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Much of the information below describes the principles of urine drug test using a dip or cup, and how to use and store them. Most drug testing devices are based on the principle of competitive immunochemical reaction between a chemically labeled drug (drug-protein conjugate) and the drug or drug metabolites which may be present in the urine sample for the limited antibody binding sites. During the test, the urine sample is allowed to migrate upward and hydrate the antibody (or drug protein) – colloidal gold conjugate.
When a drug is absent in the urine, the colored antibody (or drug-protein) – colloidal gold conjugate and immobilized drug-protein (or antibody) bind specifically to form a visible line in the test region as the antibody complexes with the drug-protein.
When a drug is present in the urine, it will compete with drug-protein for the limited antibody sites.
When a sufficient concentration of drug is present in the urine, it will fill the limited antibody binding sites. The presence of control line serves as a built-in control, which demonstrates that the test is performed properly. Urine specimens and all materials coming in contact with them should be handled and disposed of as if capable of transmitting infection. Avoid cross-contamination of urine samples by using a new specimen collection container for each urine sample.
A positive test result does not always mean an individual has taken the drug illegally as the drug can be administered legally.
Preparation: If specimen, control, or test devices have been stored at refrigerated temperatures, allow them to warm to room temperature before testing. The Drugs of Abuse test is used to obtain a visual, qualitative result and is intended for professional use only. The presence of the line in the Control region indicates that the proper sample volume has been used and that the reagents are migrating properly.
There is a possibility that technical or procedural error as well other substances as factors not listed may interfere with the test and cause false results.
Cr: Creatinine reacts with a creatinine indicator in an alkaline medium to forms a purplish-brown color complex. Bl: Bleach or other oxidizing agents react with an oxidant indicator to form a color complex. Adulterant or specimen validity test results are obtained by directly comparing the color of each test pad with the color block of Adulteration Color Comparison Chart.
Some Drugs of Abuse devices use a built in specimen validity test which is based on the color response of chemical indicators that show the presence of adulterants.
These professional 'lab grade' kits are available to you at big discounts, allowing you to manage your own drug testing regardless of the situation and place at a fraction of the cost of a lab test. Drug tests for At Home, the Workplace, Schools, Rehab Facilities, Medical Centers and Institutions. Bigger choice – Lower prices!Buy drug test kits direct from us and save over 80% compared to your local drug store. We are dedicated to selling only the best drug test kits at the best prices, backed by superior service and years of experience. So, what better way to make peace than by having me — an astrophysicist — answer a question about physiology?! The human body is a favorite topic of mine, and has been ever since I answered the question of whether a human has more cells or a galaxy has more stars?
Sure, a whole lot of ions and chemicals, salts, proteins, enzymes, hormones, and other metabolites are found in urine.
But there are about 30 trillion red blood cells in the human body, meaning you are both destroying (and making) new red blood cells at a rate of around 2.7 million cells per second. All told, assuming you sleep for 8 hours at night, your body has destroyed 78 billion red blood cells, now has to get rid of 8.4 x 10^19 heme molecules, and has ingested no water over that time. And so my friendly, horizon-expanding challenge back to you, anonymous scibling, is for you to solicit and answer a physical science question of your choosing! I can still post whatever non-science articles I want, I just need to put them into the appropriate categories. So if I understand this right this guy is upset with you because you didn’t list his blog in your list of favorite science blogs?
Voldemort, what kind of reverse sexism is that, assuming just because she has such an ego that Dr.
And yes, Lt., it’s totally weird how just a small chemical change will change the color completely of a molecule!

It’s not that odd, as the vast majority of colour in compounds is caused by the existence of transition metals, and their chemistries (their ionisation state and the chemistry of their ligands). After all binding of oxygen to your hemoglobin changes it from a strong blue (deoxygenated blood, in your veins) to a strong red colour (oxygenated, in your arteries)!
That’s because metals themselves, when complexed by ligands, exhibit colors due to their d-orbitals having electrons excited by incoming photons, and then photons ejected, as well as by electrons jumping from metal orbitals to ligand orbitals and vice-versa.
If you compare that to the urobilin diagram in the original post you can see the only differences are that the carboxylate groups are protonated, and one of the methyl groups is replaced by a CH2 group (which I can’t remember the correct name for.
You are very correct, I had completely forgotten the red->dark red change on deoxygenation of haemoglobin. I think it was from a story about how veins appear blue, yet when you cut one the released blood is red, which I was told in GCSE (15 year old) biology, and that this first led people to think that it was something in the air that changed its colour, leading to some of the first ideas about blood moving oxygen around the body (although they didn’t know what in the air it was that caused the change). I remember an experiment where the experimenter cut a vein in a bell jar that had had a candle burnt in it until all the oxygen was used up and the candle burned out, and it was noted that the blood was a different colour.
Lanthanides can’t fluoresce on their own due to the Forbidden Transitions, as laid out in quantum mechanics.
Here’s a puzzler, to which I found no direct result in a Google search… why, when I pee at night without flushing, does the yellow pee in the bowl turn clear by morning? Yester morning to noon it was very dark urine in colourvand know I woke up from bed went for a pee and noticed my urine was like yellow completely yellow and I could just believe it was a urine.
Weird necromancing of the comments aside, this post is certainly an interesting historical snapshot.
As a woman advances in her pregnancy she may find it very difficult to sleep at nights because of the size of her body. There could be several reasons why there is liquid coming out of the breast when a woman is not pregnant. Being a mother is the most gratifying and miraculous experience bestowed on a woman by the Almighty.
Abortion is a painful procedure because in a surgical procedure in spite of giving local anesthesia women do go through severe pain due to the surgery.
A woman should be worried about the costs of child birth only if she does not have an insurance coverage. Fertility problems in women have been increasing year after year steadily and there are several methods to overcome fertility issues medically.
The test contains a nitrocellulose membrane strip pre-coated with drug-protein conjugate (or antibody) in the test region and a pad containing colored antibody (or drug-protein)-colloidal gold conjugate. The mixture then migrates along the membrane chromatographically by capillary action to the immobilized drug-protein (or antibody) band on the test region. This will prevent attachment of the colored antibody (or drug-protein) – colloidal gold conjugate to the drug-protein (or antibody) on the test region.
This line should always appear, regardless of the presence of drugs or drug metabolites in the urine sample.
The line in the control region is the control line, which is used to indicate proper performance of the device.
A line must form in the Control band region regardless of the presence or absence of drugs or metabolites. To ensure proper kit performance, it is recommended that the test devices be tested once a week with external controls. Observation of a blue-green, brown, or orange color indicates adulteration with bleach or other oxidizing agents. In the presence of an indicator, the colors changes from dark blue to blue-green in urine of low ionic concentration to green and yellow green in urine of higher ionic concentration.
As many of you know, I’m new to scienceblogs, and one of the first things we get to do is join a message board full of all the bloggers (sciblings) here.
Your body is constantly making new red blood cells, replacing the old ones every 4 months or so. What’s more, is that every red blood cell has about 270 million hemoglobin molecules in it, with each one capable of carrying four oxygen molecules (and having four heme groups). Now, most of these molecules wind up in your stool instead of your urine, but they’ve been able to determine that typical human urine contains around 8 mg of urobilin, which equates to about 10% of the broken-down heme molecules winding up in there.
If you’d like a little help, I can point you to the most recent Carnival of Space (#97) for inspiration! Isis is a physiologist at a major research university working on some terribly impressive stuff.

To me putting up a post bashing someone simply because they didn’t publicly say how wonderful you are sound a bit juvenile.
So it’s not that surprising that loss of the metal ion would cause a dramatic change in the colour of the molecule. I was aware of this, in respect to the ionisation state of Fe in the heme group, yet for some reason still had it stuck in my head about deoxygenated blood being blueish. This obviously led to the conclusion that the candle was using the same gas in burning that blood was carrying round the body. I always think that it is so cool that you can look at something with colour and know that one of the two are at play. Many women have the habit of sleeping on their stomach and this might not possible while they are pregnant. During the nine long months that a mother carries the unborn in her womb, each day brings along a new experience. If going through abortion by taking pills, then the pain is compared to that of labor pains.
Then she should be more worried because a C section is not cheap and could cost a lot of money in the United States. This means that a negative urine sample will produce both test line and control line, and a positive urine sample will generate only control line.Therefore, the presence of the line on the test region indicates a negative result for the drug and the absence of the test line on the test region which indicates a positive result for the drug. Clinical consideration and professional judgment must be applied to any drug of abuse test result, particularly in evaluating a preliminary positive result. If the values of external control do not fall within established limits, the test results are invalid. Bleach, vinegar, Visine, sodium bicarbonate, sodium nitrite, Drano, soft drinks and hydrogen peroxide are the examples of compounds used to adulterate the urine sample. Urine pH below 4 or above 9 indicates adulteration of the specimen with acids or alkalines. Well, suffice it to say, a contentious discussion took place between me and another scibling, which resulted in my being called a total n00b in front of the entire world. The distinctive yellow color comes from urobilin, which is a chemical formed, eventually, from the breakdown of hemoglobin. But these signs on their own do not confirm a pregnancy; a test needs to be done once the period is missed to confirm it. During the first trimester, which is the first three months of pregnancy, the body does not go through many physiological changes and the woman’s stomach does not protrude to that extent.
In some cases it could be low sperm count in a man and in some cases it could be a problem with the woman’s uterus. But this is not something to be worried about as it is normal to have yellow urine during pregnancy. If the specimen will not be tested after the specimen collection, the specimen may be refrigerated at 2-8°C up to 2 days or frozen at -20°C for longer period of time. In order to obtain a confirmed analytical result, a more specific alternate chemical method is needed.
The test line may have varying intensity either weaker or stronger in color than that of the control line. A preliminary positive result for a drug indicates that the concentration of that drug in urine is at or above the cutoff level.
This type of pregnancy is also called tubal pregnancy as it commonly occurs in the fallopian tube.
If a woman is not pregnant and has no reason for breast milk production, then she should get herself checked by a doctor. Specimens that have been refrigerated must be equilibration to room temperature prior to testing. A negative result for a drug indicates that the concentration of that drug in urine is below the cutoff level.

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