rodent ingesting an overdose of the second-generation anticoagulants, which are more effective in part because they persist longer in the rodenta€™s body than do the first-generation anticoagulants. Thus, they also have the potential to be hazardous to predators and scavengers, which may consume poisoned rodents. This secondary hazard from anticoagulants, as well as the primary hazard of nontarget animals directly ingesting rodent baits, is substantially reduced when baits are applied and used properly, according to label directions.Table 2. The same or similar trade names may be used for products with different active ingredients.Table 3.
The same or similar trade names may be used for products with different active ingredients.Because of the potentially greater hazard of second-generation anticoagulants to children and household pets, these active ingredients are no longer allowed to be manufactured for sale to the general public. Some of the second-generation rodenticides now labeled for use by only by agricultural producers may be restricted to applications in and around agricultural buildings.Anticoagulants have the same effect on nearly all warm-blooded animals, but the sensitivity to these toxicants varies among species with larger animals generally requiring a larger dose of toxicant than smaller animals. Dogs are more susceptible to anticoagulant poisoning than are many other mammals, and small to medium-sized dogs that seek out and consume rodents or rodent carcasses could be at greatest risk. Symptoms of anticoagulant poisoning in mammals include lethargy, loss of color in soft tissues such as the lips and gums, and bleeding from the mouth, nose, or intestinal tract. Vitamin K1 is the antidote for anticoagulant rodenticides, although in cases of severe poisoning, whole blood transfusion is also used.
Three other active ingredients are registered and used as rodenticides to control rats and house mice in California: bromethalin, cholecalciferol, and zinc phosphide. These two materials are formulated to serve as chronic rodenticides so that rats will have the opportunity to feed on exposed baits one or more times over a period of one to several days.
Bait acceptance is generally good when fresh, well-formulated products are used.Zinc phosphide differs in that it is an acute toxicant that causes death of a rodent within several hours after a lethal dose is ingested. Because zinc phosphide baits often require prebaiting to get adequate bait acceptance (offering rats similar but nontoxic bait before applying the zinc phosphide bait), ita€™s not commonly used against rats and is infrequently available to consumers. All rodenticide baits must be used carefully according to the label directions, which have become more specific and more restrictive. Some baits must be contained within bait stations for all outdoor, above-ground applications (Figure 10). In addition to increasing the safety of the bait, bait stations also help the rats feel secure while feeding. For Norway rats, place bait stations near rodent burrows or suspected nest sites, against walls, or along travel routes. For roof rats, place baits in elevated locations, such as in the crotch of a tree, on top of a fence, or high in a vine. If you place bait stations above ground level, take care that they are securely fastened and wona€™t fall to the ground where children or pets could find them. Because rats often are suspicious of new or unfamiliar objects, it might take several days for them to enter and feed in bait stations.Where it is impossible to exclude rodents from structures, rat control can be accomplished by establishing permanent bait stations in buildings and around the perimeters of buildings.
Place fresh bait in these stations to control invading rats before populations become established. With the first-generation anticoagulant baits, it usually takes 5 or more days, once the rats start feeding, for them to die.
Check bait stations regularly and replace bait if it gets old or moldy, because rats wona€™t eat stale bait.Baits and bait stations now have more restrictive regulations regarding locations for use. Different designs of commercially manufactured bait stations may be required, depending on the particular situation and the bait formulation used. For example, some labels state a€?tamper-resistant bait stations must be used if children, pets, nontarget mammals, or birds may access the bait.a€? Certain prepackaged bait stations intended for sale to homeowners can be used only inside structures and are prohibited for use in any area accessible to pets or outdoors. Other baits or bait stations may also be used around the periphery of structures or within 50 feet of a structure.
Because rats may not travel far from their shelter to find food, many product labels suggest making bait placements at 10- to 30-foot intervals. Place bait boxes next to walls (with the openings close to the wall) or in other places where rats are active. In all cases, the user must follow label directions.Remove and properly dispose of all uneaten bait at the end of a control program. In addition, ita€™s wise to collect and properly dispose of any dead rodents found during the course of a rodenticide application.
You can pick them up using a sturdy plastic bag inverted on your hand, seal them in the bag for disposal with household garbage, or bury them in a location where pets or scavengers wona€™t easily dig them up.Other Control MethodsRats are wary animals, easily frightened by unfamiliar or strange noises.
However, they quickly become accustomed to repeated sounds, making the use of frightening devicesa€”including high frequency and ultrasonic soundsa€”ineffective for controlling rats in homes and gardens.Rats have an initial aversion to some odors and tastes, but no repellents have been found to solve a rat problem for more than a very short time.
There are no truly effective rat repellents registered for use in California.Smoke or gas cartridges are registered and sold for controlling burrowing rodents.
When placed into the burrows and ignited, these cartridges produce toxic and suffocating smoke and gases. Because Norway rat burrows can extend beneath a residence and have several open entrances, toxic gases can permeate the dwelling. Often, predators arena€™t able to keep rodent numbers below levels that are acceptable to most people.



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