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30.04.2016
At the Wat Chedi Luang temple, the monks make an effort to interact with the public by scheduling a weekly “Monk Chat” evening. I was excited for this opportunity, since some of my most vivid memories of Thailand were the daily sightings of monks wandering the streets. James said his typical day was to get up before dawn, walk the streets to collect alms before breakfast, participate in morning prayer or meditation, spend the bulk of his day in classes or studying and then take part in an evening prayer session. Later, a group of novice monks came into the sanctuary with an instructor and took a seat on the floor. Would any of these young men, I wondered, devote their lives to monasticism and Buddhist study? This reinforced to me the incredible influence that Buddhism has over the lives of the Thai people. Does Buddhist monks in the Thailand have different rituals and traditions than other countries. Buddhism is concerned with bringing forth the maximum potential for inner freedom and happiness within human beings. The focus of much of the world’s agony in our current times can be traced directly to religion. This is not religion in any true sense of the word; and this is not a religion that can be the basis for a true democracy in this land of America. The power and human potential lying within the life of each man and woman on the face of this Earth is as vast as the universe itself.
There is no one with authority over this potential – it can only be drawn forth by the individual himself or herself. To denigrate that potential, to subvert that power, to demand submission, to create persons and institutions of worship placed far above the people, is a travesty and utter warping of the true function of religion.
Too long this has gone on, and now, after the passing of innumerable generations, the world, and America especially, is poised for the birth of a new civilization – a civilization that demands an entirely new spiritual foundation for the eras to come. At the center of this spirituality is the recognition of the worth and value of each human being on the face of this Earth. This is the true meaning of democracy, the nurturing of the greatness of all people and their happiness. Categorized under: American Dream, Books, Books on Buddhism, Buddha, Buddhism, Buddhist, Dream of America, Religion. PAINTING OF THE WEEK - Ruins of the Holyrood Chapel by Moonlight, oil on canvas, 1824, Louis Daguerre.
G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph.
Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. Adafruit: The oldest street scene photos of New York City - Check out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York. The oldest street scene photos of New York CityCheck out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York.
I still remember reading about Louis Daguerre's invention, the daguerreotype, in high school.
The Making of the American Museum of Natural Historya€™s Wildlife DioramasFossil shark-jaw restoration, 1909. Very old portrait of three men identified as (from left to right) Henry, George, and Stephen Childs, November 25, 1842. In 1840, Hippolyte Bayard, a pioneer of early photography, created an image called Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man. 10 Times History Was Captured in Living ColorColor photographs go back to before you might think. The Greek peninsula was originally settled by the Minoan people who originated in Egypt and came to the mainland via the island of Crete on the south, by the Achaeans who settled in the Peloponnese, and by the Dorians, Ionians, and Aeolians who entered over the mountains from Europe in the north. The name comes from the ruins at Mycenae where a large palace and many graves were discovered. The values that emerged from Homera€™s epic tales became the basic values of Greek culture and formed the basis for Greek education.
Excellence (arete) -- doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others.
Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments. Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals.
Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life. Glory (kleos) -- glory one achieves for parents, family, and polis through great deeds of excellence, honor, bravery. Impermanence of human life -- everything in life is impermanent, but glory (kleos) never fades. After the Trojan Wars, the Mycenaeans went through a period of civil wars and their defenses became weakened.
This period extended from the beginning of the wars with Persia up to the death of Alexander the Great in 336 B.C. The ideal Greek man was considered to be a brave warrior during war time and an excellent athlete in peace time. The olympic site at Olympia still contains the actual fields, large dirt berms where spectators sat, the tunnel through which the contestants ran onto the fields, and remnants of many statues to the gods.
Persia, a major power that developed to the northeast of the Fertile Crescent, expanded through military power into present-day Turkey (Anatolia) and into the western areas of the Black Sea, just to the north of Greece.
The Greeks had established colonies in Troy, Ephesus, and other locations along the eastern edge of the Aegean in present day Turkey. Every modern marathon is exactly the same distance, whether it is run in London, Tokyo, or Boston.
Xerxes is also well known to Christians and Jews because he was the husband of Queen Esther, a Jewish young woman who lived during the Babylonian Captivity of Judah. Xerxes took his time -- four years -- to assemble a huge army of 2 million men and 1200 ships to attack Greece. The Persians marched to a point to the north of Athens, burning and pillaging Greek villages along their path.The goal was to conquer Athens and burn it to the ground in retaliation for Dariusa€™ previous defeat at Marathon. The Persians were like a herd of elephants attempting to crawl inside the neck of a Coke bottle. The Athenians meanwhile began evacuating all the citizens of Athens to Salamis, an island south of Athens, which was separated from the mainland by the Bay of Salamis.
Why was the Athenian army not present at Thermopylae if the goal of Xerxes was to destroy Athens? Why did Leonidas not dismiss the Thespians from the battle, as he did the other Greek troops?
What can be learned from the example of how Leonidas chose Thermopylae to fight the superior forces of the Persians?
By the time the Persians entered Athens, the entire city had been evacuated except for some priests and priestesses who were supposedly given the job of defending the sacred temples on the Acropolis. Why did Xerxes not head immediately into the Peloponnese to deal with Sparta, the hometown of Leonidas, who had angered him at Thermopylae? When the Persian ships entered the Bay of Salamis they were quickly surrounded by the more maneuverable Greek ships. The Athenians went on to build the worlda€™s largest navy and a merchant fleet that trading throughout the Mediterranean, while the Spartans developed the worlda€™s most powerful army. After the Persian wars Athens and Sparta continued to develop two radically different cultures. The Peloponnesian League attacked Athens, but the outmanned Athenians under Pericles gained allies in the Peloponnese, thus damaging Spartaa€™s supply lines, and encouraged the Spartan helots (slaves) to flee to the Athenian allied city-states for safety and freedom.
Athens had built large stone walls from the city down the rocky slopes about 8 miles to Piraeus, its port on the Aegean. Eventually in following years Athens proved to be the city with the most resiliency, vitality, and potential. What two confederations were set up in Greece in view of disputes and bad attitudes between the various city-states?
Pericles was the leader of Athens following the Persian Wars and led Athens in its war against Sparta. Socrates lived during the Peloponnesian Wars that racked Greece and brought Athens and Sparta to exhaustion. Socrates sought through his philosophy to teach a better way, and to do so through the education of the youth of Athens. Socrates was upset by an earlier group of Athenian thinkers, the Sophists, who maintained that there were no universals or absolutes in life. The elders of Athens were very disturbed by Socrates questioning tradition and teaching his students to do the same. Socrates was held in deep respect by his students, but resented by the leaders of the polis. In the Apology of Plato (Dialogues 32, 41) when asked how he felt about his soon death, Socrates is reported by Plato to have replied that he had no feelings or emotions about death. What does Socrates believe about the soul that leads him to conclude that everything a person needs to know already exists in his mind, and merely needs to be allowed to come out? Since Socrates never wrote any of his teachings down, what is one source of his teachings that we can consult to discover what Socrates believed and taught? Early in life Plato wandered around the Mediterranean and was at one point captured by pirates. In The Cave, Plato describes several people chained inside a cave who have never viewed what lies on the outside of the cave. But if there are real Forms of chairs and trees and red apples, then there are real Forms of humans, also.
It was Platoa€™s emphasis on the upper story that appealed to people in Northern Europe during the Renaissance and during the Protestant Reformation, as opposed to the man-centered humanism of Aristotle which was favored in the Italian Renaissance. How is this expressed in the statement by Plato to his teacher: a€?a€?And what, Socrates, is the food of the soul? Aristotle was the son of a physician who had served the grandfather of Alexander the Great. An educated mind is able to listen to and entertain a thought without blindly accepting it. Aristotle departed from his teacher, Plato, by maintaining, as did Confucius and Buddha, that there is not enough time in this life to worry about a life to come. Aristotle was a pioneer biologist in observing and classifying the plants, trees, and animals of Greece. Aristotle, in similar fashion to Plato his teacher, saw two energies or components of the soul -- desire and reason. At the close of the middle ages, many Italians began to discard the traditions of the Roman Church. All three of these philosophers, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, emphasized human reason as the major force of life. In Christianity there is the important matter of the necessity of being born again, having our minds made new, of submitting our minds and wills to God, in trusting Him for wisdom and understanding. Some speculate that the gods and goddesses in Greek mythology were heroes from the earliest Mycenaean periods of Greeks history, preceding even Troy and Homer. This speculation comes from a careful study of Greek pottery, art, and sculpture, which gives, in the opinion of some historians, evidence that the gods and goddesses may have been the glorification by the early Greeks of major characters from the line of Cain who lived prior to the flood. For instance, Zeus could possibly be Nimrod, the first of the great warriors and the founder of the first city according to Genesis. Thus Greek mythology, maintains Johnson, is a corrupted version of biblical history, a twisted memory.
To understand the whole story that underlies the stories contained in Greek mythology, one must be aware of the clash between the older Titans and the younger Olympians. In other pieces of Greek art there is a continuous emphasis on capturing and grasping the tree that contains the fruit of knowledge and mysteries. If Johnson is correct in his interpretations of the many scenes depicted in Greek pottery, Greek mythology deifies the pre-flood line of Cain and depicts Zeus as triumphant over Noah and his God for rule on the earth. Athena is consistently represented in Greek art as not only the patron of Athens but the goddess who possesses knowledge, wisdom, and access to the mysteries.
At the wedding feast celebrating Philipa€™s marriage to Cleopatra, her father made a toast, asking the gods for the birth of a son to become heir to the throne, obviously discounting Alexandera€™s legitimacy.
In the melee that followed, one of his bodyguards, a friend of Alexander, stabbed Philip to death. It is interesting to note that about 700 years later when a Roman general demanded that all of his troops sacrifice to the Emperor to confirm their loyalty, the same Thebian elite unit, now comprising a legion of 6,000 men, refused to sacrifice and the entire legion was put to death. Alexander invaded Anatolia, conquered Syria and Palestine, became the only one in the history of Afghanistan to conquer it, and conquered mighty Egypt. His goal was to unite the entire known world under one leader, speaking one language, and possessing one culture.
Before you read the following account, please read the story of Paula€™s visit to Athens as described by Luke, Paula€™s companion, in Acts 17:16-34. The Athenians developed a complex mythology in an attempt to make sense out of human existence. By the time of Christ there were literally several thousand gods and goddesses in the religious system of Athens. Monuments and altars to the many gods and goddesses lined the highway from Piraeus, the port, to the center of the city of Athens.
Paul stopped in Athens on his way to Corinth, waiting for companions to arrive from Thessaloniki.
In describing Paula€™s reaction to the Athenian idolatry, Luke, the companion of Paul, uses the Greek word paroxysm from which we get paroxsymal. Epicureans taught that the basis of human life was to a€?eat, drink, and have a good time, because tomorrow we will die.a€? There are no moral absolutes. Sophists were an itinerant group of philosophers who emphasized the intellect as the basis of human success. Paul was invited to climb up to Mars Hill, a large hill inside Athens about 300 yards from the Acropolis. Some have suggested that Paul made a mistake by resorting to philosophy and logic in an attempt to be accepted by the Areopagus. They asked the oracle at Delphi, what had they done to cause this plague, and most importantly, what could they do to end it?
Further, the Oracle said, the Athenians must travel to the Island of Crete, to Knossos, a traditional enemy of Athens, to seek out the legendary prophet, Epimenides. Upon arriving at Athens, Epimenides noticed the hundreds of altars and monuments dedicated to the scores of Athenian deities.
According to Plato, he states in his Laws, since the deity sacrificed to was unknown to the Athenians and unknown to Epimenides, the sites were named in honor of Agnosto Theo, the unknown god who had been appeased and who had lifted the plague. Plato further noted that Epimenides prophesied that in ten years Persia would again attempt to invade Athens but would be frustrated and turned back. Within ten years, Persia, under Darius, attempted to invade Athens, just as Epimenides predicted, but was defeated at the famous Battle of Marathon. Lest we become too enamored by Epimenides, however, he also claimed that Zeus was immortal.
The refusal of the people of Crete to adore Zeus as the Immortal One caused Epimenides to make that classic statement, a€?All Cretans, liars!a€? This quote is cited by Paul in Titus 1:12. In the book, Peace Child, Don Richardson describes how the Gospel seemed to be a concept beyond the ability of the Asmat tribe in New Guinea to understand. Likewise, in the Ekari tribe of New Guinea the loss was lamented of the knowledge of Ajii, a place where the dead could go after death, where there was the absence of war, illness, sadness.
In this same way, Paul used the bridge of the agnosto theo to enable the Athenians to understand the Gospel. Although Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were later revered by the rest of the world, they were not well received during their lifetimes in Athens. What truths did Epimenides declare about the true God when he made his four suggestions about the agnosto theo? What can we learn from this story to help us in talking with other people about the Good News of Jesus? Although Rome conquered Greece, Greece in its religion, philosophy, and language conquered Rome. The Christian faith grew rapidly in Greece, including such famous Christian communities as those in Corinth, Athens, Philippi, and Thessaloniki.
After the fall of Constantinople to the Islamic Ottoman Turks in 1453, most of Greece in 1460 fell to the Ottomans.The Ottoman Turks were mountain people from the north of Persia who invaded and conquered present-day Turkey by the 12th century. Facing Russian troops sent by the Christian tsar of Russia at the walls of Constantinople in 1829, the Sultan of the Ottomans finally recognized Greek independence. In the 20th Century Greece was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II, and a communist government was elected shortly after the war. Greece is important and of interest to Western Christians because it was the birthplace of the Christian Church in Europe. Greece is also the civilization that served as a bottleneck, preventing the domination of Islam in Europe. What is not laudable, is the religious darkness that existed in Greece prior to the arrival of the Gospel. What are the differences between the limited democracy of Athens and democracy as practiced in the United States? What evidences are there for humane treatment of girls and women in the ancient Greek civilization?
It is said that the Romans capture the Greeks, but in reality the Greeks captured the Romans. The classical civilizations of Greece established institutions and defined values and styles that endured for many centuries and that continue to influence our lives today.
Alongside of these religions developed two divinely revealed religions: Judaism and Christianity.
The first Greek civilization was the Minoan civilization, located on the island of Crete, with Knossos as its main community. The migration into the Greek mainland from the north by the Mycenaean people, and their subsequent invasion of Crete, resulted in a common language. Troy was a city-state strategically located at the Hellespont, where it controlled traffic to and from Europe and Asia Minor.
Athens served as one of the models for the Founding Fathers of the United States of America, but as a direct democracy functioned very differently than the representative democracy established in the United States.
While Athens was experimenting with a direct democracy, Israel had received from Jehovah through Moses a form of democratic, representative government. Israel, even though embracing a limited monarchy, considered itself a theocracy, with Jehovah at its center and the temple and sacrificial system centered in Jerusalem.
The story of the plague at Athens and the wisdom of Epimenides led to the worship of the a€?Unknown Goda€? and to the eventual entrance of the Gospel to Athens and Greece.
Persia became the feared enemy of the Greek city-states, resulting in three major battles at Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis.
Ironically, the wife of Xerxes, king of Persia, was Esther, a Jewish woman whose family had been takenA  to Babylon in the Babylonian Captivity of 566 BC.
The refusal of Athens to share its democratic dream with the other city-states, as well as jealousy and rebellion on the part of the other city-states, resulted in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC).
Macedonia under Philip the Great conquered all of Greece and established the Macedonian empire. The values contained in The Iliad and The Odyssey that permeated Greek culture and Western Civilization. The difference between a direct democracy, like that of Athens, and a representative republic, like that of the United States of America. The battles in the Persian-Greek wars at Thermopylae, Marathon, and Salamis, included the reasons why the numerically smaller Greek forces were able to ultimately defeat the vast forces of Persia.
1.Excellence (arete) --A  doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others. 2.Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments.
3.Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals.
4.Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life.
As we can see, the one thing that makes Okinawa unique is its people who will go out of their way to assist strangers.
It is only appropriate that again we pay homage to the hospitality of the Okinawans we met who again showed their hospitality. In accordance with the Kenpo gokui, we have followed its principles which came from Chinese culture. The Ryukyu were named Okinawa by the Japanese so it is fitting to name the tour after the name used before it was renamed. The a€?2011 Ryukyu Propriety Cultural and Martial Toura€? was exceptional for so many reasons but mostly because of the people that I had the opportunity to share the experience with.
This was my third journey to Okinawa and I had the opportunity to share the experience with Heather Rancic on all three trips. I am thankful that Sensei and Michie allowed three of my senior students to accompany us on this trip. I would be remiss not to thank all our families, as we could not have made this trip without the support and sacrifice of our families.
Our drive to the airport was quick and easy - little traffic with so many people on summer vacation and school not yet in session. On the plane I finally had the opportunity to watch a documentary on Buddhism that I downloaded to my iPad months ago. While waiting for our bags I paid special attention to the sea of green duffle bags and camouflage backpacks that the military men and women were sifting through on the carousel. While waiting for Sensei and Michie to arrive we managed to sneak into a restaurant at the airport just prior to their closing for our first Okinawan Soba of the trip.
We also took a short drive over to visit the tomb and pay our respects to Tatsuo Shimabukua€™s second son Shinsho. We walked through the village as Sensei tried to locate the exact site of the Chan (Kyan) dojo where Shimabuku Tatsuo Sensei officially named Isshinryu. We looked at the site trying to visualize the entrance and the changes that had taken place over the years relative to photos we had seen.
As the conversation continued he told us that Shinsho (Ciso) Shimabuku was his childhood friend and they used to play together as kids. We returned to the location a few days later with two photos of the Chan dojo so we could compare them to the current property. Sensei fell asleep in the car on the way to Tatsuo Shimabukua€™s tomb and entrusted Heather and me to get the group there safely. It is always an emotional and moving experience touring the exhibits, which paint a vivid picture of the Battle of Okinawa. On the grounds of the museum stands the cornerstone of peace where the names of all those that perished in the Battle of Okinawa, regardless of nationality, soldiers or civilians, are inscribed. In my opinion this is one of the most important places that any visitor to Okinawa should see.
In late March 1945, a fierce battle such as has rarely been seen in history took place on these islands. One afternoon we visited Ryukyu Mura, which is an authentic re-creation of an ancient Okinawan village. We had the opportunity to train with Iha Kotaro Sensei and Iha Mitsutada Sensei four nights while on Okinawa.
Mitsutada demonstrated his hidden drumming talent when he showed us how to play the Eisa drum that I bought for my son, Gregory. Sensei wanted to visit Higa, a woman who lives on the property adjacent to where the Kyan Dojo was located.
A few days later we returned so that Sensei and Emi could drop off a small gift to Higasan to thank her for her time and conversation earlier in the week. We visited Nakagusuku Jo (Castle), which is believed to have been constructed in the late 14th and early 15th centuries.
In 1853, the Commodore Perry expedition came to Japan to pressure the country to open its borders for trade.
Nakagusuku Castle is also the location where Advincula Sensei performed many of the empty hand katas in his videos.
We also saw the unfinished hotel that sits adjacent to the castle grounds but did not venture inside. Some of the construction workers left after hearing the warnings, and many others left the project after several workers died in construction accidents. One night Michiea€™s sister, Yasue, brought us to a local festival in Uezu Town, Uruma City.
We saw a Shorinryu karate school led by Miyagi Atsushi perform a demonstration at the event. One of the places that Sensei had added to the schedule was Sefa Utaki, most sacred site on Okinawa, where many high priestesses throughout history have prayed for the prosperity of the Ryukyu Kingdom.
We visited Shurijo Castle; a fortress originally built in the 15th century that was the political, economic and cultural center of the Ryukyu kingdom for hundreds of years. Thank you for your teachings and for continuing to pass down Isshinryu as taught by your teacher, Tatsuo Shimabuku. Just about every house had a set of shisa in front to protect the home.A  Each set includes a male (with the mouth open to let the good spirits in) and a female (with the mouth closed to keep the evil spirits out). It was in Chang Mai that we had one of our more memorable travel experiences during a morning chat with a Buddhist monk.


This gives visitors a chance to learn about Buddhism and the monastic life and allows novice monks to practice their English. But as we wandered the grounds of this temple one morning, a young monk strolled over to us. They are so omnipresent that public buses and boat ferries even have special seats reserved for monks. Because of the “different feelings” that arise from touching a woman, he said, it would “distract the mind” from focusing on spiritual activities. A majority of them, of course, would re-enter what they call “common life.” Most Thai men become a monk for a period of time, but it is voluntary. Some have likened it to a Thai version of a sabbatical, giving young males the opportunity to remove themselves from their normal routine for a period of time in order to reflect on their lives before they take on the full role and responsibilities of being an adult.
Everywhere in the country are men who have spent from a few months to a few years as a Buddhist monk. This may be a genuine of the handy sites We have ever show up over in this pituacrlar subject. It is a definite that is handy blnoiggg We’ve arrive all over with this area of interest. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Half of the Limburg province of Belgium is added to the Netherlands, giving rise to a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg (the latter being from September 5 joined to the German Confederation).June 3 a€“ Destruction of opium at Humen begins, casus belli for Britain to open the 3-year First Opium War against Qing dynasty China. Bayard had just perfected the process of printing on to paper, which would come to define photography in the following century, but the French government had decided to invest instead in the daguerrotype, a process invented by his rival, Louis Daguerre.
Ita€™s most famous ruler was the legendary king Minos who established the capitol city of Knossos. It was a warrior culture mentioned by Homer in his two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, describing the events that took place during the Trojan Wars between the Mycenaeans from the mainland of Greece and Troy on the western shoreline of Anatolia (present-day Turkey). They were carried into Roman culture by Virgil, were embraced by the Byzantines, and were carried into Italy during the Renaissance. Art, pottery, sculpturing, and architecture developed, establishing the foundation for much of the Classical period.
Athenian democracy developed under Pericles and the Parthenon was built on the Acropolis in Athens in worship of Athena.
It derived its name from the goddess Athena who in Greek myth competed with Poseidon to be the patron of the city. The Isthmus games were held every two years at the narrow isthmus of Greece, located near Corinth.
He was most angered by Athens and Sparta, because when his father Darius sent messengers to those two cities to offer them the opportunity to surrender prior to the Battle of Marathon, they killed Dariusa€™ emissaries by throwing them down into deep wells.
The Persians arrived at a narrow, rocky pass, Thermopylae, which overlooked the rocky shoreline below -- a 50-foot wide narrow pass which only permitted a limited numbers of troops to squeeze through the pass at a time.
King Leonidas of Sparta blocked the pass with 300 Spartans and 400 soldiers from other city-states.
A Greek traitor, however, revealed a hidden pass through the mountains that would by-pass Thermopylae and allow the Persian to attack Leonidas from the rear. He sent a messenger to Xerxes with the message that many of the Greeks were terrified, that they would not fight, and that if Xerxes sent his ships into the Bay of Salamis they could easily wipe out the Athenian navy. This would not bode well for the future of peace between the two city-states, however, and ultimately resulted in the Peloponnesian Wars. During the Peloponnesian War Athens suffered from a plague, which took the life of Pericles. Pericles led a number of major building projects in Athens including the rebuilding of the Parthenon, constructing a large statue of Athena in the Parthenon, and rebuilt the acropolis.
Socrates maintained that the universe and life below here on earth pointed to a different reality.
In the dialogue, Meno, Socrates set forth the idea that when a person is born it is a reincarnation of the eternal soul which contains all knowledge.
He argued that the soul is eternal, lives on after the death of the physical body, and existed before the physical body. Although he disagreed with some of his teachings, Plato memorialized Socrates in his work, the Apology of Plato.
In it he describes the ideal form of government and society comprised of three classes of people: producers (craftsmen, farmers, builders), warriors, and guardians (rulers).
The goal is to follow the lead of the rational and spiritual portions of the soul and to make them masters over the appetite. They can only speculate and guess, based upon the shadows they see moving across the floor and walls of the cave. Plato seemed to these North European Christians to be saying that reality is above where God is.
After his education in Athens, Aristotle was hired by King Philip of Macedonia to be the personal tutor of this son, the future Alexander the Great in Macedonia. Too many good things go unaccomplished because of either a bad beginning or not beginning at all. During the Reign of Terror in France all Christian symbols were removed from the cathedral in Paris and a statute of the Goddess of Human Reason was placed in the cathedral.
On the other hand, there is considerable evidence, some speculate, that many of the Greek gods and goddesses were reminder remnants of Biblical history prior to the Flood of Noah. Eve may be the prototype of Athena, because invariably when depicted in Greek sculpture Athena is pictured with a snake at her one side and a sword at the other. Access to its snowy peaks was very difficult, it was shrouded in mystery, and was supposed by the Greeks to be the home of the Twelve Olympians. He is the son of Gaea and then became her husband; together they had many offspring, including twelve of the Titans.
Because Atlas led the Titans in the battle, he was singled out by Zeus for a special punishment and was condemned to hold up for eternity the world on his back. Earth (Gaia) presents the new-born child to Athena, who represents the reborn serpent-friendly Eve after the Flood.
In Section One of the Cycle of Rebirths in Buddhism, the gods and demigods are continually engaged, as here with the Greek deities, in a struggle over who will obtain the magic fruit of the tree that dispenses wisdom and eternity.
To depict this, Athena is usually accompanied by one or several snakes -- the symbol to the Greeks of hidden wisdom.
As the story goes, Olympia, a mystical follower of the god Dionysus, often slept with a giant snake in her bed as both a pet and a spiritual symbol of Zeus. Olympia immediately feared that Cleopatra would produce a son who would become the legitimate heir to Philipa€™s throne. When he ran from the banquet, two of Alexandera€™s other friends caught him and killed him. When a boy baby was later born to Cleopatra, Alexandera€™s mother Olympia arranged to have Cleopatra and the child killed to prevent a challenger to Alexandera€™s throne. In Egypt he left behind a Greek, General Ptolemy, who became the first of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Wherever he went he left behind Greek soldiers to intermarry with the population and in this way to capture the local culture. In other words, Paul was a€?deeply shaken.a€? he had a a€?sudden attacka€? or a€?deep disturbance,a€? and felt impelled to make a statement. He informs them about the unknown God, the Creator, who is near to each one of us, the one whom they worship but whose identity is a mystery to them. The Greeks, whether from Sparta, Athens, or Thebes, would never think of going to war, embarking on a new project, or taking a long trip, without consulting with the Oracle. The Oracle's advice disturbed them -- an Unknown God was the cause of the plague, she said, who intended to punish the Athenians for having violated many years before an ancient Greek code of conduct against another city-state. The grateful citizens wanted to reward Epimenides, but he declined any payment, asking merely for a treaty of peace between Athens and his home city, Knossos. He spent the majority of his time in front of them filling that empty concept of the unknown god with truth about the God they worshipped as the agnosto theo. That is, until he discovered the exchange of little children made between warring clans for the purpose of making peace. The Roman gods, for example, were for the most part simply re named Greek gods from Greek mythology.
It impacted the entire culture of Greece and the population were almost entirely Christianized by the middle of the second century. They destroyed most of the ancient Christian communities in Turkey, like Ephesus, Laodicea, Pergamum, and other churches listed in the New Testament.
The long struggle of Greece to resist Islam and to serve as a guard for the rest of Christian Europe against the Islamic Ottomans was at last over. It is interesting to travel through Greece to see white crosses placed virtually every hilltop to celebrate their independence from Ottoman rule.
Churches at Corinth, Ephesus, Thessaloniki, and Philippi all had New Testament letters addressed to them. Many school children in America study Greek mythology in school, thinking of it as some sort of fairy tale, cartoonish system, not realizing its demonic roots and total domination of the Greek culture. Thomas Jefferson seemed to have favored implementing a certain form of limited democracy in the United States.
How might they have been modified and re directed after the Greeks embraced the Christian faith? They drove many of the Mycenaean people to the Ionian coast, and intermarried with the remaining Mycenaeans to form the Greek people. 700 B.C), authored two important epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the oldest known European literature. There is some indication that this mythology was the deification of a€?heroica€? men and women of old, who, before the Flood, composed the line of unrighteous persons. This was in stark contrast to the polytheism and idolatry practiced by its neighbors, including Greece and Rome.
Many of the tours are named after themes of courtesy and this is correct since Okinawa is known for the gate of courtesy Shureimon (a®?c¤?e–€) (or Shurei no mon). It was intercourse between Ryukyu Kingdom and China since 1372 that Okinawa began its communications with the Emperors of China. As you know, today many Okinawans readily admit that their society is champuru (a??a??a??a?—a?«a??) or a mixture. I often speak about prior trips at the dojo and it was awesome to have Kathy Fawcett, Erik Heller and Lorena Verdun experience Okinawa first hand. We are fortunate to have children, spouses and parents that are willing to sacrifice so that we can do what we love to do. I enjoyed getting to know them better as they are very dedicated karate-ka and fun people to be with.
When we were speaking on the phone Kathy called me for dinner and Sensei told me to let her know that a€?I am on the phone with headquarters.a€? Never a good position to be in, having two masters with conflicting orders.
The bags all looked the same and each enlisted soldier was trying to find their belongings. On the first we began from the Hotel Harbor and walked north on route 75 toward the former location of the Agena dojo.
Sensei told us the story of how Kichiro as first son inherited the position of taking over Isshinryu.
I never had the opportunity to meet Ciso but have learned much of him from Advincula Sensei.
While checking out the property we noticed a man about 70 gardening directly across the street from the old dojo location. When he awoke he was in front of Tatsuoa€™s tomb but he will never know the route he traveled to get there.
When announcing the name of his new system, Tatsuo Shimabuku said, a€?All things begin with one.a€? His one vision has touched so many across the world. They did this to prevent dying of starvation and because the Japanese soldiers told them that if caught by the Americans they and their children would be tortured. One could spend days in the museum and we therefore chose to spend the majority of our time in the history and folklore sections. Old homes were brought to Ryukyu Mura from all over Okinawa and reassembled to preserve the history of the island.
The dojo is on the second floor of a residential building with hardwood floors and no air conditioning.
He gave us an education on different Okinawan fabrics and especially liked the one that sensei had selected for my bo cover. We had lots of laughs and received an education on many things this eveninga€¦karate, beer, fabric and drumming. Sensei had a photo of Higasan with Kyan Chotoku, her father and others that was taken in the late 1920a€™s. We took a group photo with Higasan, thanked her and began to leave, as we did not want to overstay our welcome. The castle is divided into 6 separate enclosures and is one of the best-preserved castles on Okinawa.
The story behind the haunted hotel is that in the early 1980a€™s a Naha businessman decided to build a luxury hotel on the hillside of Nakagusuku castle.
At this festival we had the opportunity to see a number of performances including a shishi dance and a karate demonstration. The Shishi dance is a traditional dance that has been passed down from generation to generation for centuries. Prior to the school going on stage to perform the demonstration, Sensei told me that they would likely perform Sunsu kata. They cooked great food and it gave us an opportunity to spend some additional time with Michiea€™s family.
While visiting the site we witnessed two women set up an offering at some of the key locations within the site and pray to their ancestors. The Sanshin is a popular Okinawan instrument that looks a little like a small snake skin banjo.
Shurijo has been rebuilt a number of times prior to ita€™s being leveled during the Battle of Okinawa in WWII.
I had seen Okinawan dancers a number of times in the past and they were all impressive but I think these were by far the very best. Okinawa is so appropriately named the a€?Island of Courtesy.a€? Everyone that we came in contact with was extremely friendly, understanding and helpful. Thank you for allowing me to join you on the a€?2011 Ryukyu Propriety Cultural and Martial Arts Toura€? and for allowing me to share the experience with three of my students. When announcing the name of his new system, Tatsuo Shimabuku said, a€?All things begin with one.a€?A  His one vision has touched so many across the world.
The museum is dedicated to telling the story of the Battle of Okinawa during World War II.A  The museum honors all those who died on Okinawa during the Battle of Okinawa and tells of all the innocent life that was so tragically lost during the 82-day battle.
He is a relative of Michie and Yasue.A  He had a factory at his home and his specialty is using red clay to make unglazed shisa, awamori jars and pottery urns used for burial. In Chang Mai, due to the presence of the Buddhist university, these saffron- and orange-robed young men were especially plentiful. After doing this every day for five years, could his mind now slip more easily into a state of emptiness? As the teacher spoke, the young monks took notes and occasionally goofed around with each other.
They usually serve for a period of three months, although some enter a monastery for as little as a few weeks and others remain for several years.
In its own way, it’s comparable to the ritual transition that Masai tribesmen undergo on their way to becoming adult warriors, or the Australian Aboriginal tradition of the walkabout.
Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. It didna€™t take long for others to seize the new technology and create daguerreotypes of New York City street scenes. Daguerreotypes are sharply defined, highly reflective, one-of-a-kind photographs on silver-coated copper plates, usually packaged behind glass and kept in protective cases.
He probably did not write the Iliad and the Odyssey because handwriting was not discovered in Greece until about 400 years after the time Homer was said to have lived.There were Greek colonies all along the Ionian coastline. The philosophic schools of Socrates and Plato developed.The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) was fought between Athens and Sparta and their allied city-states. Darius and the Persians invaded Greece with over 100,000 troops but were defeated by 20,000 Greek hoplites in the famous battle at Marathon just north of Athens. Her story is recorded in the Book of Esther and through her efforts a major slaughter of the Jews was averted. When a spy told them that the Persians were so numerous that when they shot their arrows they blocked the sun, Leonidasa€™ response was, a€?Good! Xerxes sent about 400 Persian triremes into the bay where the larger Persian ships, loaded with soldiers who could not swim, were faced by 300 smaller, sleeker Greek ships built to sail from island to island and were much more maneuverable.
These wars involved virtually all of the Greek city-states who allied themselves with either Athens or Sparta.
He was so important to the life of Athens that his period of leadership is called the Age of Pericles (5th century). He is also known for his contribution to the further development of democracy in Athens, which also provided salaries for magistrates and limited eligibility for public office to those who were born to two Athenian-born parents. Confucius was the result of the Warring States period in Chinese history and he sought employment as a civil servant in order to sell his ideas to the rulers. Therefore, each child, upon physical birth, is a reincarnation of that eternal soul and hence possesses that ancient knowledge. When he was ransomed by his friends they purchased a small property for him so that he could settle down. But we are trapped in our human bodies and cannot conceive of those Forms other than by observing their shadows down here in the lower story where we live. We only see his reflections down here but one day we will be fully enlightened when we go to heaven to be where he is. For example, it is okay to laugh at a joke during lunch time, but probably is a bad idea in the middle of your grandmothera€™s funeral.
They knew nothing about a personal God who lies outside of us, who communicates with us, and who has set out for us ideas and principles that are absolutes by which we are to live. Hera represents the serpenta€™s Eve before the Flood, and Athena represents the rebirth of the serpenta€™s Eve after the Flood.
The ruler of the Titans was Cronus (or Chronos, from which we get the words a€?chronologya€? and a€?chronometera€?).
Gaea seems to have been an earth-mother who was worshipped before the Indo-European invasion into Greece that lead to the Hellenistic civilization. His rule ended when his son Cronus, encouraged by Uranusa€™ mother-wife,Gaea, castrated him. 190 BC), Nereus, the Greek Noah, standing in the rear to left, is the only one among the many other figures who is not actively engaged in the battle.
The figure to the left of Gaia and the child is Hephaistos, the eldest son of Zeus and Hera, the deified Cain, the eldest son of Adam and Eve. Is it possible that Athena, as with the other Greek deities, is a flashback to a pre-flood person -- possibly, Eve? Later she convinced the young Alexander that when she conceived him in her womb, she had become pregnant, not by Philip, but by Zeus, king of the gods. When Philip, drunken from wine, stumbled over a table in his attempt to strike Alexander, Alexander taunted Philip in front of all the guests by exclaiming, a€?Look!
The most famous of his descendants was Cleopatra, lover of Julius Caesar and Marc Anthony.
He also created several cities which he named Alexandria, the most famous becoming the capitol of Egypt under the Greek Ptolemaic pharaohs.
As each group of invaders swept into Greece, parts of their mythologies and deities of their religions were incorporated into the Greek religion.
On the top of the Acropolis in Athens stood the Parthenon, the temple devoted to the worship of Athena.
Luke tells us that Paul attracted the attention of the Epicureans and the Stoics, the two main schools of Athenian philosophy at the time. They even founded a debating forum called the Areopagus, a unique Athenian group, at one time the ruling institution of Athens.
Paul was a master at meeting people where they were, moving them in the direction of truth, and then explaining to them the Gospel. Every year a woman from a local village was selected to spend the entire year sitting on a stool at Delphi, next to an open crevasse created by one of the many earthquakes in the region. All of the known gods either dona€™t hear us or are incapable of helping you with this plague. It was in this condition that the Apostle Paul found the Athenians when he visited them in the first century A. When one of the warring clans wanted peace, they would take one of their own baby boys and, traveling under a truce to the enemy village, would offer the little boy as a peace offering. Letters in the New Testament were written to Greek churches at Corinth, Thessaloniki, Philippi, and Ephesus. When Constantine built the new Roman capitol at Constantinople, Greece became the host-area for the Byzantine Empire.
Christian monasteries in mountainous Greece became the safe havens for the Christian scriptures and other Christian literature. Many buildings in the United States imitate great architecture with their large marble pillars, built during the a€?Greek revivala€? in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Latter the tiny kingdom was subjugated and conquered by invasion of Ryukyu by forces of the Japanese Satsuma. Their proper guidance, patience and willingness to share so much of themselves is what made this experience so enriching.
This was Kathya€™s second trip to Okinawa and I am fortunate that my wife is as passionate about these trips as I am. Emi spent much of the trip working hard to translate at a number of interviews that Sensei arranged. One question that was posed in the film wasa€¦What is more useful, a pile of gold or a pile of mud?
While walking to the dojo sensei showed the former locations of the sai-maker and the tatami-maker. Sensei explained how quickly things are changing on Okinawa and that many of the old historical locations related to Isshinryu have disappeared. One of our first stops was the house where Shimabuku Shinsho (Tatsuoa€™s 2nd son who was known as Ciso to most Americans) lived. Unfortunately sensei was awake on the trip back from Tatsuoa€™s tomb and he got to enjoy the ride past the local livestock, water dam and garbage dump. Through the teachings of Advincula Sensei, Shimabuku Tatsuo Senseia€™s vision and thoughts live on.
The museum displays very graphic photos and does not sugar-coat how horrific this battle was.
In truth, the Americans treated the Okinawans well providing them with medical attention, food and shelter.
Starting left to right, the kitchen which typically is behind the womena€™s sitting room (ichibanza-ura) since traditionally Okinawan women do almost all the preparing and serving of food.
Ryukyu Mura also displays many other aspects of Okinawan culture including music, dance, instruments, bingata (Okinawan fabric) and pottery. One of my teenage students, Cheyenne Smith, is learning to sew and decided to set up a little business selling bo covers. We also saw the new Hija Bridge that replaced the one on which Kyan Chotoku used to practice Chinto Kata.
He was interested in interviewing the woman to see what she knew of Kyan and the exact location of his dojo on the property. She told us of a time when the Hija River flowed and how she used to swim and fish in the river as a little girl. This is due to its durable limestone construction and because it suffered little damage during the Battle of Okinawa. Perry wrote of Nakagusuku Castle in his journala€¦a€?The material used to build the fortress is limestone and the masonry is an admirable construction.
Many villagers warned him that the grounds were sacred, but he ignored all the warnings and continued to move forward with his project. Two people are required to play the Shishi, one playing the head and the other filling out the back end. I did not understand why a Shorinryu school would perform Tatsuo Shimabukua€™s Isshinryu kata. At one point during the evening Yasue began teaching an Okinawan fan dance to Heather, Kathy and Lorena.
The word Sanshin translates as a€?three strings.a€? Kathy and I bought a large drum for our son Gregory.
We swam at the island resort and found a great new location to take formal photos on the beach.
The castle has been rebuilt as close to its original specifications as possible using pre-war photographs and plans that were not destroyed. I think dancing at Shuri Castle in Okinawa must be the same as making on Broadway in the United States. We also designed a t-shirt and had them made to commemorate the 2011 Ryukyu Propriety and Cultural Martial Arts Tour. Lorena was like a kid in a candy store and we had to pry her out of the store with a crowbar. We saw a weight room and a karate class practicing ju-kumite on the first floor, a kendo class on the next floor and a judo class on the third floor.


Many of the Okinawan people do not seem to have much in the way of material things but they truly value people and relationships and are so rich because of this. Some of the older homes have a hinpun (approximately 5a€™ high and 10a€™ wide wall) between the road and front door. We also saw the new Hija Bridge that replaced the one on which Kyan Chotoku used to practice Chinto Kata.A  Following the war the Army Corp of Engineers built a new bridge connecting the towns of Kadena and Yomitan. The Eisa performers included men who dance with drums, women who perform traditional Okinawan dance, Eisa clowns and a sanshin band. He appeared hesitant and nervous at first over the prospect of conversing in English, but his language skills were better than he realized.
They didn’t look very different from any other group of teenage boys in a classroom elsewhere in the world, save for their shaved heads and saffron robes. I recalled a conversation with Pravat, a local guide who had spent 11 years in a Buddhist monastery, six years as a novice and an additional five years as a full-fledged monk, before leaving to get a paying job.
How different would my life be, or the life of my friends, if we’d spent our teenage and early adult years focusing on spiritual growth in a monastery? We’re also another stylish medical specialist in that subject i really are able to fully understand your effort.
A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself.
The Iliad and the Odyssey were memorized by the Greeks and became essential components of Greek thought and culture. It is proposed by some that writing developed in Greece shortly after Homer in order to record his epics. It was in response to the aftermath of this war and the defeat of Athens by Sparta that Socrates (469-399 BC) grew to prominence in an attempt to bring order out of the chaos that developed. Pressure from Greecea€™s traditional enemy, Persia, prevented the idea of limited democracy from developing further and it was forgotten until much later under the leadership of Pericles (c. The Olympic games were held every four years at Olympia, in south-west Greece in the Peloponnese. Darius, king of Persia, was furious to learn that Athens had aided the Greek colonies in their rebellion.
A bad taste was left in the mouths of the Athenians because the promised military assistance from Sparta never materialized.
The troops were recruited (usually by force) from all of the Persian colonies throughout the Middle East. Hearing that the entire army and navy of Athens was on the nearby island of Salamis, Xerxes decided to postpone his march through the isthmus and to first annihilate the Athenians. Xerxes, who was overlooking the battle from a high cliff, watched in dismay as the Greeks used oars, spears, and heavy clubs to kill the Persians when their triremes were overturned. The job of the teacher is simply to induce it to come out by asking wise, guiding questions. He named the property Academus -- Academy -- because he quickly turned it into the site for a school, following the pattern of his mentor, Socrates. Each has its own area of specialization and should not intrude into the areas of the other two classes. It is okay to eat a doughnut, but probably not a good idea to eat a dozen doughnuts, especially just before you go to bed or just before running a race. For instance, even though every village and town had its own favorite god or goddess and each had its own temple or sacred place, there was one goddess to whom it was permissible to make sacrifice, and none of the other gods and goddesses would be offended.
To insure his safety and superior position, when each of his children were born, he ate them! The sculptors have placed him as a mute witness to the Greek godsa€™ defeat of the Giants (Nereusa€™ Yahweh-believing sons) signifying the end of Greek faith in Noaha€™s God.
Heracles, the Nimrod of Genesis, demands to know something that only the Salt Sea Old Man can tell him. Philip, King of Macedonia, assembled a powerful military and was intent on conquering Persia as payback for Persiaa€™s earlier invasions of Greece and, in his day, its current ongoing threat to the well-being of Greece. However, he died prior to completing the second step, his planned invasion of Anatolia and Persia. This divine parentage elevated Alexander to be a god in the flesh, on a par with the noblest heroes of Greek mythology.
Did Olympia and Alexander assassinate Philip prior to any chance of Philip fathering a son with Cleopatra? Beyond the beauty of the sites visited, however, Paul was deeply disturbed by the rampant idolatry.
While Paul seemed to them to be an ignorant babbler, still, it was new and interesting information he was babbling about!
By the time of Paula€™s arrival it had become more like a breakfast club that gathered to hear all the latest ideas, fads, and philosophies. His approach at Athens was not a new tactic and did not result in a rejection of the Gospel. Assemble also teams of stone masons and have ready a large supply of stones.a€? The next morning 100 goats arrived together with teams of masons and loads of stones.
Second, if there is an unknown god, that god must have the ability and the inclination to hear us when we sacrifice to him or her.
The Greeks resisted conversion by the Muslim Ottomans and maintained a strong Christian culture, even in the face of frequent persecutions. While a prefecture of Japan, Okinawa while similar to Japanese culture also has its own culture that is unique to Okinawa. In 1945, Okinawa was again invaded by American invasion and is still occupied by American bases on this tiny island. While many Okinawans resent the American bases on its soil, they do not hold a grudge against Americans and as we saw, will go out of their way to assist and help.
It became much easier once I found a map entirely in English (too bad this was on day seven of the trip).
I still consider myself a young man but gave thought to the fact that many of them are more than 20 years my junior.
He stressed that it is important to document these locations and the history for future generations.
He told us that as a kid Shinsho was always good at building things and that he later became a shop teacher.
Mitsutada explained that only the original Orion is beer and is clearly designated so on the can. She was reluctant as she approached the gate to her property with ten Americans standing in front.
Once formally introduced by name, they stood up and said, a€?You are Advinculaa€¦you are famous on Okinawa in Isshinryu.a€? The conversation continued and they indicated that they would be having the symposium this October and another next fall. The stones are processed in a very interesting way and are carefully shaped and jointed, even though cement or mortar is not used. The man spent millions of dollars trying to build the perfect hotel and continued to ignore warnings about it being close to sacred land and restless spirits. Many who have entered the abandoned hotel over the years have reported seeing ghosts and hearing strange sounds. The dance is believed to ward off evil spirits and bring prosperity and a good harvest to the region. The group performed a number of kata including Seisan, Chinto, part of Kusanku and yesa€¦Sunsu. Sensei Yasue is a very good dancer and she seemed to have fun passing her knowledge on to the girls.
The kama in the hardware store are razor sharp and much less expensive then those sold by Shureido. We drank and ate with the local Okinawans and made conversation the best we could with the language barrier.
I was impressed with the near perfection of each movement and with how closely the movements of each dancer were synchronized.
The shirts have a dragon-shaped enso on the back with the outline of Okinawa in the center.
The women's sitting room is where the women would gather while they prepared the food.A  Next, the main sitting room (nibanza-ura), with the altar placed in front, and then and mena€™s sitting room (sanbanza-ura) where usually the men would sit in social gatherings.
The old stone bridge had a curve in it while the new one is as straight as an arrow as the Army Corp of Engineers are all about functionality. Once formally introduced by name, they stood up and said, a€?You are Advinculaa€¦you are famous on Okinawa in Isshinryu.a€?A  The conversation continued and they indicated that they would be having the symposium this October and another next fall. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself.
There were two early forms, one a derivative of hieroglyphics in Egypt, and the other from the Phoenicians.
Famed military heroes and kings of the polis from the Mycenaean Age were included as gods in the growing mythology of the Greek religion. A two-tiered class system developed based upon onea€™s personal wealth, with the greatest power going to those at the top of the ladder; the lowest classes, however, were free from taxation. When they arrived at the Hellespont, Xerxes filled the channel with ships and built bridges over the decks of the ships so that the men and supplies could pass over into Greece. He did not dismiss the Thespians because not trusting their loyalty, he wanted to keep his eye on them. Furthermore, the Athenians, Corinthians, and other Greek ships were highly motivated because they were fighting for the survival of Greece. Not only could the Persians not swim but their long robes became water-soaked causing most to drown.
Athens was viewed by many as the big, bad, prosperous wolf of Greece and potentially dangerous to the other city-states. His three principle featuring filial piety, he believed, would bring harmony and order to political, economic, and family life.
This meant that it was not to the gods or the elders that we should run when seeking answers but through contemplating about onea€™s life, about what produces good, harmony, and happiness in this life. From Socratea€™s death comes the expression, a€?Pick your poison.a€? He chose to drink a beverage made of a lethal poison, hemlock. The rightful goal of every person is to faithfully live out the role assigned to him by nature and should not seek to do any other business or seek another other role.
They probably would not believe him because what he saw and then reported to them would not necessarily conform to what they sightlessly imagined it to be. Most of the Titans fought with Cronus against Zeus and were punished by being banished in defeat to Tartarus in the underworld. This worked fine until Rhea, unhappy at the loss of her children, tricked Cronus into swallowing a rock, instead of the newborn Zeus. Herakles demands to know from Nereus, who is a living connection to the pre-Flood world, where he can find the enlightenment of the serpent. He wondered how the Athenians, who had developed their special brand of democracy and produce philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, could fall for such pagan concepts of spirituality. As she sat there on her stool, breathing in those toxic and perhaps hallucinogenic fumes, it was believed that she could predict the future.
Rubbing his sleepy eyes, Epimenides said, a€?Now, turn the goats loose and allow them to graze wherever they choose.
Third, in order to help us this unknown god or goddess must have the ability and power to actually do something about the plague.
In this way the two warring clans were related together in one confederacy by the presence of this one a€?peace child.
After the Ottomans failed in their 1683 attempt to conquer Vienna, Austria, Christian troops from Venice and Austria invaded Greece, attacked the Ottomans in Athens, and greatly weakened Ottoman rule in Greece, By the late 1700s, however, Ottoman rule was re established until the Greeks won their independence, region by region from the Ottomans. As always, Michiea€™s sister Yasue and her family welcomed us into her home and treated us like family.
I was most impressed with the poise and maturity of Robby and Maya both inside and outside the dojo. I took a moment to reflect and feel thankful for all they do for the people of the United States of America. They did remember the dojo, told us we were two blocks away and pointed us in the right direction.
He told us that he did remember the dojo and described in detail how it looked many years ago. The Orion Rich, Orion Southstar and Orion Special are actually not beers but are actually malt beverages.
We brought back lots of Okinawan fabric so that she can now offer some limited bo covers made with traditional Okinawan fabric and patterns. Present at the meeting were all the members of our group as well the following peoplea€¦Irei Hiroshi, Uehara Kunio, a translator and student of Eizo Shimabuku, Hatoma Itsuko, the grandniece of Kyan on hi wifea€™s side and Makiya Kiyoshi, the Superintendent of Education in Kadena. Sensei indicated that if they provide him with enough notice he would do his best to coordinate his 2012 visit to Okinawa with their event. I think this work will last for a long time.a€? The advanced construction techniques used have withstood wind and rain for more than 500 years. It is also believed to be good luck if you are playfully bitten by a shishi as it parades among the audience. Sensei later explained to me that Miyagi Atsushi is from the Kaneshi Eiko, Shigema Genyu and Kaneshiro Kenji lineage.
One of the other highlights of the evening for me was watching Erik try and politely choke down the seaweed jello. We were also invited to dance with the Okinawans and assist the band by playing the drum and sanshin. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. For over two weeks in the summer of 2002, scientists and conservators at this prestigious facility subjected the artifact, its frame, and support materials to extensive and rigorous non-destructive testing. The Mycenaeans were adventurers, traveling to and trading with peoples in Anatolia, Europe, and throughout the Mediterranean. It was a a€?limiteda€? democracy because it only allowed adult males (not women!) (1) to vote and hold office, (2) but only if they were born in the city of Athens, (3) and if they owned land. The teachera€™s role is to encourage that knowledge to come out by use of proper questions. Therefore, ethics is personal and autonomous (determined by onea€™s own thoughtful insight and not something received from others).
We see the shadow of the Real Chair, the Real Tree, the Real Red Apple by looking at their shadows down here on earth. During their rule the Titans were associated with the various planets and their names remained attached to the planets when the Romans adopted much of Greek mythology.
Zeus revolted against Cronus and the other Titans, defeated them, and banished them to Tartarus in the underworld. While on his death bed, lying in a tent in Baghdad, his troops filed past in a huge procession to honor their great leader. Since it is early morning, none of the goats will normally lie down, but will eat their full after a night with no food. And fourth, this unknown god or goddess will understand that it is in ignorance that we do not know his or her name and will forgive us for our ignorance.a€? With those words, the sacrifices were offered up to the unknown god. Greek honor guards at the presidential palace today in Athens have 450 pleats in their native uniforms, signifying the 450 years that Greece was subjugated to the Ottoman Turks. I did have to keep an eye on my ipad as Yasuea€™s 4-year old granddaughter, Kana, enjoyed playing the games my son had downloaded. It is students like Kathy, Erik and Lorena that inspire me every time I set foot in the dojo. Sensei talks of a time when the exchange rate was a very favorable 400:1 and he felt like a wealthy man on Okinawa. At the end of the trip I told them that they represented their family, their teachers (Mike and Claudia Whiteley) and their dojo well. Sensei told us the story of how Angi Uezu and his wife Yukiko (Tatsuoa€™s 3rd daughter) used to live live across the streetA from the Agena honbu dojo property. Both Higasan and Senseia€™s faces lit up as they continued to remember their common friend Shinsho. I did, however find it challenging to work from the deeper zenkutsu dachi that is predominant in all RyuKonKai kata. Higasan first indicated that we should have made an appointment and told us that she was very busy and did not have much time to talk.
We were not very good at any of it but the Okinawans appreciated that we took an interest in their culture and tried. The result was a very complete scientific and technical analysis of the object, which in turn provided better criteria for its secure and permanent case design and presentation in the lobby of the newly-renovated Harry Ransom Center.The plate also received extensive attention from the photographic technicians at the Institute, who spent a day and a half with the original heliograph in their photographic studios in order to record photographically and digitally all aspects of the plate.
Because of this the Athenians developed a€?overseasa€? colonies in order to grow wheat and other grains.
To the women and to those who moved to Athens from other areas, this was hardly a democracy.
A soldier, Pheidippides, was sent running back to Athens, 26 miles to the south, to announce the good news of the victory. Zeus and his wife (first known as Dione and then Hera) are deifications of Adam and his wife Eve.a€? (Johnson, The Parthenon Code 2004, p. The New Testament was not written in Aramaic (the language of Jesus and the apostles) or in Latin (the language of the Roman conquerors) but was written in Greek, the most widely spoken language. Sensei Advincula has always explained to me that in order to better understand Isshinryu and all Okinawan karate, one must gain and appreciation for Okinawan customs, culture, history and traditions. This was known by some, to be the run-off or black belt dojo since senior students often used it when the main (honbu) dojo was crowded.
Sensei and Emi conversed with the younger Higa and he too remembered the dojo and the many foreigners that would come to train. I was drinking so I do not remember all the details; however I believe that Mitsutada explained that it had something to do with Orion looking to avoid some sort of tax on beer.
After Tatsuoa€™s passing Kaneshi, Kaneshiro and Shigema reverted back to Shorinryu but continued to teach Sunsu to honor their teacher. It is a compilation of Beatles songs played using only Okinawan instruments like the sanshin and Okinawan drum. The object was documented under all manner of scientific lights, including infrared and ultraviolet spectra. They invaded south to Crete where a blending of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures took place.
Some historians state that the United States acquired its concept of democracy from Athens. This journey has given each of them a greater appreciation for Okinawan culture and karate-do.
He told us of their oldest brother, Higa Seijiro, who is currently a Shihan in Isshinryu at Kichiroa€™s dojo and trained with Tatsuo Shimabuku many years ago. She answered a few questions and told us that the photo brought back memories of her father, Tokuyama Chokun.
Three of the top students from this lineage were Nagamine Yasuo, Soichi Nakahama and Miyagi Atsushi.
Heather and I were very impressed with their singing talent and somewhat disappointed as we were hoping that they would entertain us by singing as poorly as we did in 2009. I figured it would be really good or really bad and was pleasantly surprised - Okinawa does the Beatles well! The area with its moderate climate was ideal, however, for the development of olive groves, vineyards, almonds, and apples. The Saducees were hellenized Jews, and thus denied the reality of the resurrection of the dead. Most every excursion required us to navigate the entire perimeter of Kadena Air Force base. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.
In his honor and memory (his kleos) the Greeks established the marathon of 26 miles, exactly the distance of the modern marathon race. Kronos (Chronos), the father of time in Greek mythology, a€?could very well be,a€? says Johnson, a€?Greek religiona€™s equivalent of Yahweh, the Lord of Tome.
They constructed gymnasiums and athletic stadiums in Palestine, to the horror of the traditional and legalistic Pharisees. Sensei, this was not because we did not know a more direct route but was because we felt compelled to honor our men and women in uniform on every trip. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
She also told us to find Irei Hiroshi, a man who has organized a Kyan symposium and is currently working on a project to honor kyan with a museum. She then told us that she was busy and we could make an appointment to come back another time. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance.
As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing.
The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today.
Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce.
The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning.
Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable.
Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory.
The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory.
The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.




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