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Many hormones or neuropeptides that contribute to the regulation of energy balance exert their effects at numerous sites throughout the CNS. It is clear that the excessive food intake, especially of palatable foods, that contributes to human obesity is not driven by metabolic need alone.
Ongoing extensive investigations in our lab are examining the neuroendocrine systems that connect within-meal inhibitory feedback from gastrointestinal satiation signals to nuclei in the mesolimbic reward system (MRS), including the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens. While the CNS control of energy balance involves redundant and anatomically distributed processing across the CNS, a few nuclei, such as the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the hindbrain, stand out as essential for the processing and integration of a variety of ascending and descending pathways controlling for food intake and energy balance. Although rodents lack the physiology needed to vomit, behavioral paradigms such as pica (ingestion of non-nutritive substances) and conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) are used commonly in both rats and mice as models for the study of malaise and nausea. If you’ve been looking for a diet plan that breaks the norm then its worth taking a closer look at the a€?Venus Factor Diet Reviewa€?. My honest Venus Factor Diet Review will help you understand why the Venus Factor has taken the world of female diets by storm.
And the truth behind the claims that the “Venus Factor is a miracle cure for fat loss. The Venus Factor Diet System has been designed as a one stop a€?women onlya€? diet and weight loss program. Ita€™s a 12 week weight loss program that works by taking into account all the factors that have a direct effect on a womena€™s weight. The turning point came for John when he watched his sister and best friend struggle with weight issues following the birth of her first child.
So he turned his attention to female weight loss, with the aim of helping his sister win the weight loss battle naturally. During John’s research he stumbled upon a little known fact about the human metabolism and how the hormone Leptin influences, weigh loss and body shape in women. The Venus Factor Fat Loss System has been based on proven scientific research into the natural hormone Leptin. The research focuses on the biological and hormonal differences between men and womena€™s ability to lose weight successfully. Understanding Leptin and the process it fulfills in the body finally explains why women need to adopt a different approach to weight loss than men.
The presence of the natural hormone Leptin has been discovered to be critically important in the science of fat loss for women. Leptin is different because ita€™s a natural hormone that regulates appetite, metabolism and weight.
The presence of the Leptin hormone helps determine how effectively a women can lose weight and maintain their desired feminine shape.
Leptin is our starvation hormone and is the way your fat cells tell your brain that your energy thermostat is set correctlya€?. In short, leptin is a hormone made by fat tissue that acts on the brain to regulate food intake and body weight and is what causes your body to enter its fat burning mode. The Leptin hormone, is naturally present in your body and helps control how much fat you lay down or burn off. The Venus Factor creator John Burban believes that the vast majority of women who are overweight almost certainly have leptin resistance. Their brains are not locating the signal that they have had enough to eat, which makes it all to easy to over eat.
The Venus Factor for weight loss is about re-educating your body to pick up on the signals your brain is sending to you and increase your sensitivity to leptin. The Venus Factor teaches you how to adjust your current diet to restore leptin to its appropriate and effective levels for efficient fat burning and continue to keep it active. The Venus Factor System is not about giving up everything that tastes good just because it contains fat. The program comes with access to an active social community called Venus Immersion Community. The Venus Immersion Community has been set up to provide its members with support and encouragement while keeping them focused on their task of losing fat and toning muscle. The Venus Factor contains a step by step 12 week workout program which is divided into 3 simple phases.
Each phase gives you different exercises and strength workouts that will help you lose weight and tone your muscles.
It gives you easy to follow instructions, with pictures and over 103 videos that ensure the maximum results can be achieved in each phase. Thousands of women struggle every day to get the figure that they want, the Venus Factor gives women the opportunity to harness the power of their metabolism. My Venus Factor Venus Factor Diet Review explains the actual reasons why the program gives women the ability to achieve the toned muscles and attractive bodies they crave. The venus factor diet menu gives you complete access to expert nutrition and diet advice plus helpful tips and menu plans. Unlike other weight loss programs the Venus Factor diet plan doesna€™t require you to eat less to lose weight, instead it uses the unique approach of simply allowing dieters not to have restrictive diet rules that they cannot possibly keep up with.
Instead dieters can enjoy their favorite foods and eat everything in moderation without worrying.
Each workout is designed to be easily performed from your home with just the aid of a pair of dumbbell.
John Barban provides a high quality customer service and aims to response to any query within 24 hours. The Official Venus Factor Site also offers you full satisfaction guaranteed promise of your money back within with the 60 days of purchase.
Along with PDF downloads, online videos, and its online login community it provides you with a complete nutritional and exercise plan.
Despite some Venus Factor negative reviews, the program is being hailed by many women throughout the world as a a€?one of a kind weight loss and management system”. Its been “designed with women in minda€? ita€™s based on clear cut common sense and ita€™s not fanatical.
Leptin has the potential to revolutionize the way women control their weight and help them achieve the best shape for their own body. I am a 53 year old mother of 3 and I have struggled with my weight from the birth of my first child over 30 years ago.
During that time I have finally realized that there is no one size fits all in the world of diets and you need to follow a weight loss system that suits your personal needs and lifestyle. There are literally thousands of Weight Loss Systems, Exercise Plans and Food Programs available.
I now make a full time living reviewing Weight Loss and Diet Programs and I pride myself on delivering honest and completely unbiased reviews.
With this offer, you pay only $9.95 but you get access to the entire Venus Factor System, including the bonus content, for 7 full days.
Before I get to the preview, please understand that I cannot give the Venus Factor System away for free. When you open the PDF file, each of the exercises listed is a hyperlink that takes you directly to a video demonstration. With this program you enter your height, weight, measurements, age and how much you exercise. The forum is a community full of regular women who have changed their lives with the help of the Venus Factor System.
Affiliate DisclosureIf you click on one of our links and purchase the Venus Factor System, we will receive a commission payment. About UsAt Zornes Marketing we purchase and study popular digital products so we can offer people exclusive previews. The secret to the success of the Venus Factor weight loss system for women lies in what's referred to as Metabolic Override.
Venus Factor is for women from any walk of life who are ready to make healthy lifestyle changes and follow a step by step diet and exercise system designed to promote natural and healthy weight loss without any need for pills, powders or potions. Yes, Any testimonials or before and after photos on this website were provided by real customers, and have not been photoshopped or altered.
It’s difficult for me to tell you what the average person will experience after reading the program, as it’s extremely difficult to obtain written confirmation of weight loss results from everyone who has ever bought or read this program. Yes this program provides diet and exercise information designed to not only help you lose weight but also to maintain weight loss. While anything is possible, this is very unlikely and this should not be a concern for most women. Our best advice is to take advantage of this limited time offer now so that you get our guaranteed lowest rate and so that you don't lose access to our very special limited time bonus of Immersion which is an interactive community designed to improve your overall experience and results with the program.
This program is backed by a 100% money back guarantee for 60 full days from your original purchase.
Individual Results may vary, and testimonials are not claimed to represent typical results.
The pancreatic hormone amylin reduces food intake, but until recently, its ability to suppress feeding had predominantly been attributed to activation of the area postrema, a hindbrain nucleus.
While our lab investigates the importance of neuropeptide signaling on vagal afferents and in hindbrain and hypothalamic nuclei for the homeostatic control of food intake, it is also critical to examine and better define the neural basis of non-homeostatic controls of food intake. Thus, current projects are investigating the behavioral, molecular, neuronal and physiological mechanisms by which energy balance-relevant neuropeptides (such as glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, and amylin) are modulating the non-homeostatic controls of feeding mediated by nuclei in the MRS. It is also very clear that more progress could be made in the treatment of obesity if research focused attention on these specific CNS nuclei that serve as hubs for the neural control of energy balance.
The toll on the patient can be life-threatening, and unfortunately the pharmacological- and radiation-treatment options for cancer are commonly accompanied by a host of undesirable side effects (pain, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea, vomiting). However, I can tell you a little more about the various components and share the table of contents from the main book.
For every single day that you exercise there’s a chart that tells you what exercises to do, how many sets, how many reps to attempt, and how long you should rest between sets.
Based on that, it will tell you your ideal measurements, how many calories to eat, and how much protein to consume. When you join, you’ll be able to ask questions, get encouragement, and brag about your own progress.

Every year John has a transformation contest, and the most successful women are interviewed. Metabolic Override consists of unique diet and exercise strategies designed to help optimize the female metabolism and facilitate healthy weight loss while accommodating the individual lifestyle, preferences and demands of everyday women in the modern age.
If you want to lose weight and get in shape without having to spend countless hours in the gym or even sacrificing all of your favorite foods or red wine to do it, then Venus Factor may be a great fit for you. He has a masters degree from the University of Guelph in Human Biology and Nutrition and went on to do further graduate studies at the University of Florida were he taught in the department of Health and Human performance. However, I am not suggesting that these are typical results, rather that they showcase what the best and most motivated customers have achieved, and are meant to be motivational best-case scenarios.
I can tell you that the principles found in the program cause weight loss through a calorie-controlled diet and exercise regime.
Your ability to maintain any weight lost will be directly related to continued and consistent, effort following the diet, exercise and lifestyle strategies presented in the program. Listen, if you are not completely satisfied with this program or your experience for any reason whatsoever simply send us an email or call us using our toll free number within 60 days of your purchase and you will be issued a no questions asked 100% refund within 48 hours.
Venus Factor does not promote rapid weight loss because it is not healthy, natural or maintainable.
That's why we've partnered up with Clickbank to handle all of your billing using their secure socket layer, 128 bit encryption.
Also, you may call and speak to one of our friendly customer support staff or fitness coaches toll free during our business hours at (844) 687-3438. If you're not totally and completely satisfied with this program, your results or your experience in the first 60 days from your purchase simply let us know by calling our toll free number or dropping us an email and we'll give you a full refund within 48 hours.
All testimonials are real women, and may not reflect the typical purchaser's experience, and are not intended to represent or guarantee that anyone will achieve the same or similar results.
Recently, our laboratory found that the ventral tegmental area, a nucleus in the mesolimbic reward system, is another important site of action mediating the ability of amylin to promote negative energy balance. Thus, our lab explores the intracellular mechanisms by which multiple neurochemical systems interact and synergize at the level of the NTS to control for energy balance. The severity of these side effects can cause cancer patients to delay or refuse chemotherapy, in turn leading to increased patient morbidity and mortality. It explains gender differences in metabolism, the science behind popular foods (in layman’s terms), macronutrients, calories, and weight vs shape.
You’ll hear the challenges they faced, how they overcame them, how they adapted the program to fit their lives, and advice for people who are just getting started. Venus Factor customizes these unique diet and exercise strategies to the woman as an individual based on her current measurements, personal food preferences, schedule and exercise capabilities in order to help maximize her results. He also has extensive experience working in the health and sports supplement industry in R&D as well as a regulatory consultant.
Weight loss programs that include diet and exercise can be difficult to follow and not everyone can complete them. Each persons individual results for both initial weight loss and maintenance of any weight lost will vary based on genetic, lifestyle and other individual and environmental factors. Venus Factor promotes strategic caloric restriction and exercise designed to promote gradual, consistent and healthy weight loss for women.
Frankly, your credit card data is safer making an online purchase through our secure site than it is using it to pay for gas or buy food at a restaurant.
And in addition, you will also receive access to our customer only community where you may receive real time advice and support from other Venus Factor customers and coaches.
Many of the women featured on this website have entered a transformation contest, and received some form of compensation. We are following up on this initial discovery by investigating the intracellular and neuroanatomical mechanisms by which amylin signaling in the ventral tegmental area controls energy balance. This 90-page book has additional nutrition information along with a more advanced 12-week workout plan. Custom nutritional software, meal plans and workout videos are provided as part of a distinct four phase plan Venus Factor uses to help women experience healthy weight loss. He has spent the past 10 years researching and developing nutrition and exercise programs focused on weight loss and maintaining weight loss. Your results will be directly related to your consistency, individual genetic, biological and environmental factors, as well as the effort you put into the program. With Venus Factor, we never want you to feel alone and we do everything we can to make sure you're fully supported every step of the way with this program. Understanding more about the distributed actions of amylin to reduce food intake may shed light onto new potential pharmaceutical approaches for the treatment of obesity. Every person has unique experiences, exercise habits, eating habits, and applies the information in a different way. We developed a climate-vegetation response model based on interpretation and synthesis of existing knowledge (literature review) and supported by investigation and analyses of local patterns of climate effects on forage plant performance and chemical composition. Thus, the experiences that we share from other people may not reflect the typical users' experience. Due to recent statements from the FTC, it is required that we identify what a typical result is. The truth: most people never do anything with the products they buy, so most of the time, their typical results for both weight loss and maintenance of any weight lost is zero.
These temperature acclimation responses were expected to have resulted in transient pulses of increased forage availability (increased nitrogen- and carbon-nutrient quality), as well as the progressive long-term decline of the carbon-nutrient quality of forage. However, the results portrayed in this presentation are meant as a showcase of what the best, most motivated Venus Factor users' have achieved.
In addition, you assume certain risks inherent in exercise and nutrition programs by using this system. You should not begin the program if you have a physical condition that makes intense exercise dangerous. In addition, Venus Factor requires you to follow an eating plan and at times restrict the amount of calories you consume. You should not begin this eating plan if you have physical or psychological issues which make fat loss dangerous. This model was developed through interpretation and synthesis of existing knowledge (literature review) and supported by analyses of local patterns of climate effects on forage plant performance and chemical composition. Key resources for herbivores thus relate to nitrogen productivity, nitrogen quality and carbon-nutrient quality.
A central notion of the climate-vegetation response model is that levels of these three forage resource indicators are affected differentially by plant metabolic processes in response to the nature of edaphoclimatic resources (water, temperature and nutrients) available to plants. To the extent that different herbivore species have divergent nutritional requirements in respect of these key forage resources, we expected that their population performances would be affected differentially by conditions of the edaphoclimatic environment (spatial scale) and climate (temporal scale). The area lies between the Drakensberg escarpment in the west and the Mozambique coastal plain in the east. The area north of the Olifants River is in the northern arid bushveld zone, receiving 300 mm - 500 mm rain per year, whilst the southern part of the park falls into the lowveld bushveld zone, with an average annual rainfall of 500 mm - 700 mm per year. Years of pronounced below-average rainfall were 1963-1964, 1973, 1983-1984, 1987, 1991-1992 and 1998 (Figure 1). Schulze 1997) is on average about 1.5 months shorter in the north than in the south (96 days compared with 142 days, respectively).
The savanna vegetation on nutrient-poor substrates tends to be dominated by trees of Combretaceae (e.g. Combretum and Terminalia species) and Caesalpineaceae, whereas those on more nutrient-rich clay soils are dominated by trees of Mimosaceae (especially Acacia species) (Gertenbach 1983; Venter et al.
The vegetation of the northern KNP is characteristically dominated by mopane (Colophospermum mopane) and this species is well represented in broad-leaved bushveld vegetation types on granites and broad-leaved shrubveld associated with basalts (Gertenbach 1983; Venter et al.
The herbaceous layer of the KNP is dominated by C4 grass species (Kennedy, Biggs & Zambatis 2003) and the more nutrient-rich savanna vegetation types on clay soils carry dense stands of nutritious, high-bulk grasses (Venter et al. We developed an explanatory framework - the climate-vegetation response model - which permits the interpretation of these correlative patterns in relation to climate effects.
As part of the climate-vegetation response model we (1) defined indicators of forage availability (quantity and quality), (2) established forage selection requirements characteristic of and unique to the three herbivore population performance response groups (nutritional guilds), and (3) developed a plant-climate response process submodel. The resulting climate-vegetation response model defined the expected effects of climate on indices of forage availability, thereby providing an explanatory framework for the interpretation of spatiotemporal patterns in herbivore population performance in relation to climate. The model was developed largely based on the interpretation and synthesis of relevant literature. Some results of local research contributed towards the definition of key forage resource indices. The samples originated from a study to explore the effects of fire frequency on forage quality, where sampling was undertaken in four treatment blocks (three inside and one outside of the enclosure) defined by the time since the last burn. Each treatment block contained three sampling localities (replications) to represent a total of 12 samples per sampling event. The concentrations of ash minerals and TNC were determined, as well as in vitro organic matter digestibility (OMD) of the powdered sample material.
These analyses were performed by the Analytical Services department of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) in Irene. TNC were analysed as reducing sugars after complete enzymatic hydrolysis to monosaccharides. The method entailed gelatinisation of all starch in the sample by autoclaving, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the starch to glucose and determination of glucose content by spectrometric measurement. In vitro OMD was determined following an adaptation of the two-phase technique described by Tilley and Terry (1963), with some modification introduced by Engels and Van der Merwe (1967). It involved a 24-hourlong fermentation by rumen micro-organisms in a buffer solution followed by a 48-hour-long pepsin digestion after acidification. For the determination of 813C and 815N, samples were combusted in an automated Thermo1112 Elemental Analyser (Carlo Erba, Milan). The resultant CO2 and N2 gases were then introduced to a Thermo Delta stable light isotope XP mass spectrometer via a continuous flow-through inlet system (Thermo Conflo III). 1 ‰ for 81 3C (Stable Light Isotope Unit, Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town). The main objective of this part of the study was to determine how these varying growth conditions affected the chemical composition and digestibility of the grass tissues and the implications for key indices of forage quality defined in the context of this study.

Warminginduced increases in biomass production of C grasses have been demonstrated under experimental conditions (An et al. Accordingly, nitrogen productivity of C4 grasses and subtropical woody vegetation is expected to increase over time as ambient temperature increases (Figure 2). However, at progressively higher nitrogen productivity, an inverse relationship to nitrogen quality due to nitrogen dilution is generally encountered (An et al. An index of nitrogen quality is defined here as the product of nitrogen concentration and OMD of the plant tissues involved.
Wetseason nitrogen quality tended to be higher early in the wet season (spring) compared with later in the wet season (summer) (Figure 4c). This is congruent with nitrogen dilution through growth under conditions of relatively high temperature and water availability (TW conditions), as typically experienced by tropical grasses (Wilson & Ford 1971). These relationships are consistent with general findings that metabolic activity under water stress promotes digestibility (Wilson 1982) and that high growth activity under TW conditions results in reduced forage quality. High growth temperatures also hasten the maturation of individual tissues and the digestibility of plant tissue is usually higher when grown at low temperatures, such as in spring or winter ('t Mannetje 1984; Wilson 1982).
Carbon-nutrient quality forage items are thus characterised by relatively high concentrations of TNC and ash minerals resulting from substantial metabolic allocation to storage under circumstances promoted by constrained growth (particularly owing to low temperatures, but also moisture stress: tw conditions) but sustained photosynthesis. Buffalo and waterbuck are considered roughage feeders able to digest fibrous food relatively efficiently (Hofmann 1973, 1989).
Despite the relatively unselective bulk grazing habit of buffalo, they adjust their feeding patterns in relation to seasonally changing forage quantity and quality (Macandza, Owen-Smith & Cross 2004).
However, for both these species food quantity seems to override exacting quality requirements.
According to a study by Parrini (2006) sable antelope do not avoid stemmy grass tufts and include tall stemmy species generally avoided by short-grass grazers. Sable antelope were found to be particularly tolerant of stems in habitats with intermediate to high nutrient levels. Heitkonig and Owen-Smith (1998) found a similar pattern in roan antelope, which tolerated stems when leaf quality was high. The preferred feeding sites of tsessebe typically have soils with a high clay content (Dorgeloh 2006). Topi (Damaliscus lunatus jimela), with foraging habits believed to be similar to those of tsessebe, selected for the tallest plants and species with relatively long leaves when feeding on grass with more than 20% green leaves (Duncan 1975 op. These patterns of ingesting stem material together with leaf matter and the relatively high importance of nutrient contents of these are commensurate with the maintenance of relatively high dietary TNC and mineral nutrient levels resulting in carbon-nutrient ratios as required for sustained carbon-nutrient quality. As indicated in the previous section, andropogonoid grass species would tend towards a sustained metabolic performance type metabolism and thus have a propensity towards carbon and nutrient storage, particularly when subject to seasonally low temperature conditions. Under such metabolically favourable conditions, these species are expected to have high carbonnutrient quality; that is, a combination of favourable levels of TNC, nitrogen and minerals. Consequently, there are, inter alia, strong inverse relationships between the functional allocation to growth and non-growth processes, notably carbon storage (Herms & Mattson 1992).
Accordingly, there is an allocation trade-off between quantity of plant tissue produced through growth (structural plant content) and quality, represented by the proportion of non-structural plant content (metabolically active components and storage products). Thus, abundance of resources such as water, nutrients and temperature enhance productivity, but increasing productivity then progressively reduces plant tissue quality for herbivores through nutrient dilution (An et al.
At the core of this model is the metabolic performance trade-off model, from which predictions can be made regarding divergent plant responses to site and climate-linked resource constraints and their impact on parameters of forage availability to herbivores. The capacity for maximum metabolic performance under conditions of resource surplus is at the cost of the capacity for sustained performance under conditions of resource deficits or fluctuations.
Furthermore, stress-tolerant plants (SMP mode) tend to allocate an especially high proportion of available energy to maintenance respiration required to tolerate adverse environmental conditions (Taylor 1989). Plants in a relative SMP mode are accordingly expected to be even more sensitive to resource conditions inducing elevated maintenance respiration, such as increased mean mimimum temperature (reflecting nocturnal temperature conditions) (T min). Resource constraints on growth are generally more intense than their inhibitory effect on photosynthesis. When tracking resource surplus conditions favourable for both photosynthesis and growth in RMP-mode plants, the resource-level response relationships for growth and photosynthesis tend to be similar (Wilson & Ford 1973). In SMP-mode plants, stress tolerance capacity is associated with photosynthesis being relatively less sensitive to resource levels than growth. Accordingly, there is greater scope for source (photosynthesis) to sink (growth) imbalance in SMP mode plants, favouring allocation to secondary metabolism and storage as carbon assimilation levels exceed those which are required for growth. Plants in relative SMP mode are thus comparatively stress tolerant in order to cope with fluctuations in resource levels.
Such metabolic capacity is, however, associated with relatively high storage-to-growth allocation priority and comparatively high maintenance respiration costs (i.e. In contrast, plants in relative RMP mode are geared to the maximum use of resource surplus conditions, functioning at relatively high temperature and water resource level optima (narrow metabolic amplitude) and high growth-to-storage priority (Figure 5). The higher the concurrent and uninterrupted levels of temperature and water available to plants, the more pronounced the intraspecific metabolic adjustment towards higher RMP mode functionality settings. According to the metabolic performance trade-off model, we therefore expect the SMP mode to predominate (intraspecifically) in northern KNP areas and the RMP mode to be more prevalent in southern areas of the park.
Conditions prevailing in the central KNP are expected to promote an intermediate position in this regard.
A pattern of lower temperatures and increased rainfall at higher altitudes represents tW conditions, with Tw conditions prevailing at lower altitudes.
Combining the north-south water availability and altitudinal temperature gradients, plant functionality settings were identified and the associated expected implications for forage quality indicated in accordance with the metabolic performance trade-off model (Table 1). This pattern may, however, be modified at various spatial scales by the availability of water (Mutanga et al.
2004) and factors resulting in nitrogen dilution (accentuated SMP or RMP functional expression as in northern and southern KNP, respectively).
At a spatial scale we thus generally expect the prevalence of relatively high nitrogen quality forage on nutrient-rich geological substrates in the central KNP (Table 1).
In particular, Tmin, which represents nocturnal temperature conditions, has increased more steeply than the mean periodic maximum temperature (T ), which represents diurnal temperature conditions (Houghton et al.
2009), promoting temperature acclimation in order to restore the original steady-state respiration-to-photosynthesis ratio (Dewar, Medlyn & McMurtrie 1999).
As temperature increases, leaf metabolic pools adjust until the original steady-state respiration-to-photosynthesis ratio is re-established. Leaf labile carbon, starch and protein pools decrease in response to increased temperature, eventually reaching a new, lower steady state, consistent with the general pattern of plant carbohydrate and soluble protein content being negatively correlated with growth temperature (Dewar et al. These acclimation responses represent intraspecific SMP to more RMP functionality shifts (SMP-to-RMP temperature acclimation).
This has consequences for forage quality, such as reduced carbohydrate and mineral storage levels (progressively lowered carbon-nutrient quality) and reduced nitrogen quality due to nitrogen dilution and lowered digestibility resulting from high RMP mode-based growth rates (Figure 5). 2005), resulting in greater quantities of plant protein in the landscape (increased nitrogen productivity).
Phases of relatively elevated Tmax therefore indicate conditions of increased solar radiation (reduced cloud cover) and reduced water availability for plant growth (reduced rainfall). The associated increased photosynthesis-to-growth ratio is conducive to enhanced forage quality (increased storage allocation; reduced nitrogen dilution). This forms the basis of the first of four defined temperature acclimation phase states (SMP-P, phase of increased SMP productivity) constituting the temperature acclimation sequence resulting from (pulses of) increasing atmospheric temperature (Figure 6).
The initially enhanced SMP mode productivity declines and RMP-mode growth increases [referred to as over-compensation by Wan et al.
This results in a reduction of stored metabolites (TNC, minerals and protein) relative to the accumulation of structural carbon through accelerated growth (reduced carbon-nutrient quality; Figure 5). Furthermore, RMP-TW mode functionality implies metabolic growth activity at higher water and temperature optima. Dry-season rainfall supports SMP-tw functionality, thus promoting the production of forage items of high carbonnutrient and nitrogen quality (Figure 5). However, with progressive SMP-to-RMP acclimation SMP-tw efficiency is expected to decline as RMP-TW functionality favours growth under conditions of higher temperature and water availability. However, as acclimation to Tmin takes effect, increased RMP-TW metabolic activity of plants results in reductions in forage quality and thus forage availability (Figure 6). Furthermore, as plants are already functioning at higher RMP settings in the southern KNP, SMP-RMP-SMP temperature response pulses (Figure 6) are expected to be attenuated relative to those in the northern KNP, where pronounced associated pulses of forage availability are expected to be encountered.
Based on the postulates of this model inferences can be made as to how the metabolic responses of plants to their dynamic edaphoclimatic environment shape forage availability for herbivores by affecting the levels of key forage resources (relating to nitrogen productivity, nitrogen quality and carbon-nutrient quality).
Nitrogen productivity refers to the quantitative availability of forage items for herbivores of a given nitrogen quality (plant protein content) as a result of biomass production.
High nitrogen quality of forage implies high nitrogen concentrations of plant tissues; that is, plant protein content not unduly diluted by structural or non-structural carbon and of relatively high digestibility.
Carbon nutrient quality forage items are characterised by relatively high concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates and ash minerals resulting from metabolic allocation to storage under circumstances promoted by constrained growth (low temperatures, moisture stress: tw conditions), but sustained photosynthesis. Levels of these key forage resource indicators in plants (referring primarily to C4 grasses) are determined by plant metabolic responses to the spatiotemporally dynamic availability of resources (temperature, water and nutrients; Figure 5). Such application resulted in the internally consistent interpretation of spatiotemporal patterns of large herbivore population performance in relation to climate (Seydack et al. Mss Judith Kruger, Sandra MacFadyen and Sharon Thomson of Scientific Services, KNP, are acknowledged for providing data used in this study.
This study represents an output of the specialist scientist research programme in systems ecology conducted by members of the Conservation Services Division (Knysna and Skukuza) of South African National Parks. Pons (eds.), Causes and consequences of variation in growth rate and productivity of higher plants, pp. N-concentration, estimated digestibility and leafiness', Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 15, 256-263.

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