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30.05.2014
There are two basic types of fitness training, cardiovascular fitness training and muscle endurance fitness training. The latter focuses more on muscle growth and anaerobic exercise whereas cardiovascular training looks at aerobic activities-exercises which require the intake of oxygen and are performed over a long period of time, running for example. Running is a great example to use because it is at the forefront of everyone’s mind when cardiovascular training is discussed. However there are a range of different types of cardiovascular training exercises which involve running. This articles aims to identify seven of these exercises, describing the protocol of the exercise and the benefits it boasts. The times can be altered to suit the requirements and fitness levels of the individual taking part but the principle must stay the same throughout.
Although keeping a track of the timing is helpful, it is the variation of the intensity which is most important. The idea is that although the individual exercise at two or more different intensity levels they never overwork themselves so much that they have to stop. The adjustments and amendments are controlled by the individual taking part rather than the protocol of this type of training. This exercise is very similar to aerobic interval training except it focuses on exercises performed without breathing such as sprinting. The individual taking part in the exercise is required to exercise at a high intensity for a short period of time, 30 seconds is enough. When using this exercise to improve cardiovascular fitness levels it is important that the two exercises, the low intensity exercise and the high intensity exercise, are connected.
If you were to choose two exercises which required changing equipment then the benefits of part taking in this type of exercise would be lost. This type of exercise training was introduced by Swede Gosta Holmer in the late 1930’s; the exercise combines both anaerobic and aerobic exercise using the main principles of interval training.
A thorough Fartlek training session should last for between 45 and 60 minutes, during this time the individual taking part in the training should be exercising at 60%- 80% of their maximum heart rate. The initial part of Fartlek training starts with a sustained period of moderate intensity exercise.
Although this type of cardiovascular exercise seems to be disjointed and at times difficult to follow, when conducted properly it is a very thorough work out. Circuit training can be developed into the ultimate cardiovascular training exercise, if planned and carried out correctly.
Despite some variations of circuit training including a mixture of both cardiovascular and weight endurance training exercises, this can be altered to develop this type of training into a dominantly cardiovascular activity.
Circuit training involves a series of exercise stations set out across a large area, indoors or outdoors. This is usually an exercise performed as a group, the group is divided across the stations with everybody moving to a new station at the end of the allotted time. As mentioned earlier, the types of exercise at each station can be altered to suit the individual or the group taking part.
In contrast to the other exercises discussed in this article, the bleep test can be used both as a method of measuring cardiovascular fitness levels as well as improving them. The beep test involves running between two markers which are 20 meters apart from each other. Initially the intensity is very low as the individual is given more time to complete each shuttle run. The protocol of the test is extremely simple and it can be adjusted to suit various fitness levels. This distance can then be used to compare with others or measure against the cooper test results chart to determine their level of fitness. This type of cardiovascular exercise training is another which can be made sport or exercise specific. The tabata method is all about intensity, its concept involves exercising at 100% for a very short period of time, taking a short break and then repeating the exercise again.
The exercise chosen should be an aerobic exercise, one which you can perform for 20 seconds but take in oxygen whilst doing it.
If you have any thoughts or suggestions from experience  regarding cardiovascular training please feel free to comment in the box below, we love to know what you think about every subject we cover and with out your input our website would be boring and static. I have always believed that marathon running and triathlon training are more mental than physical. For the past year, I have worked with Jeff at PRSFit and have I seen my body adapt to the training and I wouldn’t trade this bit of the training for anything. Last week, when I went into API, Dan asked whether I wanted to work on my run, swim or bike endurance. Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Increased cardiorespiratory endurance u Increased muscular endurance u Decreased VO 2 at rest and submaximal exercise u IncreasedVO 2 Max u Increased heart weight, volume, and chamber size u Increased left ventricle wall thickness athletes heart u Increased left ventricle EDV u Increased blood plasma u Increased Stroke Volume (fig.
Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Decreased resting heart rate u from increased parasympathetic activity and decreased sympathetic activity.
Respiratory Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Respiratory system functioning usually does not limit performance because ventilation can be increased to a greater extent than cardiovascular function.
Respiratory Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Unchanged pulmonary diffusion at rest and submaximal exercise.
Metabolic Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Lactate threshold occurs at a higher percentage of VO 2 Max.
Metabolic Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Large increases in VO2 Max u in mature athletes, the highest attainable VO2 Max is reached within 8 to 18 months of heavy endurance training. Cardiorespiratory Adaptations From Resistance Training u Small increase in left ventricle size u Decreased resting heart rate u Decreased submaximal heart rate u Decreased resting blood pressure is greater than from endurance training u Resistance training has a positive effect on aerobic endurance but aerobic endurance has a negative effect on strength, speed and power.
Factors Affecting the Adaptation to Aerobic Training u Heredity accounts for between 25% and 50% of the variance in VO 2 Max values. Exercise Physiology MAP = CO x TPR Cardiac output Structure of the heart Cardiac cycle Control of heart rate Control of stroke volume Total peripheral. THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Anatomy Anatomy Acute Exercise Acute Exercise Chronic Exercise Chronic Exercise.
Physiological Adaptations in Response to Training Examine the relationship between the principles of training, physiological adaptations and improved performance.
Jan Roscoe Publications WJEC Examinations GCE Physical Education AS Unit 2 Active lifestyle and Physical Education Section B Participation in Physical.


GUNGAHLIN COLLEGE Human Movement EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY (CHRONIC) PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND ADAPTATION TO EXERCISE. 1 Ventilatory and Cardiovascular Dynamics »Brooks Chapts 13 and 16 Outline Ventilation as limiting factor in aerobic performance Cardiovascular responses. Chika Christenson, CPT, discusses the Importance of Motion & Exercise and some of the challenges today’s youth and adults are facing as our society becomes less active. The ability to perform daily tasks vigorously and alertly, with energy left over for enjoying leisure-time activities and meeting emergency demands.
The capability of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs to work over sustained periods of time, delivering nutrients and oxygen to the working muscles and tissues and removing the metabolic waste products.  This is also referred to as aerobic endurance. The ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert a maximum force for a brief period of time. The ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force against a resistance repeatedly over a sustained period of time.
The makeup of the body in terms of lean body mass (muscles, bone, vital tissues and organs) and body fat.
To become stronger, the body must be exposed to workloads greater than its norm.  Work levels must gradually overload the body above its resting level to bring on improvement. The body must be exposed to progressively greater workloads as it adapts to the demands of exercise.  The intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise must be gradually increased over time in order to improve.
Training improvements are quickly lost when training stops.  Significant reductions in fitness levels can be seen in as little as two weeks without training.
The gains usually seen in the early stages of an exercise program level off after a few weeks and no further gains are apparent. Intensity – In order to get the result you want, you must work safely and consistently. Duration and Frequency – ACSM’s Dave Patania gives some great advice on how to look for your appropriate mode of cardio exercise, duration of workout, tips for getting started and more…click here. ACSM and the American Health Association have teamed up to establish a great program called, Exercise is Medicine™. Consistent physical exercise has proven to be effective in the treatment and prevention of chronic disease. Emphasize a positive attitude toward the body –accepting it, choosing to take care of it and appreciating it. Help classmates, family members, co-workers, etc… develop personal relationships and become supportive of each other. Although other exercises such as cycling and swimming are just as beneficial running seems to be the main choice of exercise for this type of training. Many are globally recognised, these have been developed over time and added to exercise programmes over the years as their benefits have been discovered over the course of time.
Some are more popular than others and are easier to access in terms of expense and equipment required but all are valued and can become an integral part of any cardiovascular exercise programme.
The idea is that the individual taking part in the training divides the time available for their session into sections. For example the larger period of time during which the high intensity activity is performed could last for 15 minutes rather than five. The periods of low intensity should be used for rest, however this does not mean stopping completely.
As long as the concept of aerobic interval training is understood and followed then the timings and intensity levels can be changed to suit the individual’s needs. The idea is the same in regards to exercising at different levels of intensity except the timings are shorter. After this they should exercise for a further 30 seconds at a low intensity, the cycle then starts again and should be repeated six or seven times.
Sprinting and walking are ideal for this because it is effortless to switch from one to the other at the end of each 30 second period. Although the timings can be altered for different people with different levels of fitness it is important to keep the structure of the exercise in order to reap the benefits. For this reason it may be advantageous to use anaerobic interval training as an additional exercise to perform at the end of a large work out, after the beep test or the cooper test for example.
Although Holmer introduced Fartlek training as a means of coaching cross country runners, it can be modified to suit anyone’s needs. Despite being introduced as a running exercise, Fartlek training can be adapted to suit other cardiovascular activities such as cycling, swimming and rowing, take a look at our HIIT routine. Most Fartlek training sessions start at a relatively high intensity and it is therefore advised that people warm up thoroughly before taking part in this type of training. Distance wise, the person should be looking to cover over 1.5 miles, they may wish to increase this if they are using a bicycle. Circuit training develops the idea of working at a high intensity for a short period of time. Each station is set up with equipment to assist with a particular exercise and is marked out appropriately. The exercises at each station can be specific to cardiovascular training such as skipping with a rope or they could be a mixture of cardio vascular and muscle endurance, running a certain distance carrying a weight for example. Many will already be familiar with the beep test; it is widely used in physical education and the military as a source of monitoring cardiovascular fitness levels. The intensity of the running is dictated by a tape recording which consists of a series of beeping noises.
However as the test moves on the time between the beeps reduces and this encourages the individual to run faster.
Some people may choose to alter the distance between the two markers to make the test more relevant to their level of fitness. This is another which is commonly used in physical education but can also be used as a means of improving and testing cardiovascular fitness.
Like the beep test it involves running but due to its procedure it is best performed on a running track.
Keeping a record of this result will help the individual record their progress when completing the cooper test over a period of time.
It is an extremely intense method of training, without doubt the toughest listed in this article but also the one which takes the least time. Although this form of training takes little time, it is essential that it is performed at such a high intensity.


For some this may rule out running (sprinting), however rowing on a rowing machine is a great exercise for tabata training, setting your breathing pattern to suit the rhythm of the rowing strokes.
I have always believed that our minds have a much bigger part to play in our training than our bodies. In each of these disciplines we are asking our bodies to old their positions for a long time.
Cardiovascular Adaptations From Aerobic Training u Increased cardiorespiratory endurance u Increased muscular.
Oxygen Consumption (VO2) The amount of o2 taken up and consumed by the body for metabolic processes. Oxygen Delivery During Exercise Oxygen demand by muscles during exercise is 15-25x greater than at rest Increased delivery. Adaptations to Aerobic Training: Cardiorespiratory Endurance Cardiorespiratory endurance –Ability to sustain. What you need to know… Cardiovascular adaptations to aerobic training Respiratory adaptations to aerobic training. The three components of the respiratory system External respiration Gas transport Internal respiration.
KEY KNOWLEDGE Know the mechanisms responsible for the acute responses to exercise in the cardiovascular, respiratory and. Physiological Adaptations to Aerobic Endurance Training Respiratory System Enhanced oxygen exchange in the lungs Improved.
Red Blood Cells Also called erythrocytes The primary function is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and remove. This is normal and progression will start up again as the program is revised and continues.
The idea is that they will run, cycle or swim at a high intensity for a long period of time, this is usually five to eight minutes, before doing the same at a low intensity for a small period of time, usually about one minute. However the period of time during which the low intensity activity is performed would have to be amended too. From here the intensity drops for a period of five minutes whilst the individual catches their breath, exercising at a very low intensity whilst recovering. For example, during the penultimate stage extra bursts of high intensity exercise can be added to emulate sprinting to catch up with opponents in races and game based sports. In contrast to Fartlek training and the two variations of interval training however this exercise does not include spells of low intensity, it is all on the same level. The idea is that the time available for the whole session is divided by the number of stations so those taking part are aware how long to spend at each. The times and number of stations can be changed and the training can even be done as an individual rather than a group if required. The idea is that the individual taking part runs between the two markers, timing their run so they arrive at each marker when the beep sounds. Towards the end of the test the individual is required to sprint, having gradually increased their speed after jogging slowly at the start of the test.
However if the setup is changed then the results may not be valid or reliable when comparing to others or expected levels. In contrast to the beep test, the intensity of this exercise is very much in the hands of the individual taking part.
When completing the cooper test the individual is required to run as far as they can in 12 minutes.
Typically the periods of intense exercise should last for around 20 seconds with the rest periods lasting for around 10 seconds. It took twenty years but suddenly I find myself thinking about things I haven’t thought about before. I understood these things before, but I didn’t understand that the strength builds the endurance.
Lower heart rate during sub-maximal workloads: O Mainly a result of increased stroke volume. I like his presentation, because he keeps it simple and uses examples that anyone can relate to and understand.
Also, they may wish to change the timings so they actually spend longer exercising at a lower intensity than they do a higher intensity. From this recovery stage the intensity then increases once more as the individual exercises at a comfortable level, spontaneously increasing the intensity for periods of 6 to 7 seconds before returning to a comfortable level one again, this stage is repeated until tiredness sets in. For example if the session is set to last for an hour and there are 10 stations then six minutes will be spent at each. As a means of improving fitness however the test can be altered and amended to suit the needs of the individual taking part. In order to benefit most the exercise should performed 10 times, this however depends on the exercise.
Two weeks after that I am competing in my first ever Aqua Velo, the 112 mile bike means I will be on the bike for well over six hours. If my shoulders are stronger, my back is stronger, my abdominal muscles are stronger then they won’t begin to peter out halfway through the aqua velo. The session usually finishes with a short bust of very high intensity exercise, usually only lasting a minute.
When stopping the test because they have completed it or can’t sustain the intensity, the individual should make a note of the level they achieved; this can be compared to expected levels.
It hadn’t occurred to me that if you have to add the word cardiovascular in front of the word endurance, there are by definition, other types of endurance. I even know the order in which things begin to fall apart on the bike and it has nothing to do with the saddle. Instead, I can continue to concentrate on form, on turnover and the rest of my body’s needs. I am more present in every workout and I am more aware of just how much I can do if I do it right.



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