Storage rooms fallout shelter open,saltbox shed plans 9x12,sheds and homes ipswich - Good Point

Gecko's citizens are divided between the renewal cultists and the more ordinary ghouls, who resent the cult.
Interestingly, the name comes from a pre-war town in the vicinity, Gecko City, for which the Nuclear power plant was supplying power. The junkyard is where Gecko's unfinished second reactor lies, rusty and decaying for the past one hundred and sixty years. Inhabiting the Poseidon Machine Shop is Skeeter, who is a “ghoul gadgeteer” who serves as a sort of mechanic for Gecko.
Gordon is a ghoul who believes that if everyone would follow their own self-interest, everyone would be better off. There are the access tunnels under junkyard, the underground part of the unfinished reactor and Brain's residence.
Much of the installation is damaged beyond repair - the rooms are littered with destroyed terminals and damaged furniture, the control room doesn't have any gauges or monitors functioning and even the maintenance robot cannot run properly for longer periods of time. The background music is "Industrial Junk", which was originally used for Junktown in Fallout, and later in Vault 11 in Fallout: New Vegas.
Fallout is simply the dirt and dust which falls to the ground following a nuclear explosion.
The bad news about fallout is that it’s radioactivity can penetrate thick surfaces (including steel, wood, and earth) even though the actual dust from the fallout can not. Understanding fallout and what you need do to be near 100% free of its dangers is critical.
Blast and thermal effects occur to some extent in all types of explosions, whether conventional or nuclear. This radiation is basically of two kinds, electromagnetic and particulate, and is emitted not only at the time of detonation (initial radiation) but also for long periods of time afterward (residual radiation).
Residual radiation is defined as that radiation which is emitted later than 1 minute after detonation and arises principally from the decay of radioisotopes produced during the explosion.
About 5% of the energy released in a nuclear air burst is transmitted in the form of initial neutron and gamma radiation.
The intensity of initial nuclear radiation decreases rapidly with distance from the point of burst due to the spread of radiation over a larger area as it travels away from the explosion, and to absorption, scattering, and capture by the atmosphere. Near the point of the explosion, the neutron intensity is greater than the gamma intensity, but with increasing distance the neutron-gamma ratio decreases.
The range for significant levels of initial radiation does not increase markedly with weapon yield and, as a result, the initial radiation becomes less of a hazard with increasing yield. The residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion is in the form of radioactive fallout and neutron-induced activity.
These are intermediate weight isotopes which are formed when a heavy uranium or plutonium nucleus is split in a fission reaction. The estimated activity of this quantity of fission products 1 minute after detonation is equal to that of 1.1 x 1021 Bq (30 million kilograms of radium) in equilibrium with its decay products.
Nuclear weapons are relatively inefficient in their use of fissionable material, and much of the uranium and plutonium is dispersed by the explosion without undergoing fission. If atomic nuclei capture neutrons when exposed to a flux of neutron radiation, they will, as a rule, become radioactive (neutron-induced activity) and then decay by emission of beta and gamma radiation over an extended period of time.
In addition, atoms of environmental material, such as soil, air, and water, may be activated, depending on their composition and distance from the burst. This is due principally to neutron capture by sodium (Na), manganese, aluminum, and silicon in the soil.
After an air burst the fission products, un-fissioned nuclear material, and weapon residues which have been vaporized by the heat of the fireball will condense into a fine suspension of very small particles 0.01 to 20 micrometers in diameter. They will then be dispersed by atmospheric winds and will gradually settle to the earth’s surface after weeks, months, and even years as worldwide fallout.
In a land or water surface burst, large amounts of earth or water will be vaporized by the heat of the fireball and drawn up into the radioactive cloud.
The larger particles will not rise into the stratosphere and consequently will settle to earth within about 24 hours as local fallout.
In severe cases of fallout contamination, lethal doses of external radiation may be incurred if protective or evasive measures are not undertaken.
The particles contain mostly sea salts with some water; these can have a cloud seeding affect causing local rainout and areas of high local fallout. For underwater bursts the visible surge is, in effect, a cloud of liquid (water) droplets with the property of flowing almost as if it were a homogeneous fluid. For subsurface land bursts, the surge is made up of small solid particles, but it still behaves like a fluid. Snow and rain, especially if they come from considerable heights, will accelerate local fallout.
An explosion, in general, results from the very rapid release of a large amount of energy within a limited space. Since these gases are at very high temperatures and pressures, they expand rapidly and thus initiate a pressure wave, called a “shock wave,” in the surrounding medium air, water, or earth.
Nuclear weapons are similar to those of more conventional types insofar as their destructive action is due mainly to blast or shock.
In the first place, nuclear explosions can be many thousands (or millions) of times more powerful than the largest conventional detonations. Second, for the release of a given amount of energy, the mass of a nuclear explosive would be much less than that of a conventional high explosive.
Third, the temperatures reached in a nuclear explosion are very much higher than in a conventional explosion, and a fairly large proportion of the energy in a nuclear explosion is emitted in the form of light and heat, generally referred to as “thermal radiation.” This is capable of causing skin burns and of starting fires at considerable distances. Finally the substances remaining after a nuclear explosion are radioactive, emitting similar radiations over an extended period of time.
It is because of these fundamental differences between a nuclear and a conventional explosion, including the tremendously greater power of the former, that the effects of nuclear weapons require special consideration.
The purpose here is to describe the different forms in which the energy of a nuclear explosion are released, to explain how they are propagated, and to show how they may affect people (and other living organisms) and materials. In the first place, there are inherent difficulties in making exact measurements of weapons effects. Furthermore, two weapons producing the same amount of explosive energy may have different quantitative effects because of differences in composition and design. It is hoped, nevertheless, that the information contained in this volume, which is the best available, may be of assistance to those responsible for defense planning and in making preparations to deal with the emergencies that may arise from nuclear warfare.
The smallest part of any element that can exist, while still retaining the characteristics of the element, is called an “atom” of that element. Heavier atoms, such as those of plutonium, also important for the release of nuclear energy, have been made artificially.
The essential difference between atoms of different elements lies in the number of protons (or positive charges) in the nucleus; this is called the “atomic number” of the element.
Although all the nuclei of a (liven element contain the same number of protons, they may have different numbers of neutrons. Each isotope of a given element is identified by its “mass number,” which is the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
The nuclei of both isotopes contain 92 protons-as do the nuclei of all uranium isotopes-but the former have in addition 143 neutrons and the latter 146 neutrons.
What is sometimes referred to as atomic energy is thus actually nuclear energy, since it results from particular nuclear interactions. These mass changes are really a reflection of the difference in the internal forces in the various nuclei. In addition to the necessity for the nuclear process to be one in which there is a net decrease in mass, the release of nuclear energy in amounts sufficient to cause an explosion requires that the reaction should be able to reproduce itself once it has been started. Two kinds of nuclear interactions can satisfy the conditions for the production of large amounts of energy in a short time. The materials used to produce nuclear explosions by fission are certain isotopes of the elements uranium and plutonium. When a free (or unattached) neutron enters the nucleus of a fissionable atom, it can cause the nucleus to split into two smaller parts. In nuclear fusion, a pair of light nuclei unite (or fuse) together to form a nucleus of a heavier atom. Nuclear fusion reactions can be brought about by means of very high temperatures, and they are thus referred to as “thermonuclear processes.” The actual quantity of energy liberated, for a given mass of material, depends on the particular isotope (or isotopes) involved in the nuclear fusion reaction. As an example, the fusion of all the nuclei present in 1 pound of the hydrogen isotope deuterium would release roughly the same amount of energy as the explosion of 26,000 tons of TNT.
In certain fusion processes, between nuclei of the hydrogen isotopes, neutrons of high energy are liberated. A device in which fission and fusion (thermonuclear) reactions are combined can therefore produce an explosion of great power.
A distinction has sometimes been made between atomic weapons, in which the energy arises from fission, on the one hand, and hydrogen (or thermonuclear) weapons, involving fusion, on the other hand. The “yield” of a nuclear weapon is a measure of the amount of explosive energy it can produce. Thus, a 1-kiloton nuclear weapon is one which produces the same amount of energy in an explosion as does 1 kiloton (or 1,000 tons) of TNT.
The earliest nuclear bombs, such as were dropped over Japan in 1945 and used in the tests at Bikini in 1946, released very roughly the same quantity of energy as 20,000 tons (or 20 kilotons) of TNT.
From the statement earlier that the fission of 1 pound of uranium or plutonium will release the same amount of explosive energy as about 8,000 tons of TNT, it is evident that in a 20-kiloton nuclear weapon 2.5 pounds of material undergo fission. It has been mentioned that one important difference between nuclear and conventional (or chemical) explosions is the appearance of an appreciable proportion of the energy as thermal radiation in the former case. Consequently, the temperatures reached in the former case are very much higher than in the latter, namely, tens of millions of degrees in a nuclear explosion compared with a few thousands in a conventional explosion. Broadly speaking, the energy may be divided into three categories kinetic (or external) energy, i.e. At the moderate temperatures attained in a chemical explosion, the amount of thermal radiation is comparatively small, and so essentially all the energy released at the time of the explosion appears as kinetic and internal energy. The fraction of the explosion energy received at a distance from the burst point in each of the forms depicted in Figure 6-2 depends on the nature and yield of the weapon and particularly on the environment of the explosion. For a nuclear detonation in the atmosphere below an altitude of about 100,000 feet, from 35 to 45 percent of the explosion energy is received as thermal energy in the visible and infrared portions of the spectrum. In addition, below an altitude of about 40,000 feet, about 50 percent of the explosive energy is used in the production of air shock. The expect distribution of energy between air shock and thermal radiation is related in a complex manner to the explosive energy yield, the burst altitude, and, to some extent, to the weapon design, as will be seen in this and later chapters. However, an approximate rule of thumb for a fission weapon exploded in the air at an altitude of less than about 40,000 feet is that 35 percent of the explosion energy is in the form of thermal radiation and 50 percent produces air shock.
This means that if a 20-kiloton fission weapon, for example, is exploded in the air below 40,000 feet or so, the energy used in the production of blast would be roughly equivalent to that from 10 kilotons of TNT. Regardless of the height of burst, approximately 85 percent of the explosive energy of a nuclear fission weapon produces air blast (and shock), thermal radiation, and heat.
The final 10 percent of the total fission energy represents that of the residual (or delayed) nuclear radiation which is emitted over a period of time.
It should be noted that there are no nuclear radiations from a conventional explosion since the nuclei are unaffected in the chemical reactions which take place. Hence, in a pure fission weapon the explosion energy is about 90 percent of the total fission energy, and in a thermonuclear device it is, on the average, about 95 percent of the total energy of the fission and fusion reactions. For example, when the yield of a nuclear weapon is quoted or used in equations, figures, etc., it will represent that portion of the energy delivered within a minute or so, and will exclude the contribution of the residual nuclear radiation. The initial nuclear radiation consists mainly of “gamma rays,” which are electromagnetic radiations of high energy originating in atomic nuclei, and neutrons. Although they can neither be seen nor felt by human beings, except at very high intensities which cause a tingling sensation, gamma rays and neutrons can produce harmful effects even at a distance from their source.
Because of the continuous decay, the quantity of the radionuclide and the rate of emission of radiation decrease steadily. The immediate phenomena associated with a nuclear explosion, as well as the effects of shock and blast and of thermal and nuclear radiations, vary with the location of the point of burst in relation to the surface of the earth.
The main types, which will be defined below, are (1) air burst, (2) high-altitude burst, (3) underwater burst, (4) underground burst, and (5) surface burst.
An “air burst” is defined as one in which the weapon is exploded in the air at an attitude below 100,000 feet, but at such a height that the fireball (at roughly maximum brilliance in its later stages) does not touch the surface of the earth. For example, in the explosion of a 1-megaton weapon the fireball may grow until it is nearly 5,700 feet (1.1 mile) across at maximum brilliance. The quantitative aspects of an air burst will be dependent upon its energy yield, but the general phenomena are much the same in all cases.
For air bursts of higher energy yields, the corresponding distances will, of course, be greater.
The initial nuclear radiation from an air burst will also penetrate a long way in air, although the intensity falls off fairly rapidly at increasing distances from the explosion. Different materials are thus required for the most efficient removal of these radiations; but concrete, especially if it incorporates a heavy element, such as iron or barium, represents a reasonable practical compromise for reducing the intensities of both gamma rays and neutrons. In the event of a moderately high (or high) air burst, the fission products remaining after the nuclear explosion will be dispersed in the atmosphere. On the other hand, if the burst occurs nearer the earth’s surface, the fission products may fuse with particles of earth, part of which will soon fall to the ground at points close to the explosion. A “high-altitude burst” is defined as one in which the explosion takes place at an altitude in excess of 100,000 feet. For example, the fraction of the energy converted into blast and shock is less and decreases with increasing altitude. First, since a shock wave does not form so readily in the less dense air, the fireball is able to radiate thermal energy that would, at lower altitudes, have been used in the production of air blast. Second, the less dense air allows energy from the exploding weapon to travel much farther than at lower altitudes. In general, the first of these factors is effective between 100,000 and 140,000 feet, and a larger proportion of the explosion energy is released in the form of thermal radiation than at lower altitudes. The fraction of the explosion energy emitted from a weapon as nuclear radiations is independent of the height of burst. Furthermore, the attenuation of the initial nuclear radiation with increasing distance from the explosion is determined by the total amount of air through which the radiation travels. Both the initial and the residual nuclear radiations from high-altitude bursts will interact with the constituents of the atmosphere to expel electrons from the atoms and molecules. The existence of large numbers of electrons and ions at high altitudes may have seriously degrading effects on the propagation of radio and radar signals.
The phenomenon known as the “electromagnetic pulse” (or EMP) is described elsewhere in this book. If a nuclear explosion occurs under such conditions that its center is beneath the ground or under the surface of water, the situation is described as an “underground burst” or an “underwater burst,” respectively. In a subsurface burst, most of the shock energy of the explosion appears as underground or underwater shock, but a certain proportion, which is less the greater the depth of the burst, escapes and produces air blast. Depending upon the depth of the explosion, some of the thermal and nuclear radiations will escape, but the intensities will generally be less than for an air burst.
A “surface burst” is regarded as one which occurs either at or slightly above the actual surface of the land or water. In surface bursts, the air blast and ground (or water) shock are produced in varying proportions depending on the energy of the explosion and the height of burst. Although the five types of burst have been considered as being fairly distinct, there is actually no clear line of demarcation between them. Similarly, a surface burst merges into a subsurface explosion at a shallow depth, when part of the fireball actually breaks through the surface of the land or water.
The neutrons liberated in this manner are able to induce fission of additional uranium (or plutonium) nuclei, each such process resulting in the emission of more neutrons which can produce further fission, and so on.
Thus, in principle, a single neutron could start off a chain of nuclear fissions, the number of nuclei suffering fission, and the energy liberated, increasing at a tremendous rate.
There are many different ways in which the nuclei of a given fissionable species can split tip into two fission fragments (initial fission products), but the total amount of energy liberated per fission does not vary greatly.
The results in Table 6-2 may he taken as being approximately applicable to either uranium-233, uranium-235, or plutonium-239.
Uranium-238, the most abundant isotope in natural uranium, and thorium-232 will suffer fission by neutrons of high energy only, but not by those of lower energy. Only part of the fission energy is immediately available in a nuclear explosion; this includes the kinetic energy of the fission fragments, most of the energy of the instantaneous gamma rays, which is converted into other forms of energy within the exploding weapon, and also most of the neutron kinetic energy, but only a small fraction of the decay energy of the fission products.
There is some compensation from energy released in reactions in which neutrons are captured by the weapon debris, and so it is usually accepted that about 180 MeV of energy are immediately available per fission. Although two to three neutrons are produced in the fission reaction for every nucleus that undergoes fission, not all of these neutrons are available for causing further fissions. In order to sustain a fission chain reaction, with continuous release of energy, at least one fission neutron must be available to cause further fission for each neutron previously absorbed in fission. Some energy would be produced, but the amount would not be large enough, and the rate of liberation would not be sufficiently fast, to cause an effective explosion.
By increasing the mass of the fissionable material, at constant density, the ratio of the surface area to the mass is decreased; consequently, the loss of neutrons by escape relative to their formation by fission is decreased. It is supposed that in each act of fission three neutrons are emitted; in other words, one neutron is captured and three are expelled. If the quantity of a fissionable isotope of uranium (or plutonium) is such that the ratio of the surface area to the mass is large, the proportion of neutrons lost by escape will be so great that the propagation of a nuclear fission chain, and hence the production of an explosion, will not be possible. But as the mass of the piece of uranium (or plutonium) is increased (or the volume is decreased by compression) and the relative loss of neutrons is thereby decreased, a point is reached at which the chain reaction can become self-sustaining. For a nuclear explosion to take place, the weapon must thus contain a sufficient amount of a fissionable uranium (or plutonium) isotope for the critical mass to be exceeded.
By surrounding the fissionable material with a suitable neutron “reflector,” the loss of neutrons by escape can be reduced, and the critical mass can thus be decreased. Because of the presence of stray neutrons in the atmosphere or the possibility of their being generated in various ways, a quantity of a suitable isotope of uranium (or plutonium) exceeding the critical mass would be likely to melt or possibly explode. Two general methods have been described for bringing about a nuclear explosion, that is to say, for quickly converting a subcritical system into a supercritical one. This may be achieved in some kind of gun-barrel device, in which an explosive propellant is used to blow one subcritical piece of fissionable material from the breech end of the gun into another subcritical piece firmly held in the muzzle end. The second method makes use of the fact that when a subcritical quantity of an appropriate isotope of uranium (or plutonium) is strongly compressed, it can become critical or supercritical as indicated above.


In a hole in the center of this system is placed a subcritical sphere of fissionable material. These neutrons, are, in turn, captured by fissionable nuclei and produce more neutrons, and so on.
It was mentioned earlier that not all the fission neutrons are available for maintaining the fission chain because some are lost by escape and by removal in nonfission reactions. Suppose that when a nucleus captures a neutron and suffers fission f neutrons are released; let l be the average number of neutrons lost, in one way or another, for each fission. If the value of x is known, equation can be used to calculate either the neutron population after any prescribed number of generations in the fission chain, or, alternatively, the generations required to attain a particular number of neutrons.
Similarly, to release 100 kilotons of energy would require 1.45 x 1025 neutrons and this number would be attained in about 58 generations. The time at which this expansion commences is called the “explosion time.” Since the expansion permits neutrons to escape more readily, the mass becomes subcritical and the self-sustaining chain reaction soon ends. To summarize the foregoing discussion, it may be stated that because the fission process is accompanied by the instantaneous liberation of neutrons, it is possible, in principle to produce a self-sustaining chain reaction accompanied by the rapid release of large amounts of energy.
For example, when uranium-238 undergoes fission as a result of the capture of neutrons of very high energy released in certain fusion reactions, the products are somewhat different, especially in their relative amounts, from those formed from uranium-235 by ordinary fission neutrons. Regardless of their origin, most, if not all, of the approximately 80 fission fragments are the nuclei of radioactive forms (radioisotopes) of wellknown, lighter elements.
As a result of the expulsion of a beta particle, the nucleus of a radioactive substance is changed into that of another element, sometimes called the “decay product.” In the case of the fission fragments, the decay products are generally also radioactive, and these in turn may decay with the emission of beta particles and gamma rays.
Each individual radionuclide has a definite half-life which is independent of its state or its amount.
Although every radionuclide present among the fission products is known to have a definite half-life, the mixture formed after a nuclear explosion is so complex that it is not possible to represent the decay as a whole in terms of a half-life.
This will be given and discussed in Chapter IX, but the general nature of the decay rate of fission products, based on this formula, will be apparent from Fig. It is seen that at 7 hours after the explosion, the fission product activity will have decreased to about one-tenth (10 percent) of its amount at 1 hour. In addition to the beta-particle and gamma-ray activity due to the fission products, there is another kind of residual radioactivity that should be mentioned.
Because of their greater mass and charge, alpha particles are much less penetrating than beta particles or gamma rays of the same energy.
It is doubtful that these particles can get through the unbroken skin, and they certainly cannot penetrate clothing. Energy production in the sun and stars is undoubtedly due to fusion reactions involving the nuclei of various light (low atomic weight) atoms. Several different fusion reactions have been observed between the nuclei of the three hydrogen isotopes, involving either two similar or two different nuclei. The first two of these reactions occur with almost equal probability at the temperatures associated with nuclear explosions (several tens of million degrees Kelvin), whereas the third reaction has a much higher probability and the fourth a much lower probability.
Large amounts of energy are thus released by the third reaction and additional neutrons are produced to react with lithium-6.
In order to make the nuclear fusion reactions take place at the required rate, temperatures of the order of several tens of million degrees are necessary. If these reactions, accompanied by energy evolution, can be propagated rapidly through a volume of the hydrogen isotope (or isotopes) a thermonuclear explosion may be realized. It is possible, therefore, to make use of the thermonuclear neutrons by surrounding the fusion weapon with a blanket of ordinary uranium. On the average, the energy released in the explosion of a thermonuclear weapon originates in roughly equal amounts from fission and fusion processes, although there may be variations in individual cases.
The observed phenomena associated with a nuclear explosion and the effects on people and materials are largely determined by the thermal radiation and its interaction with the surroundings. These are a kind of wave motion resulting from oscillating electric charges and their associated magnetic fields. Electromagnetic radiations range from the very short wavelength (or very high frequency) gamma rays and X rays, through the invisible ultraviolet to the visible region, and then to the infrared and radar and radio waves of relatively long wavelength (and low frequency). The approximate wavelength and frequency regions occupied by the different kinds of electromagnetic radiations are indicated in Fig. Not only does the radiation energy density increase with temperature but the rate of its emission as thermal radiation increases correspondingly. When a nuclear weapon explodes, temperature equilibrium is rapidly established in the residual material. Almost all of the rest of the energy is in the form of kinetic energy of the weapon debris at this time. When a nuclear detonation occurs in the air, where the atmospheric pressure (and density) is near to sealevel conditions, the soft X rays in the primary thermal radiation are completely absorbed within a distance of a few feet.
In the event of a burst at high altitudes, where the air density is low, the soft X rays travel long distances before they are degraded and absorbed. Although the total energy emitted as thermal radiation in a high-altitude explosion is greater than for an air burst closer to sea level, about half is reradiated so slowly by the heated air that it has no great significance as a cause of damage. A shock wave is generated from a high-altitude burst, but at distances of normal practical interest it produces a smaller pressure increase than from an air burst of the same yield. 1 The Terms “nuclear” and “atomic” may he used interchangeably so far as weapons, explosions, and energy are concerned, but “nuclear” is preferred for the reason given in 1.11.
2 The remaining (more technical sections of this chapter may he omitted without loss of continuity. 3 The majority of the experimental and theoretical values of the explosive energy released by TNT range from 900 to 1,100 calories per gram. 6 X rays are frequently distinguished as “hard” or “soft.” The latter have longer wavelengths and lower energies, and they are more easily absorbed than hard X rays. 7 It is sometimes referred to as the “prompt thermal radiation” because only that which is received within a few seconds of the explosion is significant as a hazard. Registration allows you to keep track of all your content and comments, save bookmarks, and post in all our forums.
Once you've reached Fort Constantine you should ignore a large road leading to the top of the hill, because you would have to fight a lot of robots along the way. Despite, my loss of self control in the finance department, I don’t consider it a waste of money, considering how many hours I have put into the game.
This vibrant and colorful top down role-playing game (RPG) is instantly recognizable as a Zelda clone. AppTrawler is the latest App dedicated website keeping you up to date with news, reviews, preview and updates on games and apps. The team at AppTrawler love their iphone, ipod, iPad, Android and Macs and not only review games and apps but also design and build them too.
Its economy is based on the operation of an old, half-functional Poseidon Energy nuclear power plant #5.
It serves the usual drinks of Gecko, specialized for ghouls' unique resistance to radiation: Gamma Gulp beer and Roentgen rum. He proudly believes that greed is good, and wants to optimize Gecko's power plant and establish trade with Vault City based on their mutual self-interests. The plant's supply cabinet and storage room are administered by Jeremy, the plant overall is managed by Festus, and the reactor control room is watched by Hank. And then there's the groundwater contamination problem which affects Vault City and its inhabitants. The construction of your underground bomb shelter should satisfy the amount of barrier you need to survive. The release of ionizing radiation, however, is a phenomenon unique to nuclear explosions and is an additional casualty producing mechanism superimposed on blast and thermal effects. Initial or prompt nuclear radiation is that ionizing radiation emitted within the first minute after detonation and results almost entirely from the nuclear processes occurring at detonation.
The neutrons result almost exclusively from the energy producing fission and fusion reactions, while the initial gamma radiation includes that arising from these reactions as well as that resulting from the decay of short-lived fission products. The character of the radiation received at a given location also varies with distance from the explosion. Ultimately, the neutron component of initial radiation becomes negligible in comparison with the gamma component. With larger weapons, above 50 Kt, blast and thermal effects are so much greater in importance that prompt radiation effects can be ignored. Such unfissioned nuclear material decays by the emission of alpha particles and is of relatively minor importance. Neutrons emitted as part of the initial nuclear radiation will cause activation of the weapon residues.
For example, a small area around ground zero may become hazardous as a result of exposure of the minerals in the soil to initial neutron radiation.
These particles may be quickly drawn up into the stratosphere, particularly so if the explosive yield exceeds 10 Kt. The radiobiological hazard of worldwide fallout is essentially a long-term one due to the potential accumulation of long-lived radioisotopes, such as strontium-90 and cesium-137, in the body as a result of ingestion of foods which had incorporated these radioactive materials. This material will become radioactive when it condenses with fission products and other radio contaminants or has become neutron-activated.
Severe local fallout contamination can extend far beyond the blast and thermal effects, particularly in the case of high yield surface detonations. In cases of water surface (and shallow underwater) bursts, the particles tend to be rather lighter and smaller and so produce less local fallout but will extend over a greater area. After the water evaporates, an invisible base surge of small radioactive particles may persist.
Under special meteorological conditions, such as a local rain shower that originates above the radioactive cloud, limited areas of heavy contamination may be formed.
This is true for a conventional “high explosive,” such as TNT, as well as for a nuclear (or atomic) explosion,1 although the energy is produced in quite different ways. The characteristic of a shock wave is that there is (ideally) a sudden increase of pressure at the front, with a gradual decrease behind it. On the other hand, there are several basic differences between nuclear and high-explosive weapons. Consequently, in the former case, there is a much smaller amount of material available in the weapon itself that is converted into the hot, compressed gases mentioned above. This is known as the “residual nuclear radiation” or “residual radioactivity” (Figure 6-2).
In this connection, a knowledge and understanding of the mechanical and the various radiation phenomena associated with a nuclear explosion are of vital importance.
Where numerical values are given for specific observed effects, it should be kept in mind that there are inevitable uncertainties associated with the data, for at least two reasons. The results are often dependent on circumstances which are difficult, if not impossible, to control, even in a test and certainly cannot be predicted in the event of an attack.
In addition, architects and engineers may be able to utilize the data in the design of structures having increased resistance to damage by blast, shock, and fire, and which provide shielding against nuclear radiations. A less familiar element, which has attained prominence in recent years because of its use as a source of nuclear energy, is uranium, normally a solid metal.
Because of the protons present in the nucleus, the latter has a positive electrical charge, but in the normal atom this is exactly balanced by the negative charge carried by the electrons surrounding the nucleus. Hydrogen atoms, for example, contain only one proton, helium atoms have two protons, uranium atoms have 92 protons, and plutonium atoms 94 protons.
The resulting atomic species, which have identical atomic numbers but which differ in their masses, are called “isotopes” of the particular element.
For example, the element uranium, as found in nature, consists mainly of two isotopes with mass numbers of 235 and 238; they are consequently referred to as uranium-235 and uranium-238, respectively.
In a nuclear explosion, on the other hand, the energy is produced as a result of the formation of different atomic nuclei by the redistribution of the protons and neutrons within the interacting nuclei.
There is a definite equivalence between mass and energy, and when a decrease of mass occurs in a nuclear reaction there is an accompanying release of a certain amount of energy related to the decrease in mass. It is a basic law of nature that the conversion of any system in which the constituents are held together by weaker forces into one in which the forces are stronger must be accompanied by the release of energy, and a corresponding decrease in mass. Another isotope, uranium-233, does not occur naturally, but it is also readily fissionable and it can be made artificially starting with thorium-232. This is the fission process, which is accompanied by the release of a large amount of energy.
An example is the fusion of the hydrogen isotope known as deuterium or “heavy hydrogen.” Under suitable conditions, two deuterium nuclei may combine to form the nucleus of a heavier element, helium, with the release of energy. These can cause fission in the most abundant isotope (uranium-238) in ordinary uranium as well as in uranium-235 and plutonium239. Such weapons might typically release about equal amounts of explosive energy from fission and from fusion. In each case, however, the explosive energy results from nuclear reactions, so that they are both correctly described as nuclear weapons. It is the usual practice to state the yield in terms of the quantity of TNT that would generate the same amount of energy when it explodes.
Similarly, a 1-megaton weapon would have the energy equivalent of 1 million tons (or 1,000 kilotons) of TNT. Since that time, much more powerful weapons, with energy yields in the megaton range, have been developed. However, the actual weight of uranium or plutonium in such a weapon is greater than this amount. The basic reason for this difference is that, weight for weight, the energy produced by a nuclear explosive is millions of times as great as that produced by a chemical explosive. As a result of this great difference in temperature, the distribution of the explosion energy is quite different in the two cases. At somewhat higher altitudes, where there is less air with which the energy of the exploding, nuclear weapon can interact, the proportion of energy converted into shock is decreased whereas that emitted as thermal radiation is correspondingly increased.
Thus, for a burst at moderately low altitudes, the air shock energy from a fission weapon will be about half of that from a conventional high explosive with the same total energy release; in the latter, essentially all of the explosive energy is in the form of air blast. This is largely due to the radioactivity of the fission products present in the weapon residues (or debris) after the explosion. These radiations, especially gamma rays, can travel great distances through air and can penetrate considerable thicknesses of material. Beta particles, which are also invisible, are much less penetrating than gamma rays, but like the latter they represent a potential hazard. It takes place over a period of time, at a rate depending upon the nature of the material and upon the amount present. This means that the residual nuclear radiation, due mainly to the fission products, is most intense soon after the explosion but diminishes in the course of time. For descriptive purposes five types of burst are distinguished, although many variations and intermediate situations can arise in practice. This means that, in this particular case, the explosion must occur at least 2,850 feet above the earth’s surface if it is to be called an air burst. Nearly all of the shock energy that leaves the fireball appears as air blast, although some is generally also transmitted into the ground.
The thermal radiation is largely stopped by ordinary opaque materials; hence, buildings and clothing can provide protection. The interactions with matter that result in the absorption of energy from gamma rays and from neutrons are quite different. A thickness of about 4 feet of ordinary concrete would probably provide adequate protection from the effects of the initial nuclear radiation for people at a distance of about 1 mile from an air burst of a 1-megaton nuclear weapon. The residual nuclear radiation arising from these products will be of minor immediate consequence on the ground. This dirt and other debris will be contaminated with radioactive material and will, consequently, represent a possible danger to living things.
Above this level, the air density is so low that the interaction of the weapon energy with the surroundings is markedly different from that at lower altitudes and, moreover, varies with the altitude. Some of this energy simply warms the air at a distance from the fireball and it does not contribute to the energy that can be radiated within a short time.
For explosions above about 140,000 feet, the second factor becomes the more important, and the fraction of the energy that appears as thermal radiation at the time of the explosion becomes smaller. However, the partition of that energy between gamma rays and neutrons received at a distance will vary since a significant fraction of the gamma rays result from interactions of neutrons with nitrogen atoms in the air at low altitudes. This means that, for a given explosion energy yield, more initial nuclear radiation will be received at the same slant range on the earth’s surface from a high-altitude detonation than from a moderately high air burst. The free electrons resulting from gamma-ray ionization of the air in a high-altitude explosion may also interact with the earth’s magnetic field to generate strong electromagnetic fields capable of causing damage to unprotected electrical or electronic equipment located in an extensive area below the burst. The EMP can also be produced in surface and low air bursts, but a much smaller area around the detonation point is affected. Since some of the effects of these two types of explosions are similar, they will be considered here together as subsurface bursts.
Much of the thermal radiation and of the initial nuclear radiation will he absorbed within a short distance of the explosion. Provided the distance above the surface is not great, the phenomena are essentially the same as for a burst occurring on the surface. It will be apparent that, as the height of the explosion is decreased, a high-altitude burst will become in air burst, and an air burst will become a surface burst. It is nevertheless a matter of convenience, as will be seen in later chapters, to divide nuclear explosions into the five general types defined above.
The manner in which this energy is distributed among the fission fragments and the various radiations associated with fission is shown in Table 3. These are the only three known substances, which are reasonably stable so that they can be stored without appreciable decay, that are capable of undergoing fission by neutrons of all energies. Some of the fission neutrons are lost by escape, whereas others are lost in various nonfission reactions. If the conditions arc such that the neutrons are lost at a faster rate than they are formed by fission, the chain reaction would not be self-sustaining.
It is necessary, therefore, in order to achieve a nuclear explosion, to establish conditions under which the loss of neutrons is minimized.
The same result can also be achieved by having a constant mass but compressing it to a smaller volume (higher density), so that the surface area is decreased.
1.48 showing two spherical masses, one larger than the other, of fissionable material of the same density.


Effect of increased mass of fissionable material in reducing the proportion of neutrons lost by escape.
This is referred to as the “critical mass” of the fissionable material under the existing conditions. Actually, the critical mass depends, among other things, on the shape of the material, its composition and density (or compression), and the presence of impurities which can remove neutrons in nonfission reactions.
Moreover, elements of high density, which make good reflectors for neutrons of high energy, provide inertia, thereby delaying expansion of the exploding material. It is necessary, therefore, that before detonation, a nuclear weapon should contain no piece of fissionable material that is as large as the critical mass for the given conditions.
In the first method, two or more pieces of fissionable material, each less than a critical mass, are brought together very rapidly in order to form one piece that exceeds the critical mass (Fig. The compression may be achieved by means of a spherical arrangement of specially fabricated shapes (lenses) of ordinary high explosive.
When the highexplosive lens system is set off, by means of a detonator on the outside of each lens, an inwardly-directed spherical “implosion” wave is produced. Each stage of the fission chain is regarded as a generation, and the “generation time” is the average time interval between successive generations.
Consequently, in spite of the restraining effect of the tamper and the weapon casing, the mass of fissionable material will begin to expand rapidly. An appreciable proportion of the fissionable material remains unchanged and some fissions will continue as a result of neutron capture, but the amount of energy released at this stage is relatively small.
As a result, a few pounds of fissionable material can be made to liberate, within a very small fraction of a second, as much energy as the explosion of many thousands of tons of TNT.
There are 40 or so different ways in which the nuclei can split up when fission occurs; hence about 80 different fragments are produced.
The radioactivity is usually manifested by the emission of negatively charged beta particles.
On the average there are about four stages of radioactivity for each fission fragment before a stable (nonradioactive) nucleus is formed.
This is defined as the time required for the radioactivity of a given quantity of a particular nuclide to decrease (or decay) to half of its original value. The half-lives of the fission products have been found to range from a small fraction of a second to something like a million years.
Nevertheless, it has been found that the decrease in the total radiation intensity from the fission products can be calculated approximately by means of a fairly simple formula.
Within approximately 2 days, the activity will have decreased to 1 percent of the 1hour value. This is the activity of the fissionable material, part of which remains after the explosion. Thus, very few alpha particles from radioactive sources can travel more than 1 to 3 inches in air before being stopped. Consequently, the uranium (or plutonium) present in the weapon residues does not constitute a hazard if the latter are outside the body. From experiments made in laboratories with charged-particle accelerators, it was concluded that the fusion of isotopes of hydrogen was possible. In order to make these reactions occur to an appreciable extent, the nuclei must have high energies. Thus, a valid comparison of the energy released in fusion reactions with that produced in fission can be made by noting that, as a result of the first three reactions given above, five deuterium nuclei, with a total mass of 10 units, will liberate 24.8 MeV upon fusion.
The only practical way in which such temperatures can be obtained on earth is by means of a fission explosion. Because of their small mass, these neutrons carry off most of the reaction energy; consequently, they have sufficient energy to cause fission of uranium-238 nuclei. The high-energy neutrons are then captured by uranium-238 nuclei; the latter undergo fission, thereby contributing to the overall energy yield of the explosion, and also to the residual nuclear radiation arising from the fission products. In “boosted” fission weapons, thermonuclear neutrons serve to enhance the fission process; energy released in the thermonuclear reaction is then a small fraction of the total energy yield. Ordinary visible light is the most familiar kind of electromagnetic radiation, and all such radiations travel through the air (or, more exactly, a vacuum) at the same velocity, namely, the velocity of light, 186,000 miles per second.
It has been estimated that in a nuclear explosion some 80 percent of the total energy may be present initially as thermal radiation energy. For materials at temperatures of a few thousand degrees Kelvin, the energy is radiated slowly, with the greatest part in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (Fig. The interaction of the primary thermal radiation and the debris particles with the surroundings will vary with the altitude of burst and will determine the ultimate partition of energy between the thermal radiation received at a distance and shock. Part of the energy is then reradiated at a lower temperature from the fireball and the remainder is converted into shock (or blast) energy. At this stage, the available energy is spread throughout such a large volume (and mass) that most of the atoms and molecules in the air cannot get very hot.
They are, nevertheless, radiations of high energy compared with ultraviolet or visible light. Go to our Fallout Shelter forums to talk about the game, or visit our other forums to chat to gamers. These are not usually tested by us (because there are so many), so please use them at your own risk.
Instead you choose locate a small hut which will lead you to Fort Constantine - CQ quarters. They should be neutral towards you when you visit this area for the first time, however this can change if you decide to enter the fort. He's interested in acquiring new technology and he'll pay you for each invention you decide to bring him. In this case you should start by eliminating all the people standing in front of the entrance, including Morgan and Casdin.
The more dwellers with high Agility stat working inside the room, the faster the food production will be. With the recent announcement from Bethesda that Fallout 4 is set to be released this fall, gamers are ready for some more post apocalyptic action. At a recent count, I had nearly 130 dwellers all in custom outfits carrying some serious weaponry. I would like to see the game extended in future updates and have the addition of more rooms, mutants, robots and all of the other things that make the Fallout universe so eclectic. After three weeks, I realised I was getting addicted when I found myself checking it many times a day and even starting a new vault, so I could test how flexible the in-breading rules were.
Random Heros is a retro inspired platform game, in the same vein as James Pond, but with the same cute pixel look and speed of their previous game. We also accept guest reviews so if you fancy writing us a 'honest' review we would be happy to consider it.
Harold is the de facto mayor of Gecko, while he is assisted by Lenny, who also serves as Gecko's doctor. The good news is that fallout’s radioactive properties reduce to near normal levels around about 48 hours. Basically, you should build you shelter so its roof is at least 48 inches underground (36 for undisturbed soil). This hazard is much less serious than those which are associated with local fallout and, therefore, is not discussed at length in this publication. There will be large amounts of particles of less than 0.1 micrometer to several millimeters in diameter generated in a surface burst in addition to the very fine particles which contribute to worldwide fallout.
Whenever individuals remain in a radiologically contaminated area, such contamination will lead to an immediate external radiation exposure as well as a possible later internal hazard due to inhalation and ingestion of radiocontaminants.
For example, as a result of a surface burst of a 15 Mt thermonuclear device at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954, a roughly cigar-shaped area of the Pacific extending over 500 km downwind and varying in width to a maximum of 100 km was severely contaminated. The sudden liberation of energy causes a considerable increase of temperature and pressure, so that all the materials present are converted into hot, compressed gases. A shock wave in air is generally referred to as a “blast wave” because it resembles and is accompanied by a very strong wind.
The hydrogen atom is the lightest of all atoms, whereas the atoms of uranium are the heaviest of those found on earth. Isotopes of a given element are nuclides having the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.
The former process takes place with some of the heaviest (high atomic number) nuclei; whereas the latter, at the other extreme, involves some of the lightest (low atomic number) nuclei. Since only insignificant amounts of the element plutonium are found in nature, the fissionable isotope used in nuclear weapons, plutonium-239, is made artificially from uranium-238. The smaller (or lighter) nuclei which result are called the “fission products.” The complete fission of 1 pound of uranium or plutonium releases as much explosive energy as does the explosion of about 8,000 (short) tons of TNT.
Consequently, association of the appropriate fusion reactions with natural uranium can result in an extensive utilization of the latter for the release of energy.
In this chapter, therefore, the general terms “nuclear bomb” and “nuclear weapon” will be used, irrespective of the type of nuclear reaction producing the energy of the explosion.
The material that has not undergone fission remains in the weapon residues after the explosion.
Because of the very much higher temperatures in a nuclear explosion, however, a considerable proportion of the energy is re leased as thermal radiation. Of this, 5 percent constitutes the initial nuclear radiation, defined as that produced within a minute or so of the explosion.
In a thermonuclear device, in which only about half of the total energy a rises from fission, the residual nuclear radiation carries only 5 percent of the energy released in the explosion. The thermal radiation will travel long distances through the air and may be of sufficient intensity to cause moderately severe burns of exposed skin as far away as 12 miles from a 1-megaton explosion, on a fairly clear day. However, at this distance the blast effect would be so great that only specially designed blast-resistant structures would survive. The absence of relatively dense air causes the fireball characteristics in a high-altitude explosion to differ from those of an air burst.
In both cases the residual radiation from the fission products and other weapon residues will not be significant on the ground.
The energy of the absorbed radiations will merely contribute to the heating of the ground or body of water.
As the height of burst increases up to a point where the fireball (at maximum brilliance in its later stages) no longer touches the land or water, there is a transition zone in which the behavior is intermediate between that of a true surface burst and of an air burst.
However, when fission does occur in these elements, the energy distribution is quite similar to that shown in the table. The calculations are based on an accepted, although somewhat arbitrary, figure of 1012 calories as the energy released in the explosion of this amount of TNT3. On the other hand, the fission process, which results in the formation of more neutrons, takes place throughout the whole of the material and its rate is, therefore, dependent upon the mass. Thus, an arrowhead within the sphere means that fission has occurred and extra neutrons are produced, whereas an arrowhead outside the sphere implies the loss of a neutron.
A similar wave can be realized without lenses by detonating a large number of points distributed over a spherical surface.
The time required for the actual fission of a nucleus is extremely short and most of the neutrons are emitted promptly. The nature and proportions of the fission fragment nuclei vary to some extent, depending on the particular substance undergoing fission and on the energy of the neutrons causing fission. This is frequently, although not always, accompanied by gamma radiation, which serves to carry off excess energy. Because of the large number of different ways in which fission can occur and the several stages of decay involved, the fission product mixture becomes very complex.5 More than 300 different isotopes of 36 light elements, from zinc to terbium, have been identified among the fission products. The residual radioactivity from the fission products at 1 hour after a nuclear detonation is taken as 100 and the subsequent decrease with time is indicated by the curve. However, if plutonium enters the body by ingestion, through skin abrasions, or particularly through inhalation, the effects may be serious. This element is known to exist in three isotopic forms, in which the nuclei have mass numbers of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The lightest (1H) nuclei (or protons) contain no neutrons; deuterium (D) nuclei contain one neutron, and tritium (T) nuclei contain two neutrons. One way in which this energy can be supplied is to raise the temperature to very high levels.
Consequently, by combining a quantity of deuterium or lithium deuteride (or a mixture of deuterium and tritium) with a fission device, it should be possible to initiate one or more of the thermonuclear fusion reactions given above. This explains why only about 35 to 45 percent of the fission energy from an air burst is received as thermal radiation energy at a distance, although the primary thermal radiation may constitute as much as 70 to 80 percent of the total. In order to avoid ambiguity, it was agreed that the term “kiloton” would refer to the release of 1012 calories of explosive energy. Dwellers in the room where the fire started will deal with the fire automatically but for empty rooms like living quarters or storage rooms, you have to drag any available dweller. There's a small radiation in the area (1-2 rads per second), but it's worth your efforts, because you'll find an alien blaster and some fusion cells.
Fort Constantine is tied directly to a subquest called You gotta shoot 'em in the head, so before you decide to explore the inside of the fort make sure that you have three special keys - from Dave, Ted Strayer and Dukov. You should also know that he can pay you in 5.56mm ammunition, stimpacks, frag grenades and RadAway's.
New clothes and weapons can be gathered by sending some people out into the wasteland for hours at a time, or by opening special lunch boxes. Before I was consumed by the darkness of my own personality, I decided to ceremonially send all 127 dwellers out into the wastelands, to find their own destiny.
The game is extremely funny and never once takes itself too serious as it pokes fun at the RPG’s of old.
They are headed by a giant, sentient mole rat who lives in an underground cave adjacent to the reactor, known as the Brain, who seeks to take over the world.
He is assisted by "Lumpy" John, a human refugee from Vault City who has no visible mutations like the ghouls, but is considered unacceptably mutated by the Citizens in Vault City because of his unusual resistance to radiation. Whether you use steel-reinforced concrete or a layer of lead, the 3 to 4 feet of soil will provide effective protection and act as the first barrier for keeping radioactive elements from entering your body.
In water or in the ground, however, the term “shock” is used, because the effect is like that of a sudden impact. As a consequence of its neutron reflecting and inertial properties, the “tamper” permits the fissionable material in a nuclear weapon to be used more efficiently.
When the implosion wave reaches the sphere of uranium (or plutonium), it causes the latter to be compressed and become supercritical (Fig. Consequently, the generation time is essentially equal to the average time elapsing between the release of a neutron and its subsequent capture by a fissionable nucleus. Weight for weight, therefore, the fusion of deuterium nuclei would produce nearly three times as much energy as the fission of uranium or plutonium. At the temperatures of a nuclear explosion, however, not only is the radiation energy emitted very rapidly, but most of this energy is in the spectral region with wavelengths shorter than the ultraviolet. This is equivalent to 1 short kiloton of TNT if the energy release is 1,102 calories per gram or to 1 long kiloton if the energy is 984 calories per gram of TNT. Take note that the number of dwellers that can enter the room will depend on the room's capacity. An identical weapon can also found in Greener Pastures so make sure to explore both in order to stack up on ammunition.
You can talk to her right away or you can assist brotherhood outcasts in dealing with the raiders. Strong dwellers work best in the power stations, whereas the more intelligent characters are happier in the medical or scientific rooms. Every lunch box has a set of cards that range from additional caps (money) to bespoke dwellers.
As I sat watching the lights slowly turn off in my 12 storey underground bunker I almost shed a tear.
In the short term, he seeks to build an alliance between Gecko and Vault City based on power from Gecko being sent to Vault City in exchange for medical research on how to "restore" the ghouls to humanity. 1.48 that a much greater fraction of the neutrons is lost from the smaller than from the larger mass. Eventually you'll get to a door where you'll have to use the second key from Crowley's quest.
I guess you won't be surprised to hear that more brotherhood outcasts will be waiting for you inside the fort.
You are awarded lunch boxes for achieving various tasks, such as gathering resources or sending people outside. The introduction of neutrons from a suitable source can then initiate a chain reaction leading to an explosion.
Sadly, the fort itself doesn't contain any unique items, similar to T-51 armor from Fort Constantine.
I wouldn't recommend giving him an alien blaster which you may have found by now, because you'll need this weapon to take down strong creatures and his reward isn't good enough.
You shouldn't fight more than two of them at the same time, because they're heavily armored and they're using powerful guns.
Later rooms aim to improve the special stats and you are able to send people to the bar to improve their charisma, get them on a treadmill to increase their endurance or even have them play cards to improve their luck. Lunch boxes are also given out for playing everyday for a week and should you get in trouble, you can buy them as in-app purchases. Nevertheless, you will come across a brand new fatman if you decide to explore the central bunker. Use the final third key and you'll find yourself standing inside some kind of a laboratory. Now you have to decide whether you want to keep exploring the fort on your own or go back to the surface.



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