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Increased hydration–>If you are staying hydrated by drinking enough so that your urine is clear then it could be water that is making the number on the scale go up a couple pounds, but it is healthy weight gain! If it is actual fat that you have gained you should still stick with a low-fat raw vegan diet. Click here for the mandatory privacy policy and terms of use, which you agree to by using this site. Follow WhmSoft's board vlrFilter, Multifunction Audio Filter with Remote Control on Pinterest. Much healing needs to happen to restore a normal metabolism that efficiently burns fat as fuel. I use to water fast all the time and think that it was going to keep me slim long-term, boy was I fooling myself! A follower of either the diet or the philosophy is known as a vegan.View Wikipedia Article"Vegan" redirects here. Once I stopped fasting all together and started eating a regular amount of food I  immediately starting packing on the pounds more than I ever have. The only way to heal a damaged metabolism is to eat enough healthy foods and exercise regularly.
Yes there are benefits to fasting for some people, but not for those looking to have a high metabolism.
Dietary vegans, sometimes referred to as strict vegetarians or followers of a plant-based diet, refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but also eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances. Dietary vegans are often more focused on the health aspects of a whole foods, meat- and dairy-free diet, and as such may consume honey or wear clothing that include animal products, such as leather and wool.
The term ethical vegan is often applied to those who not only follow a vegan diet, but extend the philosophy into other areas of their lives, and oppose the use of animal products for any purpose. Another term is environmental veganism, which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the harvesting or industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable. Vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fibre, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron and phytochemicals, and lower in dietary energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc and vitamin B12.
Well-planned vegan diets can reduce the risk of some types of chronic disease, including heart disease, and are regarded as appropriate for all stages of the life-cycle by the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, and Dietitians of Canada.
Because uncontaminated plant foods do not provide vitamin B12 (which is produced by microorganisms such as bacteria), researchers agree that vegans should eat B12-fortified foods or take a supplement.
The earliest known use is attributed to the actress Fanny Kemble, writing around 1839 in Georgia in the United States. Greek philosophers Empedocles and Theophrastus were vegetarians, as were Seneca the Younger, Ovid, Plutarch, Plotinus, Porphyry, and the Arab poet Al-Ma?arri. Their arguments were based on health, the transmigration of souls, animal welfare and the view, espoused by Porphyry in De Abstinentia ab Esu Animalium ("On Abstinence from Animal Food"), that if humans deserve justice so do nonhumans.
Vegetarianism established itself as a significant movement in 19th-century England and the United States. In 1813 the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley published A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating "abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors," and in 1815 William Lambe, a London physician, claimed that a vegan diet could cure a range of diseases from cancer and tuberculosis to acne. Amos Bronson Alcott, father of novelist Louisa May Alcott, opened the Temple School in 1834 and Fruitlands in 1844 in Massachusetts.
In England in 1838 James Pierrepont Greaves founded the Concordium, a vegan community at Alcott House on Ham Common. In 1843 members of Alcott House created the British and Foreign Society for the Promotion of Humanity and Abstinence from Animal Food, led by Sophia Chichester. Alcott House helped establish the British Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent. An article in the society's magazine in 1851 discussing alternatives to shoe leather suggests the presence of vegans within the membership who rejected animal use entirely.
A vegetarian society newsletter in 1912 asked vegetarians to write in concerning egg and milk consumption, and reported on the arguments, concluding that the use of these products could not be justified. There were regular discussions in its newsletter, the Vegetarian Messenger, about the treatment of cows and hens; it appears from the correspondence that many opponents of veganism came from within the vegetarian community.
Lacto-vegetarians typically did not oppose veganism on moral grounds, and acknowledged the ethical consistency of the vegan position.
However, they regarded a vegan diet as impractical, and were concerned that it might be an impediment to spreading vegetarianism if vegans found themselves unable to participate in social circles where no vegan food might be available. In August 1944 several members asked that a section of the society's newsletter be devoted to non-dairy vegetarianism. When the request was turned down, Donald Watson, secretary of the Leicester Vegetarian Society, set up a new quarterly newsletter, Vegan News, in November 1944, priced tuppence. The first edition attracted over 100 letters, including from George Bernard Shaw, who resolved to give up eggs and dairy. The six members of the new Vegan Society held their first meeting in early November at the Attic Club, 144 High Holborn, London.
Vegan News changed its name to The Vegan in November 1945, by which time it had 500 subscribers. It published recipes, health news and a "vegan trade list" of animal-free products such as Colgate toothpaste, Kiwi shoe polish, Dawson & Owen stationery and Gloy glue. The Vegan Society soon made clear that it rejected the use of animals for any purpose, not only as food, and in 1951 it defined veganism as "the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals." In 1956 Leslie Cross, the society's vice-president, founded the Plantmilk Society to explore commercial soy milk production. As Plantmilk Ltd (later Plamil Foods) it began production in 1965 of one of the first widely distributed soy milks in the Western world.
The first vegan society in the United States was founded in 1948 by Catherine Nimmo and Rubin Abramowitz in California, who distributed Watson's newsletter.
Jay Dinshah founded the American Vegan Society (AVS), linking veganism to the concept of ahimsa, "non-harming" in Sanskrit.
According to Joanne Stepaniak, the word vegan was first published independently in 1962 by the Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, defined as "a vegetarian who eats no butter, eggs, cheese or milk." Increasing interest Countercultural food movement In the 1960s a countercultural food movement emerged in the United States around concerns about diet, the environment and a distrust of food producers, leading to increasing interest in organic gardening and vegetarianism. Frances Moore Lappe's Diet for a Small Planet (1971) sold over three million copies and suggested "getting off the top of the food chain." From the late 1970s a group of scientists in the US, including physicians Dean Ornish, Caldwell Esselstyn, Neal D. Colin Campbell, argued that diets based on animal fat and animal protein, such as the Western pattern diet, were detrimental to health.
The following decades saw a series of books recommend vegan or vegetarian diets, including McDougall's The McDougall Plan (1983), John Robbins's Diet for a New America (1987), which associated meat eating with environmental damage, and Dr. In 2003 two major North American dietitians' associations approved the vegan diet as safe for all life stages.
This was followed by the film Earthlings (2005), Campbell's The China Study (2005), and Rory Freedman and Kim Barnouin's Skinny Bitch (2005), as well as Jonathan Safran Foer's Eating Animals (2009) and the film Forks over Knives (2011). Becoming more mainstream (2010s) Further information: List of vegans Interest in veganism in the 2010s was reflected in increased page views for the topic on Wikipedia.
Chain restaurants began marking vegan items on their menus, and supermarkets improved their selection of vegan processed food. The global mock-meats market increased by 18 percent between 2005 and 2010, and in the US by eight percent between 2012 and 2015 to $553 million a year. In the UK the plant milk market increased by 155 percent in two years, from 36 million litres in 2011 to 92 million in 2013. The European Parliament defined the meaning of vegan for food labels in 2010, in force as of 2015. The English Wikipedia article on veganism was viewed 73,000 times in August 2009 but 145,000 times in August 2013. Articles on veganism were viewed more during this period than articles on vegetarianism in the English, French, German, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish Wikipedias. In recent years, some in America have promoted veganism as "glamorous" and trendy, to counter the image of self-deprivation projected by vegan straight edges and animal rights activists. The idea of the "flexi-vegan" gained currency; in his book VB6 (2013), New York Times food columnist Mark Bittman recommended sticking to a vegan diet before 6 pm.
De Vegetarische Slager, the first known vegetarian butcher shop, selling mock meats, opened in the Netherlands in 2010. In 2011 Europe's first vegan supermarkets appeared in Germany – Vegilicious in Dortmund and Veganz in Berlin and elsewhere. In 2013 the Oktoberfest in Munich, traditionally a meat-heavy affair, offered vegan dishes for the first time in its 200-year history. America's first known vegan butcher's, the Herbivorous Butcher, opened in Minneapolis in 2016. In Israel, interest in veganism surged in recent years, with an estimated 5% of Israelis identifying as vegan in 2015, approximately double the figure in 2010.
The phenomenon has been attributed to a 2012 visit by abolitionist activist Gary Yourofsky, who frequently compares the treatment of animals to the Holocaust.
Following a protest in 2015, the Israeli army was forced to make special provisions for vegan soldiers, including non-leather boots and wool-free berets. Veganism also became popular among Israeli Arabs, leading to collaborations between Jewish and Arab animal rights activists. Critics of veganism have questioned the evolutionary legitimacy and health effects of a vegan diet, and pointed to longstanding philosophical traditions which held that man is superior to the other animals. Israel: In 2014, nearly 5% (300,000) said they were vegan, according to the Panels Institute, making it the highest per capita vegan population in the world. However, a 2014 government poll found that 1.7% of adults aged 20 or more identify as vegan. Also in 2016, spokesman Pablo Moleman of Viva Las Vega's estimated about 1% (170,000) of the Dutch population to be vegan, whereas Wageningen researcher Hans Dagevos put the maximum at 70,000 (0.4%).
Dietary vegans might use animal products in clothing (as leather, wool and silk), toiletries and similar.

Ethical veganism extends not only to matters of food but also to the wearing or using of animal products. The British Vegan Society will certify a product only if it is free of animal involvement as far as possible and practical, including animal testing. Some of these are chemical compounds which can be derived from animal products, from plants, or from petrochemicals. However, these products and their origins are not always included in the list of ingredients.
Ethical vegans will not buy woollen jumpers, silk scarves, leather shoes, bedding that contains goose down or duck feathers, ordinary soap (usually made of animal fat), or cosmetics that contain animal products. They avoid certain vaccines; the flu vaccine, for example, is usually grown in hens' eggs, although an effective alternative, Flublok, is widely available in the United States. Non-vegan items acquired before they became vegan might be donated to charity or used until worn out. Some vegan clothes, in particular leather alternatives, are made of petroleum-based products, which has triggered criticism because of the environmental damage involved in their production. Some vegetarians argue that the restrictiveness of a vegan lifestyle is impractical, and that vegetarianism is a better goal. Eggs, dairy, honey, silk The main difference between a vegan and vegetarian diet is that vegans exclude eggs and dairy products. Ethical vegans avoid them on the premise that their production causes animal suffering and premature death.
To obtain milk from dairy cattle, cows are made pregnant to induce lactation; they are kept pregnant and lactating for three to seven years, then slaughtered. Female calves are separated from their mothers within 24 hours of birth, and fed milk replacer to retain the cow's milk for human consumption. Neither the Vegan Society nor the American Vegan Society considers honey, silk and other insect products as suitable for vegans, while Vegan Action and Vegan Outreach view it as a matter of personal choice. Vegan diet Vegan cuisine at Wikibook Cookbooks Soy Warm tofu (soybean curd) with garlic sauce.
Dishes based on soybeans are a staple of vegan diets because soybeans are a complete protein; this means they contain all the essential amino acids for humans and can be relied upon entirely for protein intake. They are consumed most often in the form of soy milk and tofu (bean curd), which is soy milk mixed with a coagulant.
Tofu comes in a variety of textures, depending on water content, from firm, medium firm and extra firm for stews and stir-fries, to soft or silken for salad dressings, desserts and shakes. Soy is also eaten in the form of tempeh, seitan and texturized vegetable protein (TVP); also known as textured soy protein (TSP), the latter is often used in pasta sauces. Babies who are not breastfed need commercial infant formula, normally based on cows' milk or soy. Vegan (egg-free) mayonnaise brands include Vegenaise, Nayonaise, Miso Mayo, Just Mayo, Mindful Mayo, and Plamil's Egg-Free Mayo. Vegan cheeses such as Chreese, Daiya, Sheese, Teese and Tofutti, are made from soy, nuts and tapioca, and can replace the meltability of dairy cheese. Several recipe books describe how to make cheese substitutes at home; one recipe for vegan brie combines cashew nuts, soy yogurt and coconut oil.
In 2014 Oakland's Counter Culture Labs and Sunnyvale's BioCurious produced vegan cheese from casein extracted from genetically modified yeast.
Egg replacements Further information: Egg substitutes Commercial egg substitutes, such as Bob's Red Mill egg replacer and Ener-G egg replacer, are available for cooking and baking.
Flaxseeds will do the same: replace each egg with one tablespoon of flaxseed meal mixed with three tablespoons of water. Bean brine, known as aquafaba, can be used to replace egg whites in meringues, ice cream and baking.
In 1992 the USDA replaced this with the food guide pyramid and in 2011 with MyPlate, which is consistent with a vegan diet. MyPlate is divided into five groups: grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy (or calcium-fortified soymilk), and protein. The protein includes meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts and seeds.
Nutrients Protein Further information: Pea protein, Protein (nutrient), Protein–energy malnutrition, Rice protein and Soy protein Rice and beans is a common vegan protein combination.
Vegans obtain all their protein from plants, omnivores usually a third and ovo-lacto vegetarians half.
Combinations that contain high amounts of all the essential amino acids include rice and beans, corn and beans, and hummus and whole-wheat pita.
Soy beans and quinoa are known as complete proteins because they each contain all the essential amino acids in amounts that meet or exceed human requirements. In 2012 the United States Department of Agriculture ruled that soy protein (tofu) may replace meat protein in the National School Lunch Program. The American Dietetic Association said in 2009 that a variety of plant foods consumed over the course of a day can provide all the essential amino acids for healthy adults, which means that protein combining in the same meal may not be necessary.
Vitamin B12 Further information: Vitamin B12 deficiency, Vitamin B12 § Supplements and Food fortification Tahini miso soup with brown rice, turnips, squash, radishes and nori (an edible seaweed). Vegetarians are also at risk, as are older people and those with certain medical conditions. A 2013 study found that "vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet.
Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12." Increased hygiene in the food supply is probably the cause of B12 depletion from plant-based diets. Neither plants nor animals make B12; it is produced by microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and algae.
Plants not washed properly may contain B12 from bacteria in the soil, often from faeces, and drinking water may be similarly contaminated, particularly in the developing world. Animals obtain it by eating contaminated plants, other animals, or their own faeces, and become sources of B12 if eaten themselves. Intensively farmed animals are often given B12 supplements or injections, particularly pigs and poultry, because when raised indoors they have no access to plants and less access to their own faeces.
The mouth is another source, but in small amounts and possibly analogue (not biologically active).
Japanese researchers say that around 4 g of dried purple nori, an edible seaweed, supplies the adult RDA of 2.4 mcg (µg) of B12.
Tempeh, a fermented soybean food, is cited as another source, perhaps because of contamination during production. One tablespoon of Red Star Vegetarian Support Formula nutritional yeast delivers the adult RDA of B12. There is no gold standard for assessing B12 status and few studies exist of long-term vegans who have not used supplements or fortified foods. Nevertheless, the consensus among researchers is that vegans and vegetarians should use supplements, or eat B12-fortified foods such as plant milk or breakfast cereal.
Calcium Further information: Calcium in biology, Calcium carbonate, Calcium citrate and Disorders of calcium metabolism Vegan cheeses Calcium is needed to maintain bone health and for several metabolic functions, including muscle function, vascular contraction and vasodilation, nerve transmission, intracellular signalling and hormonal secretion. Plant sources include broccoli, turnip, bok choy and kale; the bioavailability of calcium in spinach is poor. Vegans should make sure they consume enough vitamin D, which is needed for calcium absorption. A 2007 report based on the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which began in 1993, suggested that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over meat eaters and vegetarians, likely because of lower dietary calcium intake. The study found that vegans consuming at least 525 mg of calcium daily have a risk of fractures similar to that of other groups. A 2009 study found the bone mineral density (BMD) of vegans was 94 percent that of omnivores, but deemed the difference clinically insignificant. Vitamin D Further information: Vitamin D deficiency, Rickets and Hypervitaminosis D Most people can obtain enough vitamin D from sunlight in the spring, summer and fall. Without it bones can become thin and brittle; together with calcium it offers protection against osteoporosis.
Vitamin D is produced in the body when ultraviolet rays from the sun hit the skin; outdoor exposure is needed because UVB radiation does not penetrate glass.
It is present in salmon, tuna, mackerel and cod liver oil, with small amounts in cheese, egg yolks and beef liver, and in some mushrooms. The extent to which sun exposure is sufficient depends on the season, time of day, cloud and smog cover, skin melanin content, and whether sunscreen is worn.
According to the National Institutes of Health, most people can obtain and store sufficient vitamin D from sunlight in the spring, summer and fall, even in the far north. They report that some researchers recommend 5–30 minutes of sun exposure without sunscreen between 10 am and 3 pm, at least twice a week.
Tanning beds emitting 2–6 per cent UVB radiation have a similar effect, though tanning is inadvisable. Cholecalciferol (D3) is synthesized in the skin after exposure to the sun, or consumed in the form of animal products; when produced industrially it is taken from lanolin in sheep's wool. Ergocalciferol (D2) is derived from ergosterol from UV-exposed mushrooms or yeast and is suitable for vegans. According to researchers from the Institute of Medicine, the differences between D2 and D3 do not affect metabolism, both function as prohormones, and when activated exhibit identical responses in the body. Vegan diets generally contain more iron than vegetarian diets because dairy products contain very little.
There are concerns about the bioavailability of iron from plant foods, assumed by some researchers to be 5–15 percent compared to 18 percent from a nonvegetarian diet.

Iron deficiency anaemia is found as often in nonvegetarians as in vegetarians, though studies have shown vegetarians' iron stores to be lower. Supplements should be used with caution after consulting a physician, because iron can accumulate in the body and cause damage to organs. This is particularly true of anyone with hemochromatosis, a relatively common condition that can remain undiagnosed. High-iron vegan foods include soy beans, black-strap molasses, black beans, lentils, chickpeas, spinach, tempeh, tofu and lima beans.
Iron absorption can be enhanced by eating a source of vitamin C at the same time, such as half a cup of cauliflower or five fluid ounces of orange juice. Coffee and some herbal teas can inhibit iron absorption, as can spices that contain tannins (turmeric, coriander, chillies and tamarind). Omega-3 fatty acids, iodine Further information: Essential fatty acid interactions, Iodine in biology and Iodine deficiency Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, is found in leafy green vegetables and nuts, and in vegetable oils such as canola and flaxseed oil. Vegan Outreach suggests vegans take ? teaspoon of flaxseed oil (also known as linseed oil) daily, and use oils containing low amounts of omega-6 fatty acids, such as olive, canola, avocado or peanut oil.
Vegans may use DHA supplements derived from algae instead of fish oil; a 2011 meta-analysis concluded that algal oil may be an effective replacement for fish oil Iodine supplementation may be necessary for vegans in countries where salt is not typically iodized, where it is iodized at low levels, or where, as in Britain and Ireland, dairy products are relied upon for iodine delivery because of low levels in the soil.
Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or regular consumption of seaweeds, such as kelp.
Health effects Further information: Vegan nutrition and Raw veganism Vegan products in a supermarket (Oceanside, California, 2014) Veganism appears to provide health benefits, including a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity and heart disease. There is evidence that a vegan diet aids weight loss more effectively than a vegetarian or non-vegetarian diet, particularly in the short term.
Studies of Adventists have suggested that, compared to non-vegetarians, vegans may have a reduced risk of most cancers, although a greater risk of urinary tract cancer. According to nutritionist Winston Craig, writing in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2009, vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fibre, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron and phytochemicals, and lower in dietary energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc and vitamin B12. Craig wrote that vegans tend to be thinner, with lower serum cholesterol and lower blood pressure. Eliminating all animal products increases the risk of deficiencies of vitamins B12 and D, calcium and omega-3 fatty acids.
Craig advised vegans to eat fortified foods or take supplements, and warned that iron and zinc may be problematic because of limited bioavailability.
The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada state that properly planned vegan diets are appropriate for all life stages, including pregnancy and lactation.
They indicate that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders, but that its adoption may serve to camouflage a disorder rather than cause one. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council similarly recognizes a well-planned vegan diet as viable for any age.
As of 2011 the German Society for Nutrition did not recommend a vegan diet and cautioned against it for babies and children, the pregnant and the elderly. The British National Health Service's Eatwell Plate allows for an entirely plant-based diet, as does the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) MyPlate. The Canadian Pediatric Society regards well-planned vegan diets as appropriate "at all stages of fetal, infant, child and adolescent growth"; attention should be given to nutrient intake, particularly protein, vitamins B12 and D, essential fatty acids, iron, zinc and calcium. According to a 2015 systematic review, there is little evidence available about vegetarian and vegan diets during pregnancy, and a lack of randomized studies meant that the effects of diet could not be distinguished from confounding factors.
Researchers have reported cases of vitamin B12 deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers that were linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children.
A doctor or registered dietitian should be consulted about taking supplements during pregnancy.
After animals are slaughtered for meat, the leftovers are put through the rendering process, and some of that material, particularly the fat, ends up in toiletries. Common ingredients include tallow in soap, and glycerine (derived from collagen), used as a lubricant and humectant in haircare products, moisturizers, shaving foam, soap and toothpaste; there is a plant-based form but it is usually animal-based.
Stearic acid is a common ingredient in face creams, shaving foam and shampoos; as with glycerine, it can be plant-based but is usually animal-derived. Lactic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid derived from animal milk, is used in moisturizers, as is allantoin, from the comfrey plant or cows' urine, in shampoos, moisturizers and toothpaste. Carmine from scale insects, such as the female cochineal, is used in food and cosmetics to produce red and pink shades. Despite this, he writes that "thical thinking can be sensitive to circumstances," and that he is "not too concerned about trivial infractions." An argument proposed by Bruce Friedrich, also a protectionist, holds that strict adherence to veganism harms animals, because it focuses on personal purity, rather than encouraging people to give up whatever animal products they can. For Francione, this is similar to arguing that, because human-rights abuses can never be eliminated, we should not defend human rights in situations we control.
By failing to ask a server whether something contains animal products, we reinforce that the moral rights of animals are a matter of convenience, he argues.
He concludes from this that the protectionist position fails on its own consequentialist terms. Plumwood maintained that animal food may be an "unnecessary evil" from the perspective of the consumer who "draws on the whole planet for nutritional needs," and she strongly opposed factory farming, but for anyone relying on a much smaller ecosystem, it is very difficult or impossible to be vegan, she argued. Environmental veganism Further information: Environmental vegetarianism, Feed conversion ratio and Vegan organic gardening Paul Watson Environmental vegans focus on conservation, rejecting the use of animal products on the premise that fishing, hunting, trapping and farming, particularly factory farming, are environmentally unsustainable.
In the United States ten billion land animals are killed every year for human consumption, and in 2005 48 billion birds were killed globally.
A 2006 UN report, Livestock's Long Shadow, concluded that livestock farming (mostly of cows, chickens and pigs) has an impact on the air, land, soil, water, biodiversity and climate change.
Paul Watson of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society called pigs and chicken "major aquatic predators," and said that all Sea Shepherd ships are vegan for environmental reasons. Livestock consumed 1,174 million tonnes of food in 2002, including 7.6 million tonnes of fishmeal and 670 million tonnes of cereals, one-third of the global cereal harvest. In 2001 they consumed 45 million tonnes of roots and vegetables and 17 million tonnes of pulses. As of 2006 the livestock industry accounted for 9 percent of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, 37 percent of methane, 65 percent of nitrous oxide, and 68 percent of ammonia; livestock waste emitted 30 million tonnes of ammonia a year, which is involved in the production of acid rain. Steven Davis, a professor of animal science, argued in 2003 that, applying the least-harm principle, human beings should convert to a ruminant-based rather than plant-based diet, because of the animals killed by crop production. Based on a finding that wood-mouse populations fell from 25 to five per hectare after harvest, Davis estimated that 10 animals per hectare are killed from crop farming every year. If all 120,000,000 acres (490,000 km2) of cropland in the continental United States were used for a vegan diet, 500 million animals would die, but if half the land were used for ruminant pasture the number would be 900,000. This assumes that people switch to beef, lamb and dairy products from the eight billion poultry killed each year. Philosopher Andy Lamey argued that, to include nonhuman deaths in the moral cost of veganism, Davis must also include human deaths caused by his proposed diet. Economist Gaverick Matheny wrote that Davis had miscalculated the animal deaths, basing his figures on land area rather than per consumer.
In addition, by focusing on numbers rather than welfare, and by excluding factory-farmed animals, Davis had equated lives with lives worth living.
His argument ignored the harm done to farmed animals: pain from branding, dehorning and castration, confinement, transport without food or water to a slaughterhouse, and a frightening death. Matheny argued that (strict) vegetarianism probably allows for a greater number of animals with lives worth living.
Bibliography Notes ^ Laura Wright, 2015: " definition simplifies the concept of veganism in that it assumes that all vegans choose to be vegan for ethical reasons, which may be the case for the majority, but there are other reasons, including health and religious mandates, people choose to be vegan.
A pure vegetarian or dietary vegan is someone who consumes a vegan diet but doesn't lead a vegan lifestyle.
Pure vegetarians may use animal products, support the use of animals in research, wear leather clothing, or have no objection to the exploitation of animals for entertainment. Barley malt syrup, shiitake mushrooms, parsley and sourdough bread have also been referenced, but may be sources of inactive B12. In conclusion, fracture risk was similar for meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians in this study.
The higher fracture risk among vegans appeared to be a consequence of their considerably lower mean calcium intake. Smith, International Journal of Nursing Practice, 2006: "The findings gathered consistently support the hypothesis that vegans do have lower bone mineral density than their non-vegan counterparts. Diets of pregnant and lactating vegetarians should contain reliable sources of vitamin B-12 daily. Based on recommendations for pregnancy and lactation, if there is concern about vitamin D synthesis because of limited sunlight exposure, skin tone, season, or sunscreen use, pregnant and lactating women should use vitamin D supplements or vitamin D–fortified foods. No studies included in the evidence-analysis examined vitamin D status during vegetarian pregnancy. Iron supplements may be needed to prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia, which is common in pregnancy. Women capable of becoming pregnant as well as women in the periconceptional period are advised to consume 400 ?g folate daily from supplements, fortified foods, or both. Problem is 99.9999999 percent of our animal use can only be justified by reasons of pleasure, amusement or convenience. Rodger, "Interview with Donald Watson", recorded 15 December 2002 (abridged version later published in The Vegan).

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