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10.01.2015
Development assistance for Africa from traditional partners has mostly focused on how to best use the continent's natural resources. Carlos Lopes says Africa faces some serious problems and may need to lean on China's friendship and goodwill to complete the leap to industrialization. But with China having become Africa's leading trading partner, an opportunity has arisen for a new model. China's journey to industrialization was often used as a reference point during a recent, weeklong forum on domestic resource mobilization that brought African planning and finance ministers and analysts to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Still, Lopes says Africa is facing some serious problems and may need to lean on China's friendship and goodwill to complete the leap to industrialization. Second, China has addressed much of its infrastructure needs and it will soon reach overcapacity. Third, rising labor costs in China will force out factories that are still in the lower value-addition level, making it necessary for them to move. Africa is by no means the only option open for China, as other Asian countries offer similar options. The companies sometimes fail to deliver on time because of power cuts and a poor transport network that makes cross-border trade expensive.
Africa overall continues to record slow growth despite harboring industrialization ambitions. Progress can be determined through the degree to which African countries are diversifying their economies from a dependency on minerals.
Lopes blames this on government inertia in prudently using the rich proceeds that have come from commodity markets in recent years to build other sectors. He says that's why narratives such as "the African Renaissance" were coined and now are in doubt because they were based on the beliefs of others and the fragility of the global market.
It's clear that China's waning appetite for Africa's commodities has had an impact on Africa's export sectors. Agenda 2063, agreed to by African heads of state, aims to optimize resources for the benefit of the continent's people. It is a comprehensive strategic plan for the socioeconomic transformation of the continent over the next 50 years. UNECA released several reports during the one-week forum in Ethiopia, providing empirical data to enable leaders and foreign investors to make informed decisions. But when the financial crisis and the subsequent economic recession hit his coal business, he decided it was time for another change and he fixed his mind on making wine. He named the vineyard Rongzi Chateau after a local woman who it is said to have made the first wine in China about 2,700 years ago. The soil and climate in Xiangning are all favorable for grape growing, but to ensure the success of his vineyard, Zhang invited Kong Qingshan, a top grape planting scientist at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and Jean-Claude Berrouet, a world-renowned French winemaker to be consultants, and he imported advanced wine making and storage equipment from France, the United States, Australia, Italy and Hungary.
The chateau includes a temple memorializing Rongzi and her son, a wine museum, a business school, a school of Chinese studies, a hotel and several exquisite parks.
He has also donated about 62 million yuan in recent years to assist more than 300 college students from poor families and build agricultural water conservancy projects, roads and schools in local poverty-stricken villages. After his wines started wining some prizes in Europe three years ago, Zhang began receiving orders from the US, Thailand, Macao and Hong Kong, and his sales revenue was 20 million yuan in the second half of 2014, when Rongzi wines were first launched.
According to Vinexpo, an international wine and spirits exhibition established in 1981 in Bordeaux, France, wine consumption started rising markedly in China in 2005.
A vineyard of Rongzi Chateau in Shanxi province, North China, where their roots can grow meters deep into the soil on the loess plateau.
When talking about his more than 20 years working as a coronary artery and carotid artery surgeon, Liu Peng, 55, said that he felt sorry for his family as he seldom has any time to be with them due to his schedule of five or six operations a day. Having studied cardiovascular operations in Japan and carotid artery operations in the United States, Liu said that the workload of Chinese surgeons is about 10 or even 20 times that of their foreign counterparts, but they are paid much less.
As far as the relationship between doctors and patients is concerned, Liu said that thorough communication is a necessity between the two parties. It happened five years ago, when he had a patient who was suffering from Marfan Syndrome and needed to be operated on for a chance to survive. With an increasing number of disputes between doctors and patients occurring and medical workers usually turning out to be the disadvantaged party, very few top senior high school students are choosing to take up medicine nowadays. Liu will not allow his assistant to do an operation on his own until he has assisted at a minimum of 50 operations for fear that a slip of error by his assistant may possibly get him involved in a dispute with a patient. The 36-year-old harvested 400,000 Chinese cabbages from his 100 greenhouses in late March, bringing in a fortune of more than 2 million yuan (about $307,000).
This year, An plans to add six hectares of farmland by renting land from local farmers at the price of 15,000 yuan per hectare to his current 13.8 hectares. With repeating tests, An created a planting model - planting garlic sprouts, Chinese spring cabbage and watermelons in turn in a year. An went to markets to do research and found Chinese cabbages weighing between 2 kg and 2.5 kg are most popular among buyers.
An's desk is packed with books and papers on rural economy, ecological agriculture, laws and rural policies.
He registered his land as a family farm in 2013 and began using a quick response code last year. Wang said a professional farmer has to have not only planting skills, but also the ability to manage a rural business. The country needs a new-type of professional farmers who can integrate modern elements such as science and technology and machinery into agricultural development to farm the large expanse of land left by rural laborers who poured into cities, as was cited by Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu on March 5 at a national meeting. Shandong, a major agricultural province in China, will be able to cultivate 500,000 professional farmers by 2020, according to Shandong agricultural bureau. An will open a company that provides services such as packaging in the second half of this year. Professional farmer An Liang (right), inspects his cabbages with a local official at his greenhouses near Jinan earlier this year.
Once a daily sight on every British street, a dwindling but resilient band of milkmen still go out at the crack of dawn to deliver bottles of fresh milk to the nation's doorsteps. The overwhelming majority of milk used to be sold at the front door until the supermarket revolution all but wiped out this very British institution.
But by selling more than milk and embracing the Internet, the few thousand remaining milkmen, including Neil Garner, have breathed new life into the cherished tradition. The 57-year-old has driven his milk float - an electrified, open-sided delivery van - through towns and villages in the dead of night since 1994, placing glass pint (half-litre) bottles of milk on the doorstep ready for when customers wake for their morning cereal and cups of tea. It's not just breakfast staples like tea bags, bread, butter, eggs and bacon that Garner now has on the back of his float. In 1980, 89 percent of all the milk bought in Britain was delivered to the door, according to trade association Dairy UK. At the depot in nearby Watford, milkmen load up crates, containing 20 one-pint bottles each, before heading into the cold at around 2 am.
Garner's no-frills electric milk float is slow and exposed to the elements, but the brisk walker likes the ease of hopping on and off for his 200 to 250 deliveries. The early drops are in pitch darkness, Garner needing a torch to find his way up the garden paths. Some customers leave rolled-up notes with instructions such as "no milk today" or "one extra pint, please", but most now go online. A pint of milk, typically 50 pence ($0.70, 65 euro cents) at a supermarket, costs 81 pence. He relies on the few other people around to check his timing, including a man he sees getting on his bicycle each morning. The last delivery is done at 7:30 am, before Garner returns through rush-hour traffic to unload his empties at the depot. Not Eddie Platt, a British expatriate who single-handedly took on the scourge in Marseille, the southern French city where he took up residence in 2010. The idea is simple, if not particularly sexy: Participants post selfies on a social network - Facebook, Instagram or Twitter - each time they pick up a piece of litter and put it in the rubbish bin. Ten tonnes of rescued rubbish later, the effort has cyber fans around the world from Buenos Aires to New York, and TV and newspapers are hounding Platt for interviews.
In fact Platt shot his founding litter-binning selfie in Leeds' sprawling Roundhay Park, one of Europe's biggest city parks. The Yorkshireman says he does not self-identify as green but simply as a concerned citizen. One Sunday Platt - who has only an approximate mastery of French - led some 350 Marseillais on a climb up the city's tallest hill, topped by the imposing basilica Our Lady of the Guard, for a clean-up operation.
Platt is hard to miss with his infectious smile, greying beard and backwards baseball cap, not to mention his towering height - he is six foot three (1.90 meters). Legre, who says he is "100 percent Marseillais", specializes in "viral marketing" and set Platt up with his social networking tools. Platt has had a varied career, working as a restaurant manager in England for "about 10 years, to make some money", then as a sales rep for a high-tech firm, before training to teach English abroad. When it comes to growing its investment in China, what Mark Wiseman, president and chief executive of the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, has in mind is China's share of the global gross domestic product.
Wiseman, who manages one of the world's largest pension funds with total assets worth $215.7 billion at of the end of 2015, intends to match the fund's presence in China with the share of the Chinese economy in the world, which will represent somewhat between 25 to 30 percent of the global GDP by 2040. The CPPIB has deployed about $10 billion investment in China so far, which accounts for about 4.3 percent of the fund's total assets globally, he said. He said he intends to grow the fund's investment in China significantly in the coming years by tapping into the rise of consumer demand and building up cross-asset portfolios that cover sectors including real estate, logistics, infrastructure and private and public equities market. One of its recent moves in China is the $500 million cornerstone investment in Postal Savings Bank of China Co, which is planning an initial public offering. The CPPIB also manages an investment quota of $1.2 billion in the Chinese equities market under the Qualified Foreign Institutional Investor program.
What is your assessment of the Chinese economy and how will the economic transformation in the country affect your investment strategy?
We are looking at the big trends, including what is happening to the demographics and to the rise of consumer demand and how is the economy shifting away from inefficient State-owned industries to having a larger proportion of economic growth coming from more highly productive service sector. What sectors in China do you want to increase the fund's exposure to and what sectors do you plan to exit? How do you see the volatilities of the Chinese stock market and the way the government stepped in to stem the market rout?
Is there any Canadian experience on the pension fund reform that you think China can learn from? We are very lucky in Canada that in 1997 there was a fundamental reform of the national pension scheme, which was led by then finance minister Paul Martin who tried to put in place a system that will be sustainable for generations. I think it is better to start earlier to look at the structure of the pension system and understand that you want to be in the position to support the retirees for a long period of time. The good news is that China has time given its economic growth and the profile of the population. What is the difference between managing a pension fund and managing a regular investment firm?
In many respects, we operate like an investment company because we have one client that is the national pension system. We know very clearly our job is to make risk-adjusted return in order to pay the pensions of the 19 million people.
Germany's ranks of small and medium-sized enterprises, especially so-called hidden champions, have been key to drawing more Chinese investment, and the trend shows no signs of abating, according to Hermann Simon, one of the country's most influential business thinkers.
Hidden champions are often market leaders, either worldwide or within the continent they are based in, with revenues below 5 billion euros ($5.55 billion). Simon, chairman of Simon-Kucher & Partners, a global consultancy firm founded in Bonn, says Chinese investors, unlike some US firms, see acquisitions in Germany as long-term strategic investments. An Ernst & Young report in February shows Germany was the most attractive destination in Europe for Chinese investment last year, with 36 acquisitions. Simon, 69, believes this trend will continue thanks to Germany's many hidden champions, a term he coined to describe relatively unknown SMEs that are the backbone of a nation's economy and have for many years sustained Germany's leading position in exports.
Many German SMEs are leading niche markets globally and are valued below several billion euros, he says, which makes them natural targets as the majority of Chinese acquisitions in Europe are limited in size, and Chinese industrial companies have a strong sense of affinity or preference for German SMEs. China is one of few nations with so many entrepreneurs that understand the concept of hidden champions, Simon says.
One prominent example he cites is a Chinese chemical products owner whom he met during a recent visit to Shandong province.
On another occasion, when Simon was giving a presentation in Shanghai, he noticed the hidden champions concept was met with great interest. There is a largely positive attitude in German business circles toward Chinese investors, according to Simon, who says that, unlike some US companies that acquired European enterprises and focused on maximizing short-term gains before looking to offload them again, Chinese buyers tend to see such purchases as strategic investments.
The Chinese investment in Germany is less aggressive compared with the Americans, he says, adding that Chinese buyers in Germany behave in a moderate and reasonable way. Simon acknowledges there is concern in Germany about more Chinese investment pouring into the country, but says: "When General Motors took over Opel in 1929, or Ford built a huge automobile plant in Cologne in 1930, people said we would be dominated and conquered by the Americans, and that we would be a colony of the US. He believes Chinese investment can bring advantages for both sides and refutes the notion that Chinese companies are simply trying to extract know-how from Germany to transfer to China.
In addition, he says, Chinese investment means German SMEs can gain a "stronger capital base" and access to the Chinese market. Simon, who in an online poll by Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper was named the second-most influential management thinker in German-speaking countries, says German SMEs are in general becoming more open due to internationalization.
Although he believes Germany's hidden champions can be excellent role models for Chinese companies, Simon says most would still prefer to avoid a takeover if possible. They combine specialties in products and know-how with global sales and marketing, and serve the target markets through subsidies. They are massive innovators, and the effectiveness of their R&D beats that of large companies by a factor of five.
Their greatest strength is their closeness to customers, while their strategies are value oriented, not price oriented. According to Zhai, one of the reasons is that "China soon will become the largest source of travelers" for France outside Europe.
Outside Europe, China was France's second biggest tourist market in 2013 after the United States, with 1.7 million visitors and $681 million of revenue, Xinhua News Agency reported. Currently the major museums in Paris provide instructions in Chinese, and Zhai said the conditions are still being improved. French Foreign Affairs Minister Laurent Fabius said in August last year that "the goal we have set with our Chinese officials is to quickly reach 5 million (Chinese tourists)".
Zhai noted that the French side has responded proactively by offering more convenience to Chinese tourists. Welcoming 84.1 million tourists in 2014, France confirmed its position as the world's most visited country. Zhai noted that in the past, the United States and Japan accounted for a major portion of the travelers, while the number of Chinese tourist has surged rapidly in recent years. The ambassador said that the country faced great security challenges last year, including two deadly terrorist attacks that shocked the world. Last year, Beijing worked closely with Paris to make the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris a success.
Zhai said he was impressed last November by the unbeaten French spirit and the country's commitment to hosting such an event after a deadly terrorist attack that killed more than 100.
Although the number of Chinese tourists going to France dropped after the attacks, it was a minor dip compared with other countries, Zhai said.
The ambassador said the services provided by France for Chinese travelers have been improving, while "public security remains an issue" as cases of theft and robbery targeting Chinese travelers have been reported frequently. Due to the large number of Chinese tourists, the number of such cases is daunting and this indicates "a demanding task for the consular protection staff of our embassy and consulates", Zhai said. Zhai noted that the French have made progress in boosting public security, including increasing cameras to monitor downtown areas and strengthening police patrols. But he thinks major improvement will not be achieved overnight because of the quickly rising number of Chinese tourists.
Cao believes respect can be earned, and families will remember the good service, which is the result of years of practice. His workplace, Changshu Crematory, employs 10 cremators and cremates about 10,000 bodies each year.
He is also satisfied with his salary, saying that the pay, more than 100,000 yuan ($15,300) each year is "above average in Changshu". Charmed by a painting of Hong Kong's Victoria Harbor on the wall of his parents' sitting room in Dublin, Ireland, young Goff didn't know he would later be in charge of the place that gained China a spot in the Lonely Planet's list of world's greatest bookshops.
He is talking quickly in the Beijing Bookworm, boxed in a building with notable pink walls outside, while inside red lanterns hang high from the ceiling and great music floats in the air. Hailed as one of the most beautiful bookstores in the world by many international media, it has been a "home away from home" to many. Goff's efforts not only include being hospitable to customers and partners, and being passionate about books, he has to "be innovative" as he's managing brick-and-mortar bookshops in the digital age.
The community-based Bookworm has year-round programs, and an annual literary festival that just wrapped up on Sunday. This year's Bookworm Literary Festival featured 180 writers and thinkers from 30 countries in 300 events.
In the past decade, Goff has witnessed China become "more accessible than ever before" and with an increasingly attractive publishing market. Calling China "one of those major countries an international writer can't miss to visit", he advised writers to come in with open eyes and open ears, taking in as much as they can. Goff was born in 1968 in Dublin into a family that "had no connection with China" besides that painting in the sitting room. After graduation with a degree in journalism from Rathmines College in 1992, he worked for several newspapers that brought him to Africa and central Europe.
He then arrived in Beijing "with no friends and no relatives here", stationed somewhere in the Haidian district where he studied Chinese and got an apartment before looking for a job. Beginning in 2002, he and Alexandra Pearson, daughter of a British diplomat, started to manage a big English language book collection that became the foundation of the current Bookworm. Goff went to Chengdu, Sichuan province, to develop a Bookworm branch in 2006, and later another one in Suzhou, Jiangsu province, in 2007. Goff took over part of Pearson's responsibility as she left for home in 2013, and since then has been based mostly in Beijing. And though he doesn't travel as much as previously, he still chooses to go to literary festivals around the world, including his top holiday destinations of Toronto, London and Jaipur. I'm looking for people who write stories that are based in today and really reflect young Chinese writers' experiences of the society they're living in. People around world still have more historical views of the country-based on the movies and books they have experienced.
I always come in at lunchtime at the Bookworm, and in the afternoon, do some organizational work with the team. Investment is a personal and lonely experience, but becoming a startup entrepreneur can be even lonelier.
Wei Min, founder and CEO of Yunhuo Technology, says people tend to overestimate their ability when they have a successful career path in a big company.
The one thing I don't like about it is the fact that I seldom have the time or money to enjoy things.
I live in a seaside villa in Hong Kong and I own a yacht, so it's not that I don't have the money for five-star hotels. Also, most people who enjoy a good start to their business tend to underestimate the difficulties that lay ahead. I was born into a fairly ordinary family in Dalian, which is on the northeast coast in Liaoning province. So far, I've invested about 10 million yuan in the initial development of the app, and I expect to spend another 30 million yuan on marketing. Our app is a platform that brings together job seekers and local employers looking to fill part-time positions. Although this life is much harder than just going sailing on my yacht, becoming an entrepreneur is a lifestyle full of challenges, charm and growth opportunities. Zhuo Qiang has been involved in wildlife conservation in Kenya for five years, but he says he still gets odd looks from locals and tourists when they see him reinforcing bomas, which are predator-proof cowsheds used in the Maasai Mara's Ol Kinyei Conservancy. Zhuo, who started the fund in 2011 using his savings and donations from friends, says that view has remained largely unchanged despite the visible contributions in recent years by Chinese to conservation across the continent. In China, celebrities have gone a long way to raising awareness about wildlife protection in Africa. Yao Ming, the retired basketball star, visited Kenya in 2013 and appeared in the documentary, End of the Wild, which captured the threat posed by poachers to elephant populations.
The former NBA All-Star is expected to return to the country for a star-studded summit to promote the issue in Nairobi on April 29, joining Hollywood stars Leonardo DiCaprio and Nicole Kidman, musician Elton John, US business leaders George Soros and Howard Buffett, and several heads of governments in Africa. Celebrities help to increase the visibility of a campaign, says Edwin Wanyonyi, chief strategist at Kenya Wildlife Services. This certainly appears to have been the case in China: When the Zimbabwean government announced in September that poachers had killed 85 elephants in a wildlife sanctuary by putting cyanide in their watering holes, many Chinese took to the Internet to condemn the act and call for tough penalties for the perpetrators. According to WildAid, a US-based NGO, poaching has fallen by 80 percent in recent years thanks to the work of governments and wildlife groups. Wanyonyi says China has made significant contributions to elephant conservation in the country.
During a three-day visit to Nairobi in 2014, Premier Li Keqiang pledged $10 million to support African wildlife protection.
China and Kenya have also made significant progress in tightening surveillance of entry points for illegal ivory, he says. Moreover, the Chinese government's ban on the import of illegal ivory has been a major step. Mara Conservation Fund founder Zhou, who is known locally as "Simba", has commended his country's government for participating in Kenya's conservation efforts.
However, he adds, "For wildlife conservation to be successful more Chinese NGOs need to be established to champion the cause. He says more investigations are needed globally to understand and effectively curb the illegal trade of ivory and rhino horn, and admits he has reservations about the forthcoming CITES meeting in South Africa that will discuss proposals to legalize the trade. Zhuo says a strong international mechanism independent from political divisions, along with a clear consensus on law and enforcement, would boost efforts to halt the trade. Those who criticize China's involvement in Africa's development would do well to keep in mind how the partnerships already have helped African nations achieve some of their key medium-term goals, says the man running Kenya's long-term development plan. A number of years ago, as the old millennium became a new one, many countries were facing basic challenges and needed to accelerate progress.
Wainaina says he thinks Kenya would have fallen short in meeting such targets if traditional funding sources alone had been involved. Alluding to critics who call China a neocolonial power in Africa, Wainaina says: "China is a true friend and partner. More opportunities were presented when the Chinese government announced a $60 billion fund during the Forum on China Africa Cooperation in December in Johannesburg, South Africa. President Xi Jinping said in Johannesburg: "China has decided to provide a total of $60 billion of funding support. Wainaina says this partnership can be sustainable if projects have contracts that emphasize Africa's needs.
He believes that history has buoyed Kenya's confidence in Chinese firms, including heavy Chinese involvement in such projects as the $3.2 billion Nairobi-Mombasa Standard Gauge Railway to be completed this year, the $26 billion Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia Transport corridor, expansion of Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, and modernization of Mombasa port. Such projects have converged well with the Belt and Road Initiative spearheaded by China that, among other things, earmarks the port of Mombasa as a key African hub.
While noting that the Chinese firms have a leg-up in clinching government contracts, he discounts the notion that the Asian giant steers Africa's development agenda. To achieve mutual and sustainable growth, he advises African countries to conceive goals that are achievable and then engage China as a partner. When Liu Xianfa, the Chinese ambassador to Kenya, addressed the Vision 2030 board on China and the implementation of the development plan, an important lesson taken away from the meeting is the need to translate the roadmap "into Chinese", Wainaina says.
Wainaina adds, however, that the relationship is complex, with many levels, and at times there are disagreements. But being a strong believer in the free market, he says laws should not be used to protect local content at the expense of quality. He applauds Ethiopia for enforcing high taxes on imports while encouraging quality manufacturing of leather goods, and believes other African countries could use this example. He says he thinks the partnership between Kenya and China will continue to be government-led.
China is increasingly providing mutually beneficial growth opportunities for less-developed countries and economies hit by the current debt crisis, according to veteran diplomat Zhou Xiaoming. Such opportunities, he says, are being created via multinational institutions such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the New Development Bank (formerly BRICS Bank), and organizations like the United Nations.
Veteran diplomat Zhou Xiaoming says China's experience, resources and technology can be shared with other developing countries.
China is participating in long-term development programs at the UN, especially to help realize the Sustainable Development Goals adopted last year, following the country's major contribution to the Millennium Development Goals, which led to tremendous global growth between 2000 and 2015, he says.
China showed its support for the new goals when President Xi Jinping attended the UN General Assembly that launched them in September and announced a number of major initiatives, including a South-South Cooperation Fund with an initial pledge of $2 billion to help developing countries implement a sweeping sustainable development agenda over the next 15 years. Between 1990 and 2015, more than 470 million people in China were lifted out of extreme poverty, according to data from the UN Development Programme. As the Sustainable Development Goals aims to lift another 1 billion worldwide out of poverty by 2030, China's experience, resources and technology can be shared with other developing countries, Zhou says.
He says China's contribution toward poverty reduction is twofold: "We still have about 100 million people in China living below the poverty line, so we need to eliminate poverty domestically. China's support of a UN resolution for debt-burdened developing countries last year helped in restructuring their debt in a way that allowed their economies to grow in a sustainable way, Zhou says.
Such a clause is beneficial when considered within the context of the Argentinean debt crisis, which has for the past decade seen the country battle a small group of hedge funds that refused to join a deal it had agreed with more than 90 percent of creditors.
The deal would have allowed Argentina to pay back its debt at huge discounts, but the hedge funds refused and took the matter to court in New York, consequently prompting a new default by the country. The UN resolution, passed with 136 supporting votes, including that of China, was met with opposition from creditor nations such as the United States, Germany and the United Kingdom, and the European Union abstained as a whole.
China, while still a developing nation, has become a global player in the world economy and a major international lender. In addition to supporting the UN resolution, China is also exempting the debt of outstanding intergovernmental interest-free loans due by the end of 2015 owed by the least-developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing countries, as announced by Xi at the UN assembly meeting last year. Zhou, who served as minister counselor in the economic and commercial office at the Chinese embassy in London before taking up his post in Geneva last year, has seen China's rapid emergence onto the world stage through his extensive career as a diplomat. In particular, over the past five years, he says there has been tremendous growth in UK-China relations, especially in financial services, property, high-technology manufacturing, creative industries, energy and infrastructure. He attributes the growth to the UK economy being open to foreign businesses, and China's enhanced capability to meet the UK's financing needs.
Looking ahead, Zhou believes China will become further integrated in the world economy as it takes a leadership role in reviving global growth.
DESCRIPTION: With the develop-ment of Portuguese seafaring in the 15th century and the subsequent widening if the southern horizon, the problem of a€?harmonizinga€™ or reconciling the traditional world views laid down by Pliny, Ptolemy, Aristotle and Ambrose with that of the new discoveries became increasingly acute. Beyond the equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius [Mela] and many others as well raise a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India; [nevertheless] they say that many have passed through these parts from India to Spain . This rather refreshing disposition towards agnosticism is exemplified again in the configuration of South Africa. Also typical of maps of the period, the anonymously compiled Genoese map is covered with legends in Latin, castellated towns representing major population centers, princes on their thrones, and loxodromes from the portolan tradition.
This map is now the property of the Italian Government, and is to be found in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, being catalogued Sezione Palatina No. The Genoese map became the center of controversy in the 1940s when the Italian scholar Sebastiano Crino, suggested that this was a copy of the map that Paolo Toscanelli sent to the Portuguese court in 1474 and later but less certainly to Columbus, was a copy of it, touting the possibility of a sea route to India via the Atlantic. A Genoese flag in the upper northwest corner of the map establishes this mapa€™s origin, along with the coat of arms of the Spinolas, a prominent Genoese mercantile family. The map is elliptical in shape, having a major axis measuring 81 cm and a minor axis measuring 42 cm.
Ptolemy is cited by name in several inscriptions, and there is evidence of his influence in the representation of Africa (Ethiopia, the source of the Nile), an enclosed Caspian Sea (Mar de Sara), the southern coast of Asia, and the Golden Chersonese, not named but identified by a legend noting that it is particularly rich in gold and precious stones. Paradise does not appear on the map, and an inscription in southeastern Africa tells us why: a€?In this region some depict the earthly paradise. Of course, the cosmographers had no objection to monsters - even Ptolemy mentions a few, although he did not put them on his maps.
Although its cartographer explicitly disapproved of fantastic narratives in a legend in the Atlantic (frivolis narracionibus rejectis), Chet Van Duzer points out that the richly decorated map contains a number of fantastic illustrations, and the legends, many of which come from the travel narrative of Niccole dea€™ Conti (c.1395-1469), do not shy away from fantastic subjects.
In the eastern Indian Ocean there is an imposing creature with a humanoid head and upper body, but with large horns and ears and wing-like red membranes joining its outstretched arms to its torso, and a fish-like tail. Turning first to Europe for a consideration of the details of the map, it will be noted that the contour of this continent is drawn with a nearer approach to accuracy than is true of the other continents, our cartographera€™s greatest errors appearing in the regions which were beyond those recorded by Ptolemy and the portolan chartmakers. The only mountains indicated in Europe are the Alps, which are made to sweep in a somewhat irregular curve around the north of Italy and the head of the Adriatic. In the northern part of Europe we find sketched a polar bear Forma ursorum alborum, and an ermine or sable, animals whose valuable pelts were obtained by the Hansa of Novgorod and sold by them in Bruges to the Italians.
Many regional names appear and many cities are made prominent in each of the continents through the sketch of a building, which building sometimes is a castle, sometimes is a church or cathedral, sometimes is a monastery. England, Scotland, and Ireland are represented as on the portolan charts of the period, over each of which flies a pennant. In France appear the names Gascona, Lengadoc, Normania, Baiona, Bordeaux, Tolosa, Nar-bona, Montpellier, Arguesmortes, Avenio, Massillia, Lion, Dijon, Bourges, Renes, and a few undecipherable names. In Italy we find Italia, Masca, Calabria, Si-cilia, Sardinia, Corsica, Niza, and Venezia, which last our author has made especially prominent, while Genoa itself has been omitted altogether.
In central and eastern Europe we find Bavaria, Boemia, Prutenia, Bruges, Dancic, Famosura [Frankenburg?], Poana, Praja, Ratisbon, Inbrunch, Vienna, Pruna, Potavia, Ungaria with Juanin (Raab), Burgaria, Polonia, Carcovia, Rossia, and near this last the classic names Sormatia prima and S. We also find the region Zichia designated on the north and northwest slope of the Caucasus, and, on the Black Sea, Savastopoli, Kaffa, Pidea, Flordelis, Turlo and Moncastro.
On the Hellenic-Slavic peninsula we find the names Sclavonia and Albania, which had but recently withstood an attack of the Turks; here also are Macedonia, Grecia and Morea. But it is perhaps in respect to the islands of the southeast that the map is of greatest interest. It is not easy to determine the significance of a gulf that extends far into the east coast of Asia north of Borneo and Java. The name Sine, or Sina, which was never used in the middle ages, and which in all probability the Genoese map-maker took from Ptolemy, suggests that the gulf is likewise from Ptolemy, and in order to find space for the new discovery it has been placed farther north.
The northeast coast of Asia is in part determined by the form of the map, and in part is arbitrarily drawn, as are also the numerous islands, not one of which we are able to identify.
The Genoese map abandons the northeastern quarter of Asia to the apocalyptic peoples: surrounded by impassible mountains and in the north and east by the ocean is a large territory in which are placed trees and fortresses. In addition to the usual medieval depiction of the mythical Gog and Magog the Genoese map also contains a large number of drawings of zoological interest. The main African interest lies in the fact that, as a departure from Ptolemya€™s conception, the Indian Ocean, as is also shown on the Vesconte, Bianco, the Catalan-Estense, Leardo and Fra Mauroa€™s maps (#228, #241, #246, #242, and #249), is not landlocked, and, significantly, the southern extremity of Africa does not run away eastwards, as on the Catalan-Estense map. The southern coast of the continent, from Arabia and the Persian Gulf to Further India, exhibits the Ptolemaic influence in particular, though our Genoese gives evidence of possessing a good knowledge of some of the most recent reports of travelers.
The peninsula Guzerat is better drawn than by Ptolemy, and the Bay of Cambay appears as a deep inlet of the ocean into which a broad rivera€”perhaps the Mahia€”empties.
In the interior of Ceylon a lake appears which may owe its origin to a statement made by Pliny or maybe an attempt to represent some one or more of the numerous artificial reservoirs or tanks for which the island is famous. In their outlines there is a certain similarity between the islands Ceylon and Sumatra as represented by our Genoese mapmaker and the same islands as they appear on the maps of Ptolemy.
The name Sumatra, which our cosmographer, together with Conti, considers to be the native name, seems first to have become a more or less familiar one in Europe in the 14th century. The long southern coast which, according to Ptolemy, makes of the Indian Ocean an enclosed sea, and which in part appears in the Idrisi and the Sanudo maps (#219, Book II, #228), has been omitted here, and the great gulf of Ptolemy on the east of the peninsula becomes in the Genoese map an open sea, corresponding to the account of Conti and other travelers, which sea had been found difficult of navigation because of continually unfavorable wind.
Concerning the two large islands lying off the east coast of Asia, a legend gives the following information: These islands are called Java, of which the greater in circumference is three, and the other two thousand miles. Marvelous beings are represented in parts of the Indian Ocean, such as an animal with the body of a fish and the head of a woman, that is, a siren; also a fish with a humanlike head and large fins with sharp spikes thereon. Of particular importance are the other legends in the Indian Ocean apparently derived from Conti.
We find on other world maps similar information concerning the construction of ships which sailed the Indian Ocean, as well as information concerning trade routes, such as the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#235).
Ibn Batuta also describes them minutely, making mention of ships that could carry a thousand mena€”six hundred seamen and four hundred soldiers. A river taking its rise on the east side of this mountain quadrangle, and emptying through two mouths into the Indian Ocean, cannot be identified, as the chart here contains numerous errors. It is of special interest that in a region so significant by reason of its physical features, where the Pamir Highlands, the Hindu Kush, the Himalaya and the Quen Lun unite, our cosmographer represents a second Iron gate where Alexander imprisoned the Tartars, or a wall with a strong gateway. In the interior of Southeast Asia there is a large lake with the legend: The waters of this lake are very pleasant and sweet for drinking. Marco Polo relates a similar story, but adds, as does Conti, the simple facts that he himself observed, that is, that diamonds are obtained in India through mining and through the washing and the sifting of the sands.
No rivers are represented by the Genoese cosmographer in Northeast Asia, but we find twice inscribed the legend Inaccessible mountains. On their appearance, the Mongols were thought to be the descendants of the Ten Tribes who had departed from the Mosaic law; and even in the Mohammedan world their coming was regarded as a sign of the approaching end of the world. As a characteristic representation of the animal world, we find sketched in Southeast Asia a snake with a human head. The geographical nomenclature in the interior of Asia is very numerous, including the names of cities, countries and topographical features.
The cities represented on the frontier of Asia Minor are probably Angora, Burssa and Philadelphia. In Arabia Arabia Deserta is distinguished from Arabia Felix, and the extreme southeast part of the peninsula, that is, Oman, is called Fenicea et Sabba, suggesting that the Phoenicians once occupied the basin of the Persian Gulf. On the east side of the Caspian Sea, in Turkestan, there are only two cities represented, Testango and Organzin. Conti, as before stated, divided India into three parts, but the Genoese cartographer, following the ancients, refers to two only, representing therein numerous cities and legends, most of which apparently he has taken from Conti. Of the several regions only Maabar is especially designated in a legend reading: This province is called Mahabaria. Among the cities, Cambay is especially distinguished, which at that time was the most important commercial city of India, and which the Genoese cartographer calls combayta, making use of the Spanish term instead of the Italian Camcaia or the Latin Combahita.
West of the Ganges delta, on a mountain, lies the large city Bizungalia, which Conti called Bizenegalia, and which seems to have remained a city of importance well into the 16th century.
The land north of the Ava River (Irawadi) as far as a great parallel mountain range, including apparently the entire Irawadi region, the Genoese cosmographer calls Macina, inscribing the legend: This province of Macina produces elephants.
Turning to the continent of Africa, we find its Mediterranean coast, as on the portolan charts, well represented; likewise the Atlantic coast as far as Cape Bojador, which had recently been reached by the Portuguese. On the west coast, in about the position where one should look for the Gulf of Guinea, a gulf having one large and two small islands extends into the mainland, as is represented by Sanudo, Leardo and Fra Mauro. In about the latitude of this gulf on the west coast we also find one indicated on the east coast which appears to be the Bay of Zanzibar. In the representation of mountains of Africa we find the Atlas range, which stretches along the north coast eastward to the Great Syrtus, a second range west of Egypt, stretching in a southerly direction. The hydrography of Africa is likewise Ptolemaic, especially that which pertains to the Nile. A monastery, or a city, with numerous towers over which a cross is drawn, is located in the lake and bears the name Maria of Nazareth.
That the Christian Abyssinians made use of the elephant in war during the middle ages, Marco Polo relates, who, in his travels, had gathered considerable information concerning that region of Africa. On the Catalan world map of 1375 (#235) a war elephant is also represented in Nubia, and the same picture appears again in India with the addition of a driver.
Not only does there appear to be some confusion relative to the representation of the Nile River, but the hydrography of other parts of Africa is very confusing.
The reference to the character of the land in Africa and its different products is very full, attention being drawn particularly to the animals. The extreme southeastern part of Africa has the following legend: In this region certain ones have depicted the paradise of delights.
A sea monster illustrating a passage from Bracciolini's Facetiaea€”the ultimate source of the demon-like sea monster on the Genoese world map of 1457a€”in Sebastian Branta€™s 1501 edition of Aesopa€™s Fables. Does the Genoese World Map represent an intermediate step between a heterogeneous medieval conception of space and a more modern homogeneous one?
He shows a critical approach in dealing with his sources, backing up his decisions or listing information, which is a very innovative feature. As shown above, social customs and spatial perceptions are connected, and the mapmakera€™s intent to provide a near-natural depiction of the world might be related to the Christian faith.62 It is problematic to presume a homogenous conception of space is operative in the later Middle Ages or the Early Modern period, just because a mapmaker painted a mappa mundi using coastlines drawn from portolan charts, since geography is but one dimension of a mapa€™s content. These continuities could perhaps explain why, as Evelyn Edson and Emilie Savage-Smith write, [the medieval cosmological modela€™s] a€?overthrow in the 17th century caused a profound spiritual and psychological disorientation from which we have yet to recover.a€?63 Studying conceptions of space in mappae mundi reveals how these conceptions change over time. How Herbalists can Integrate with Integrity - Herbalists are one of the last health care modalities that remains unlicensed.
Plant Walk -On this walk we would meet local plants and discuss the importance of botanical characteristics (an examination of their individual parts), the plantsa€™ relationships with other plants, ethical and practical ways of wildcrafting species we see, plants from other areas that have similar uses, and real-life clinical applications. GI Tract Protocol - The GI tract protocol can be used for normalizing varied types of chronic digestive problems.
Hispanic Herbalism - The Hispanic healing traditions of California, incorporating the herbal use of other cultures within the Latino experience. Guerilla Herbalism - Street herbalism through helping the homeless, impoverished, and under insured, often under dangerous conditions. Giving Back - Rosemary Gladstar, renowned herbalist and founder of United Plant Savers, talks at length about the importance of giving back to the natural world that provides the plants we use for medicine, and that imparts the wisdom needed now more than ever in these trying times. An Ecology of Healing: Health as Wholeness and Balance - Taught by Kiva Rose and Jesse Wolf Hardin, this class will be an in-depth exploration of healing as the bodya€™s natural effort to be whole and in balance. Foundational Herbcraft & Talking With Plants (with Kiva Rose) - A common sense look at how plants speak to use through our senses, and what theya€™re communicating.
Foundational Herbcraft & Talking With Plants (with Jim McDonald) - A common sense look at how plants speak to use through our senses, and what theya€™re communicating. Clinical Skills - Learn to evaluate energetic conditions (hot, cold, damp, dry, tense, relaxed etc.,) by complexion, tongue and pulse examination and simple questions.
Herbs for the Muscular & Skeletal Systems - Herbal treatment of locomotor injuries, problems of aging, arthritis, gout, lyme disease and more. I am so excited to be registered for the following course and thought I would share the information with readers. Join Herbalist, Nutritionist, and food lover, Darcey Blue French of Brighid’s Well Herbs for a 6 week online intensive course on the energetics of food, true nourishment, nutrition, relationship with place and food, nutritional healing and more. May 3, 2010 - June 21, 2010*Learn about the ways traditional healing systems such as Ayurveda and Chinese Medicine see food energetics, and use food as healing tools on a day to day basis.
Darcey Blue French is an herbalist and food lover, who has over the years explored various ways of eating, interacting with food and preparing food. Due to the fact that I am working on my last three weeks of the semester while my husband is on a business trip,A  I have decided to re-post articles worthy of being passed along.
For those who are not familiar with the name,A  Paul Bergner is the director of the North American Institute of Medical Herbalism in Boulder, Colorado whichA  offers introductory, advanced, and clinical training in medical herbalism and clinical nutrition in the vitalist tradition. For those interested in more information,A  please check out the websites above you will find a wealth of information. The process for making HFCS is to chemically strip the sugars off of the starch in corn, freeing them up.A The process of making of agave nectar is similar (this is not agave sap), but the sugars are chemically stripped off of inulin starch, inulin being a fructo-oligosaccharide, having fructose as the dominant sugar in the chain, so the agave nectar might be 80-90% free fructose instead of 55% like the HFCS in soft drinks. I like to think that my childhood was unique but honestly there are a great number of folk out there who grew up in a very similar manner to me. There is a point to all of this.A  Herbalism is newer to me than the natural family living. I honestly am not sure of the answers but I thought I would throw the question out there as it is rumbling around in the back of my brain.A  What have you been thinking about today? Nutrition plays a vital role in a healthy nervous system but before you even think about what foods to eat, you should look at your eating patterns.A A  Are you skipping meals while taking in large amounts of stimulants or sugars? B Vitamins are also important to a healthy nervous system but it is important to note that there is too much of a good thing.A  Taking large doses of B vitamins (specifically B12)A  can lead to anxiety attacks and panic disorders. As I examined the packets, I continued to like what I was reading and is there ever there a lot to read.A  These might be the most informative seed packets I have ever run across!
All-in-all it seems like a good company and I plan on spending a good share of my gardening budget at their website. A lot of herbalists talk of using herbal infusions to support your body during and illness or perhaps as an alternative to a nutritional supplement in the form of a nourishing infusion.
They are quite useful; I have been making herbal preparations, for years now,A  with good results. You don’t hear many of them mentioningA  spaghetti sauce as an decoction although the acidic base of tomato sauce is wonderful for drawing minerals out of foods. Keep in mind I am not talking about the watered-down, additive-laden prepared foodstuff you buy at the the megamarket.A A  I am talking of preparations you make yourself. I don’t remember exactly when it occurred to me that soups and broths are really just giant pots of herbal goodness. I realized that I don’t know that I ever have put our spaghetti sauce recipe on the blog, so I though I would use it here as an example of the herb to food ratio that is health-producing. Beverages don’t have to be the boring preparations many people think of as medicinal infusions, either. There is an added benefit of incorporating these beverages into your daily diet.A  I have experimented with many different ways to get little ones to eat their herbs.
I also dona€™t like using them from a sustainability standpoint.A  I dona€™t want my well-being to be dependent on any industry and it would be rather hypocritical of me to talk a good game about local sustainable food systems when half my nutrients are arriving on a boat from China. For the next couple of weeks, I am going to post about different ways eating and cooking with herbs can help to improve your health. For decades, Pang Xiaowei has been shooting black-and-white portraits for thousands of celebrities in China.
The 60-year-old photographer has captured the likenesses of all the Olympic gold medal holders in China up to 2012 and more than 1,000 celebrities, from singers to film-industry figures, including famed directors, performers and producers. He started to snap celebrities in the film industry in 2002 to honor the 100th anniversary of China's film industry. The difficulty of photographing an actor or actress is that they don't know how to be themselves in front of a camera when they don't have to play a role, says Pang. Pang understands it well because he had been a theater actor for 10 years before taking up photography at age 30.
After the film celebrity series, Pang was touched by Beijing's excitement to hold the Olympic Games in 2008, and he began his Chinese Olympic champion series, which included 186 Chinese gold medal winners.
That seemed like an impossible task, because many champions then lived in various countries and out of the public eye. For his latest show, which just closed on Tuesday at the National Art Museum, he aimed his lens at craftsmen, local residents and even the boys of a visiting chorus from Saxony in Germany, a cultural project initiated by A. Fan Di'an, head of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, says Pang's photos represent a process of using film to reveal a person's inner self. Pang is now working on a Peking Opera series, and for the first time in his life, he will create portraits of the well-known performers in color - but he will also produce a black-and-white edition of the series. He adds that Spanish tenor Placido Domingo loved the Peking Opera photos Pang gave him as a gift when the two met in Beijing last year. Her country-and-western covers album Detour, which was out on Friday, brings another unexpected twist to a career that has included music, theater, television, movies and wrestling.
A musical chameleon, she's won two Grammys, an Emmy and a Tony, but despite all the success, she says she's not as savvy at the art of business. Her meandering path took her from Broadway where she wrote music for Kinky Boots, which won six Tony Awards, to Music City where the pink-haired 62-year-old singer recorded her latest album with guest vocals from Willie Nelson, Vince Gill, Alison Krauss and Emmylou Harris. Together with producer Tony Brown, she worked with some of the city's best session musicians to craft a live sound that wasn't polished to perfection. The songs are from a different era of country music, as far back as the '40s, when country was heavily influenced by early rock 'n' roll and blues, or as Lauper says her record label head Seymour Stein put it, "before Elvis kicked the door down". She covers songs made famous by Patsy Cline, Loretta Lynn, Wanda Jackson, George Jones, Dolly Parton and Marty Robbins.
At four hours long (not counting two intermissions), the play does not contain much dramatic conflict. The hero of the play, Professor Josef Schuster, jumped to his death shortly before the curtain rose. Heroes' Square is one of the foreign productions presented during the Tianjin theater festival. As an alter ego of the playwright Thomas Bernhard, Josef vents his anger and frustration onto Vienna, or the world at large. When his brother, Robert Schuster, rants on about the state of affairs of the city, they obviously share political inclinations, but we are told Robert is much nicer in disposition. It may be an irony that the more the brothers, or the playwright, take on Vienna as the hotbed of evil, the more sympathy audience members in the Tianjin Grand Theater showed for the Austrian capital. As for the possible relevance for the audience, I don't think Bernhard or director Krystian Lupa had China in mind when they first broached the topic. The pessimistic streak that underpins his worldview also runs through his relationships with those closest to him, not unlike Hamlet's with Ophelia. The crowd noise from the titular square acts as the oppression of the populace, who are deemed stupid and blind. Heroes' Square is one of many imported theatrical productions the audacious Tianjin festival is presenting this season. Others include Richard III directed by Thomas Ostermeier and (A) pollonia by Nowy Teatr of Poland.
Situated on a mountain top and approachable only after more than an hour's drive along zigzagging mountain roads from the nearest town, Muyang village is a favorite destination for visitors. A natural environment, refreshing air, picturesque mountain views and the clear water of its famous Muyang Brook draw people to experience life in this village, which lies near Sandouping town, in Yichang in Central China's Hubei province. Top: A local woman in red rides a covered boat on Longjing Brook in Sandouping town, known for the Three Gorges Dam project and the Tribe of the Three Gorges. The village is home to more than 2,000 people, who live in settlements in the mountainous area, which varies in altitude from 300 to 850 meters. The villagers traditionally depended on farming and silkworm breeding for their livelihoods, according to Liu Ping, the Party secretary of the village.
Ai Shihua, 83, a villager who has spent his entire life in the village, says he has seen big changes in the lives of the villagers in the past decade thanks to tourism. Now living with his son in a home that is equipped with modern appliances like a TV and a refrigerator, Ai helps the family run a farmhouse restaurant that they started in 2009. During the peak season, which runs from May to October, the family can earn up to 800 yuan a day just by providing food. Ai's son is now building a better-equipped farmhouse inn so they can expand their business to cover both dining and accommodation. Even his grandson is trying to promote the family's business using WeChat, a popular app in China.
The family owns less than 0.3 hectare of land, on which they grow corn, potatoes or rapeseed. As more visitors come to their village, products such as rapeseed oil have become popular with tourists and bring them income.
Ai adds that earlier the family used to depend solely on farming and earn about 10,000 yuan per year before they turned to tourism.
Meanwhile, according to Liu, many families are now operating farmhouse restaurants, inns and parking lots in the village.
He adds that the village also plans to add a mulberry plantation of 67 hectares for fruit picking to its current tourist assets. Separately, the village will introduce more farm crops that can be used to make products which can be sold to tourists.
Rural tourism has now become a critical part of the local tourist industry and will be the main focus of the town's tourism promotion in the future, says Wang Hua, the head of the town's government. In 2015, the town's scenic areas and rural tourist destinations welcomed more than 4.73 million people, bringing in 4 billion yuan of consolidated revenue for a town that has a population of 35,000. In recent years, the local tourism industry has also put a large number of local farmers on the road to a better life, she says.


In 2015, the Tribe of the Three Gorges, an area with the highest ranking under China's tourist-attraction rating system - 5A - developed from a previously poverty-stricken village, drew 2.8 million visitors, contributing about 12 million yuan of taxes to the local government. To encourage rural tourism, the local government also offers training to poor families who are willing to enter the tourism trade.
The families are then provided with a "green pass", which simplifies the approval process and provides them with easier access to loans. In recent years, the government has also tried to further integrate its well-known tourist spots, such as the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River and Tribe of the Three Gorges, with its rural tourist destinations nearby by developing more tourist routes.
Thanks to the Three Gorges Dam, Sandouping receives about 350,000 Chinese and overseas visitors annually.
Situated along the midsection of the Yangtze River, the town boasts two areas with the highest grade under China's tourist attraction rating system. The two areas with the 5A ratings are the Three Gorges Dam, the largest water project in the world, and the Tribe of the Three Gorges area, a picturesque landscape corridor. Thanks to its unique location, the town is an important stop along the Three Gorges section of the river. The town's only main street extends along the Yangtze, and we stayed in a guesthouse on the street, which offered a nice view of the river. In contrast to the turbid water in the lower reaches of the Yangtze, the section here is clear and quiet.
After breakfast, we set out for the Tribe of the Three Gorges area, which turned out to be a good place to appreciate the quiet valley and local culture. Visitors typically take a ferry boat from the opposite bank of the Yangtze River to the valley entrance, which is connected to the river. Trackers toiling along the river while singing work songs were a common sight in the region in the old days. On the brook, a covered boat moves slowly amid soft ripples with a young girl in a striking red traditional costume standing on it holding an umbrella. For a moment, we feel as if we are in a painting, until we are awakened by a folk song that suddenly starts to resonate in the valley. We follow the sound and the scenes change as we walk along: A fisherman mends his net on a boat, girls in traditional blue outfits wash clothes along the edge of the brook in front of their wooden houses on stilts, and young couples stand on the mossy stone bridge in the village. Performances though they are, they create an engaging atmosphere by naturally melting into the peaceful environment. Then we hear a noise coming from a crowd of tourists amid the sound of a gong in front of large wooden building. The performers, most of whom are local villagers, interact with the tourists and invite one of them to act the groom. The sightseeing route leads all the way to the mountain top, where the villagers still reside. The giant dam rises 185 meters, creating a reservoir that spans more than 600 kilometers in the middle of Yangtze River.
Local people tell us that the best way to enjoy a panoramic view of the dam and the reservoir is from the mountain nearby.
They say that if you are lucky to see water being released from the dam you can feel the ground shaking. Jia Pingwa's new novel, Ji Hua, tells the story of a woman who is freed after three years after being kidnapped. The author, who won the Mao Dun Literature Prize, China's top literary award, for his earlier novel Qin Qiang (Qinqiang Opera), has named his latest book after an imaginary flower, which has later found to be the Chinese caterpillar fungus. Ji Hua is the tale of Hu Die, a girl from a poor rural family who accompanies her single mother to the city.
Jia is among China's most influential contemporary writers, and his books have been translated into many languages, including English, French, German, Russian, Japanese and Korean. Ji Hua was written based on a real-life story that Jia had heard from a resident of Xi'an, in Northwest China's Shaanxi province, a decade ago. Jia, who also comes from a rural family, then began to focus on population thinning in rural areas of China.
Several years ago, in many remote villages in Shaanxi, the number of residents fell so much that the villages were merged into one.
Many women who go to the cities with their husbands either divorce or abandon them, fearing the prospect of returning to the poor villages. The situation reminded Jia of the story about the abducted girl, and resulted in the new novel of around 200 pages - his shortest - using a concept he borrowed from Chinese ink painting, an art form in which he also excels.
Instead of depicting pure good and evil, his book creates an organic image of a remote village in his home province, where challenging living conditions present many complexities.
Chinese author Liang Hong, who is known for her works about the Chinese countryside, says for her, Ji Hua isn't about an abducted woman, but more about how to communicate with the land. According to Chen Xiaoming, a professor of Chinese literature at Peking University, Jia's writing is both about wronged women of rural China and the living conditions there. The author writes about the villages that have been deserted for the cities - villages with history, beauty and vitality. The novel is a mix of realism, magical realism and many other avant-garde writing techniques. Since the novel was first published, it has set a record as a contemporary literary work, with about 2 million copies sold in China, according to People's Literature Publishing House. In 2010, the novel was adapted into a film of the same name directed by Wang Quan'an and starring Zhang Fengyi, Zhang Yuqi and Duan Yihong. Feng Jicai, another highly accomplished writer, says in a message of condolence: "Chen scaled the highest peak of Chinese contemporary literature. Chang Zhenjia, 72, an editor at People's Literature Publishing House for more than 30 years, read the first edition of White Deer Plain and published the first review of the novel. Karl Schlecht, the 83-year-old sponsor of the China Center at Germany's Tubingen University. Wide-eyed students flocked around Karl Schlecht as he prepared to tuck into spring rolls and steamed buns after speaking at the opening of Tubingen University's China Center in Germany.
The food went untouched until the 83-year-old had finished chatting and posing for pictures with his wellwishers.
Sporting a bright-red tie, white shirt and double-breasted navy-blue suit, and wearing thin-rimmed glasses, he looked and sounded more like the students' favorite grandpa than a benefactor who once ruled a construction machinery empire that helped build the world's tallest skyscrapers.
Born in a small Swabian town near Stuttgart in 1932, Schlecht learned to mix and lay mortar and concrete from his father, a master plasterer. While studying at the Technical University of Stuttgart in the late 1950s, the young Schlecht answered his father by designing an automated mortar machine, which he assembled in his garage.
Before graduating college, Schlecht started a company that would help change the face of civil engineering, riding on the crest of Europe's post-war construction boom.
In 2012, Schlecht astonished the world by selling the empire he had built single-handedly to a Chinese rival, Sany Heavy Industries, for a reported 560 million euros ($643 million).
Schlecht insists it was the right deal, and all the proceeds went to his charitable foundation. In addition to his charitable causes, Schlecht now serves as an adviser to Sany's chairman, once China's richest man.
One of the first tips the German offered to Putzmeister's new owner came from an unexpected source: Confucius.
According to the German businessman, Confucius underlines essential elements of true entrepreneurship: trust, honesty, tolerance, love and responsibility. After the takeover, Schlecht persuaded Liang to become a joint patron of the World Ethics Institute at Peking University.
He now devotes most of his time to his charitable foundation, KSG, which has a long list of projects, including clean energy research and good leadership. Schlecht says the China Center at Tubingen, which is 30 minutes' drive from where he assembled his first mortar machine, was founded with an ideal: to make students aware of each other's history and of the forces that propelled China to become the world's second-largest economy within a generation.
A voracious reader, he goes to bed to re-read Erich Fromm's The Art of Love or maybe a John Rockefeller biography. The 29-year-old, who moved to the UK at age 15 to pursue his snooker dream, narrowly missed out on unseating Mark Selby from his world No 1 spot in a gripping final of the World Championship at Sheffield's Crucible Theatre. It was another landmark in a career in which Ding has served as China's standard-bearer in a sport that has undergone a rapid growth of interest and participation. Jason Ferguson, chairman of the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association, says snooker was already huge in China. In addition to Ding, players such as Zhou Yuelong, Yan Bingtao and Zhao Xintong are likely to become a lot more familiar over the next decade, as will others competing in a sport that attracts 100 million TV viewers at home.
During this year's final it was announced that the World Snooker Championship will stay in Sheffield until at least 2027. Ding, whose record at the World Championship was poor before this year, says: "Five years ago I reached the semifinals, and this year I made it one step further. Seven-time world champion Stephen Hendry applauded Ding, saying he is at a different level from most others. Nowhere else in the world has one single humble bean given rise to such a large range of different foods, from juices, pickles, preserves, seasonings, custard to cakes of different textures, and finally, fertilizer. According to legend, it was indeed alchemy that led to the discovery of bean curd, more commonly known as tofu. Throughout Chinese history, those who ruled often were afraid of death, losing all they had gathered, or of having to leave all that power and glory.
In their attempts, they drew water from the region's natural springs and cooked ground up soybeans to create a base for that elusive pill. That was more than 2,000 years ago, and in the interim, bean curd has become one of the most important ingredients China has contributed to the world. As the Chinese ventured out, they brought the culture of bean curd with them, so much so that it took on a life of its own, adapting to the cuisines of various countries from Japan and Korea in the north to the Malay and Indonesian archipelagos to the south. Various forms of bean curd and its derivatives, too, have become the backbone of vegetarian cuisine in the global meatless movement. Soybean products are a good source of vegetable protein, and after being processed, most no longer have that embarrassing side effect that made the bean itself so unpopular - flatulence. One of the best breakfasts you can have in China is a piping hot bowl of soft bean curd, called doufunao in the north and doufuhua in the south.
The northerners prefer a savory version, dousing their soft bean curd with a brown sauce often laced with strips of mushrooms and a few dried daylily buds. No one cooks tofu better than the chefs who specialize in Huainan cuisine, right from the region where it was first invented. Here, tender blocks of tofu challenge the knife skills of chefs who float strands as thin as hair in rich chicken stock. Soft blocks of tofu are also steamed to retain their original bean flavor, and may be drizzled with soy sauce or oyster sauce and garnished with a sprinkle of chopped spring onions. Cubes of a harder version may be deep-fried into puffs and then stuffed with a fish paste to create a dish popular with the Hakka community - niangdoufu. Or the curds may be aged and fermented to create that notorious snack that has the uninitiated holding their noses. In the Jiangsu-Zhejiang region, stinky tofu is legendary, having made it into literary classics such as native son Lu Xun's works. Across the Straits, Taiwan's famous night markets must have at least one or two stinky tofu stalls.
Back in my Yunnan, slightly fermented tofu is sold at breakfast stalls, sprinkled with chopped peanuts, chili sauce and cilantro. Tender tofu and soft fish paste in custard translate to a dish suitable for both grandparents and grandchildren.
This is a dish that contrasts the simple texture of the silken tofu with the stronger flavors of the spicy mince.
Spread mince and sauce mix evenly over block of tofu and steam for 15 minutes on high heat.
They are white, chubby and have sprigs on their heads - and Chinese social media can't get enough of them. Roughly half the population has conveyed some kind of emotion with a Budding Pop emoji on WeChat, the instant-messaging app, making them one of the most popular in the world. Many of them hope this fame will lead to financial rewards, too, as it means they can potentially produce books for fans to buy as well as sell the rights for their characters to companies for marketing purposes.
He says the way his team works is similar to the Japanese cartoon industry: artists design an original image and others contribute ideas to update the series. Zhong Wei in the northeast city of Shenyang has been drawing cartoons since 2014 and has published two picture books. Zhong has released three collections of the emoji via the instant-messaging app since August last year. China's emoji craze is rooted in Japan's kawaii (cute) and otaku (outsider) movements, he explains. Shi Donglin, 23, creator of the Freezing Gal emoji, believes the ultra-short animations can also help bring light relief at tense or embarrassing moments.
Freezing Gal, which has dark skin and a ponytail, is based on her experiences in college and is popular among students. Unlike traditional cartoonists, who generally created characters before selling stories to magazines or publishing houses, Shi launched her career via social media. She says she will continue to make emojis and has now started on a series of picture books featuring Freezing Gal.
Cashing in while a character is hot is important, according to Xu Han, the artist behind Ali the red fox, another popular character. Wang at 12 Buildings agrees that it is hard to guarantee longevity, but he believes the internet provides opportunities for budding Chinese illustrators to work with major brands that would previously have opted for foreign talent. Budding Pop is now featured in promotions by Procter & Gamble, the multinational consumer goods company, while smartphone maker Xiaomi is using Freezing Gal to reach new buyers. Xu is a good model for any modern Chinese illustrator: first came the character, then picture books and emojis, and then online shops selling merchandise. Ali originally appeared online and in magazines in 2006, but only after making his debut on instant-messaging app WeChat last year did the character gain mass appeal.
The fourth installment, Carrousel Garden, published in March, sees Ali encounter characters from Western fairy tales, such as the Little Prince, Pinocchio and the Ugly Duckling.
Even if Chinese artists can gain exposure through the internet and social media, he says building a brand is not easy. During his six years in the job, he says there has been a noticeable increase in men in kindergarten classrooms, but there are still hurdles to attracting more. Chen Yilang and a student strike a kung fu pose at the China Welfare Institute Kindergarten in Shanghai. So are education officials, who have moved to act in recent years in the fear that Chinese schools are producing effeminate boys.
Despite relaxing the college admission requirements for men seeking to study preschool education, as well as offering scholarships that come with a guarantee of full-time employment, the number of men entering the field has remained low. In Shanghai, for example, just 200 of the more than 53,000 teachers at 2,000 kindergartens were men in 2014, according to the city's education commission.
Industry insiders say the biggest hurdles are the general perception that teaching preschool is for women and the relatively low salaries that are offered to educators. Chen Yilang, who works at the same kindergarten as Gao, says most people in his job earn about 55,000 yuan ($8,400; 7,500 euros) a year, which is roughly 10,000 yuan lower than the city average in 2014.
Education experts believe the gender imbalance at preschools could have a serious social impact, as this stage of education can be critical to the forming of a young person's character. Feng Wei, the principal of the China Welfare Institute Kindergarten, argues that the shortage of male teachers has led to an increase in boys who are shy and timid. The typical family environment in China has also played a role, she says, as mothers are expected to raise the children while fathers bring home the bacon. To address the problem, authorities need to focus on promoting respect, says Shi Bin, director of the Fundamental Education Development Center at Shanghai Normal University. Parents are noticing, too, and some are already taking action to "toughen up" their sons by enrolling them in team sports and activities. China Welfare Institute Kindergarten has been recruiting male teachers since the late 1990s. The distinct teaching methods employed by the male and female teachers "are a perfect complement" and help to provide children with a holistic learning experience, according to Feng. Gao, for example, says he tries to reinforce "masculine qualities" through physical activities such as making students climb orange trees to pick the fruit. Wang Jiaming, another male teacher at the school, agrees that it is important to have a mix of male and female educators involved in a child's education.
Chen adds that male teachers prefer to let children obtain physical knowledge and abilities through frequent sporting activities. Strange as it may seem, carving fruit pits - or drupes, pips, seeds, and nuts if you prefer - goes back centuries. Crafting peach and apricot pits walnut shells, and even olive seeds into Buddha figurines, jewelry and landscapes has been practiced at least since the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC).
Yun's most famous pieces express a sense of active realism, often are praised for the sense of life he gives to his subjects, which sometimes are celebrities.
Located in the heart of the city and well known for its labyrinth of alleys, Tianzifang was built where abandoned factories from the 1940s and historical Shikumen residential buildings from the 1920s once stood. Yu Hai, a professor of sociology at Fudan University who has studied Tianzifang since its inception nearly 20 years ago, says it is a shame that the true charm of the area has been lost in the modernization process. This used to be a place where people can savor the essence of old Shanghai, and one that was slated to become a community for people from the creative industries.
Zheng Rongfa, the former administrative head of the Dapuqiao area which Taikang Road is under, recalls how Tianzifang used to be a vibrant place filled with the sounds and smells coming from the homes of Shanghainese families.
In 1998, Zheng kicked off the project to turn the area into a hub for the cultural industry. In 1999, Chen Yifei, a world-renowned Chinese painter, and several other artists set up studios in the old factories on Lane 210 along Taikang Road, creating a cluster of more than 200 culture and art venues. One year later, the sub-district government leased the remaining spaces to a sole proprietor named Wu Meisheng. Fortunately, thanks to the intervention of Zheng and a group of his supporters, Tianzifang emerged unscathed. According to statistics provided by Yu, 100 million square meters of old buildings in Shanghai were torn down between the early 1990s and 2008 to make way for modern ones. However, the Shanghai government has also been striving to preserve traditional architecture, turning many old estates into zones for creative industries. According to statistics from the municipal government, there were 87 zones hosting creative industries and 52 parks for cultural industries at the end of 2013. Following this incident, Zheng realized that the residents from neighboring lanes needed to band together to help expand the size of Tianzifang in order to boost the significance of the area.
However, he says that he had done so only because the 3,500 yuan ($540) he charged for rent would go a long way in helping with his living expenses - he was only getting 300 yuan every month from his retirement pension. In the past decade, more than 500 households have followed in Zhou's footsteps to convert their houses to non-residential units. While the interiors of many of the buildings have since been renovated and given a new coat of paint, the old brick facades from which Tianzifang gets its charm, are still very much intact. Laundry would hang from balconies as new-age music spilled through windows of boutique shops on the ground floor.
In 2008, the government took over Tianzifang and shifted the focus from developing the place into an art and culture hub to commercialization, security and property management. As one of the first shop owners to arrive on Lane 274 in 2007, Yan Hongliang, who sells ceramic art designed and produced in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, has witnessed the tremendous changes that have taken place since. Having already struggled to break even in the first few years of his business, the exorbitant rent now has made doing business in Tianzifang unrealistic. Unsurprisingly, Yu's survey reveals that many shop owners have cited the rising rent - it has increased at least ten-fold in 20 years - as the primary reason for relocating. Fabienne Wallenwein, a German PhD student who is enrolled in a one-year exchange program at Fudan University, shares the same sentiment.
In the meantime, Zheng Rongfa, the former administrative head, says he can only hope that the government thinks the same way about the future direction of Tianzifang's development.
They range from cotton drawers worn by the mother of Queen Victoria (the V&A museum is named for the 19th-century monarch and her husband), to a Swarovski crystal-studded bra and thong. But there are men's unmentionables, too, including 18th-century shirts, which were considered underwear because they were worn next to the skin - only the collars and cuffs could decently be shown. Curators of the show have emphasized the contribution of female designers and innovators such as Roxey Ann Caplin, whose "health corset" - designed to shape the body without crushing the internal organs - won a medal at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Waist-constricting corsets run through the exhibition, in versions that range from functional to fetishistic. Edwina Ehrman, the exhibition's curator, says Lycra was "a fabulous breakthrough" - and a reminder that the evolution of underwear is a story of technology as well as creativity. The exhibition reveals that the line between underwear and outerwear has long been blurred. Recent years have seen the line blur even further, as tracksuits, onesies and other loungewear moved from the living room onto the streets. But French lingerie designer Fifi Chachnil - whose signature Babyloo playsuit is on display in the exhibition - thinks we will always want to show off our skivvies.
A full scale replica of Dumont's legendary airplane called "14 Bis" sits outside the museum, which is the centerpiece of a revamping of the Rio port area ahead of the Olympic Games starting in 100 days. The Flying Poet is a big exhibit, the first of its kind dedicated to a man who while weighing a mere 50 kilograms was a giant of aviation.
Although perhaps less well known than the Wright brothers in the United States, Dumont is celebrated in Brazil as no less than the true first pilot.
Although this was three years after the Wright brothers' historic flight in North Carolina, his fans argue that only his exploit met the definition of a certified, independently powered flight. It's a polemic rich with nationalism, but what's sure is that Dumont, who has Rio's domestic airport named after him, remains a fascinating figure. The Franco-Brazilian Dumont, who lived from 1873 to 1932, had a reputation for eccentricity and imagination. Before his feat in the "14 Bis" he was already famed for flights in balloons and dirigibles, including one he used to moor outside his house in Paris and used to fly to join friends across town. He can also claim to having been one of the first to wear a wrist watch, having asked his friend - none other than the even more famous Louis Cartier - to make him something more practical for telling the time in the air than the traditional pocket watch.
The pop-up drone cafe will be serving up all weekend as part of celebrations for the "Dream and Dare" festival marking the 60th anniversary of the Eindhoven University of Technology. The 20 students behind the project, who spent nine months developing and building the autonomous drone, aim to show how such small inside craft could become an essential part of modern daily life. The drone, nicknamed Blue Jay, which resembles a small white flying saucer with a luminescent strip for eyes, flies to a table and hovers as it takes a client's order, who points to the list to signal what they would like.
The drinks are picked up and carried by a set of pinchers underneath the drone, in a bid to show that these aerial machines could be used to carry out delicate missions such as delivering medicines or even helping to track down burglars.
Each drone has cost about 2,000 euros ($2,293) to build, in a project funded by the university which the students say aims "to give a glimpse of the future". Thanks to sensors and a long battery life they can fly inside buildings and navigate crowded interiors, unlike other drones, which rely on a GPS system.
They believe the drone's applications could be endless: as extinguishers to put out fires, alarm systems to warn of intruders or mini-servants which would respond to commands such as "fetch me an apple".
Needless to say, things have yet to look up," says Carlos Lopes, 56, an economist from the small West African nation of Guinea-Bissau who is executive secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.
First, China is betting on Africa's demographic growth, which presents a consumer base and sizeable labor force predicted to surpass China's in 50 years.
The Asian country is its top trading partner, and a remarkable transformation is already taking place as Chinese investment is directed toward industrialization, which is creating employment for local people. Apprehension is rife over the ability of several countries to sustain their economic growth in the face of tumbling oil and commodity prices.
But Lopes is quick to note that President Xi Jinping's $60 billion announcement during the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation summit in South Africa last year gave the continent a boost. It seeks to accelerate development of vibrant and inclusive economies that are integrated and connected through transport networks, internet telecommunications and common markets that promote free movement of people and goods.
He spent more than 600 million yuan ($92 million) to create a 400-hectare vineyard and a 30-hectare park with chateau in the county. Rongzi's son became the Jin Kingdom's king during the Warring States Period (475 BC - 221 BC) and wine-making became popular in the region. About 200 local residents work at the chateau, and more than 3,000 farmers from 22 villages work in the vineyard. It more than doubled to 50 million yuan last year, and Zhang predicts the figure will hit 80 million yuan this year, as wine grows more popular in the country. For patients who have problems with their coronary arteries and carotid arteries at the same time, Liu tries to perform the two operations at a single sitting, which can reduce the risks of heart failure.
It took him five hours to successfully do both during a single operation on a patient in 2014, and he has done such double operations together on more than 70 patients since. Back in 2003 when Beijing was struck by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, the Sino-Japanese Friendship Hospital was designated as special medical facility for receiving SARS patients and Liu was appointed director of the Intensive Care Unit. However, a medical material needed for the operation was not available at the hospital then. Whether the development of the overall healthcare provision in the country will see progress in the future and whether medical science will have bright prospects or not, is cause for concern. Although caution is never too much when it comes to the safety of an operation, it is equally important for young surgeons to accumulate experience by performing operations on their own with the guidance of their teachers.
A company based in Hainan has signed a contract with An to buy all of the melons he grows at a favorable price.
After years of hard work in the city, An found life in the city not as good as he dreamed of.
The future's looking bright," said Garner, the customer-nominated Milkman of the Year at Milk and More, the country's biggest doorstep delivery firm. He talks about his idea all the time, and he's really into social networking," says his friend Georges-Edouard Legre. But as he was hitchhiking in the general direction he blew in to Marseille, and it was love at first sight. Some of its high-profile deals include the $314.5 million investment in China's e-commerce giant Alibaba Group Holding Ltd since 2011 as well as the joint venture it formed last year with China's largest residential developer Vanke Co Ltd to invest a total of $250 million in the Chinese real estate market. Instead of looking at the short-term movements in the equities and foreign exchange markets, the fund focuses on the larger trends, including the shift of the Chinese economy away from the inefficient industries to the more productive private and service sectors, he said. By 2040, the expectation is that China will represent somewhere between 25 to 30 percent of the global GDP. Anything that is essentially attached to the Chinese consumers, directly or indirectly, is of interest for us. So the more long-term institutional investors with deep experience that are able to participate freely in the market, the less volatility and the greater degree of rationality that will be in the market. It is because as investors are coming in and out, selling and buying, we keep our eyes focused on the horizon, which will allow us to find deep value.
I think in many respects, we have an easier time managing our portfolio than either a private asset management firm that has many different clients with many different needs or a sovereign wealth fund where it is often not clear who the client is. To focus on his core business, the Chinese entrepreneur gave up a couple of businesses and as a result is now the world leader in three chemical compounds. The hosting efforts continued and more attention was paid to anti-terror and other affairs," he said.
Many Chinese prefer holding high-end bags in their hands after purchasing them," he said, adding that another bad habit is carrying large amounts of money to pay by cash.
Where we're trying to develop is through the community, where lots of events are organized," he said. Goff has also tried launching a magazine, plus holding a literary award and running a press. In previous sessions, Peter Hessler, Benjamin Zephaniah, Howard Goldblatt as well as home authors Mo Yan, Yan Lianke and Bi Feiyu were festival speakers. He said many of the writers from outside of China have arrived "with their own educational purposes". They are engaging in wider discussions over the years with topics like environmental awareness, a sense of self, of belonging and of social justice," he added. At that time he "caught the China bug", and was "struck by how dynamic China was as it was going through a period of such frenetic change" he wrote in a column in China Daily in 2015. A social community platform where people would come in, listen to music, eat nice food, just hang out and meet people from all around the world," he said. He developed a "hot and spicy" tooth there, and loves to take international writers to hot pot dinners even when they are in Beijing. He carried on the quake relief efforts until 2015, when he and the team handed over a school to the local authorities.
I love its atmosphere, and bought a house there that I call my second home after Dublin," he said. And there's all those issues they're dealing with: all the issues of urbanization, job pressure, relationship pressure, family pressure, environmental pressures, that all those different things coming together and all being seen on a daily basis.
It's important that those new things get out, not to ignore the great historical materials, but also have with that, contemporary material, contemporary writers who are young, energetic, charming, smart people. The biggest threat to our existence every month is how to pay rent, how to raise money to pay for those flights for so many authors. The people we invited to this year's Bookworm festival are some of my favorite writers: A Yi, Han Song, Yi Sha. Yet there are so many unexpected difficulties that need to be conquered, and it can be a miserable life. To save cash, I fly economy and stay in cheap chain hotels that cost no more than 200 yuan ($30; 27 euros) a night. I quit that job to start my own oil-trading fund, which in four years saw profits soar 480 percent. I set up two personal wealth management companies in 2012, but I eventually had to shut both down because I couldn't find the right talent. People tend to overestimate their ability when they have a successful career path in a big company. After its launch in mid-March, the number of the active customers hit about 10,000 within a week, which is a good start for a startup like us. He is the first Chinese national to found a wildlife conservation not-for-profit organization in Kenya. The government of Kenya confirms that just 57 elephants and 5 rhinos were killed in Kenya in 2015. And shortly after President Xi Jinping's visit to Zimbabwe in December last year, China donated vehicles and equipment to anti-poaching forces there, too. He is CEO of China House, an organization in Nairobi that helps Chinese companies with social projects in Kenya, including wildlife conservation.
During a recent presentation in Nairobi, he said: "There's just no tangible data that can be used to support this idea. This, he believes, will require key contributions from the United Nations Environment Program, the United States, China and the European Union. This was achieved and the (Kenyan) economy recorded 7 percent growth in 2007," says Gituro Wainaina, acting director-general of Kenya Vision 2030 Delivery Secretariat. Africa started witnessing true and sustainable growth after China's entry because they are working cohesively with African governments," he says.
The initiative would connect China with Europe, Africa and other areas by means of investment and infrastructure along the traditional Silk Road routes.
Audits should be carried out often to revise goals while re-engaging China in the areas of need. By that he means designing the language and tone of the program to be easily understood by Chinese investors. He says there has been some controversy about the involvement of Chinese entrepreneurs in small businesses. Internationally, we can contribute in many ways: trade expansion, economic aid, productive capacity building, and infrastructure development. Loans from the China Development Bank and the Export-Import Bank of China to investment in African countries have, for example, outnumbered the lending of the World Bank. In addition, the UK's expertise in building a knowledge economy is also helpful to China as the country experiences a structural transition from a growth model fueled by manufacturing to one led by services and consumption.
The evidence is purely circumstantial, though the map would have been more encouraging to anyone hoping to circumnavigate Africa, and Crinoa€™s thesis has had no other advocates. Oddly, there is no city view of Genoa [Janua], while Venice is represented by an impressive set of buildings. Much scholarly ink has been spilled over the meaning of this caption, particularly cum Marino.
It therefore indicates the longitude of the habitable world as about twice that of the latitude.
Hugh of Saint Victor had described the world as being the shape of Noaha€™s Ark, and Ranulf Higden world maps were oval (#232). It is interesting that the maker of the Genoese map mentions peculiar customs (cannibalism, people who have no names) but no a€?monstrous races,a€? that is, people with aberrant physical characteristics, other than the pygmies. Gog and Magog are enclosed in northeast Asia, Noaha€™s Ark rests on a mountain range in Armenia, and the Red Sea is red, though there is no text about the passage of the Israelites through its waters. There are four prominent sea monsters in the Indian Ocean, which ocean thus remains a venue for exotic wonders. The legend says that the creature sprang out of the water and attacked some cows pasturing on the shore, and then was captured and mounted and exhibited in Venice and elsewhere. By reason of the limited space, the geographical details inserted in this section of the map are not numerous; indeed, of no part of the map can it be said that the author has crowded it with details.
The Rhone, the Rhine, the Po and the Danubea€”the latter with an extensive deltaa€”have been inscribed in a manner which leaves no doubt as to their identity, while into the Black Sea, which with the Sea of Azov is well drawn, flow the rivers Don and Dnieper, and into the Caspian Sea flows the Volga, though no names are affixed. Here we also find the representation of a ruler, Lordo Rex with genuine Mongol features, the chief of the Golden Horde. To the south of Ireland, in the ocean, we find the following legend: Concerning Ireland two [stories] are told.
The names of nine cities in addition are given in northern Italy: Florentia, Ravenna, Ancerra, Borletta, Bor[i], Rana, Galta, and Napoli, with one illegible. After the Alexandrian, the second main authority for the eastern portion is Nicolo Conti, the Venetian traveler, who reached the East Indian islands and perhaps southern China, returned to Italy in 1439 and whose narrative was written down by Poggio Bracciolini shortly after 1447. In the extreme east are two large islands, Java major and Java minor, and to the southeast two smaller islands Sanday et Bandam.
In this enormous prison, labeled Scythia ultra Ymaum montem [Scythia beyond Mount Ymaus], is the word MAGOG in large letters (perhaps in Ezekiela€™s sense as a country?).
The remarkably strong ebb and flow of the waters in the Persian Gulf at the mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, observed by Conti, is thought by the Genoese cartographer worthy of mention: Sinus persicus in quo mare fluit et refluit velut oceanus [The Persian Gulf, in which the sea ebbs and flows as in the ocean]. This section of the coast could not well remain unknown to travelers coming from the mouth of the Indus River. The legend on the Genoese map relates in part to the Chinese junks, in part to the trade with India, which in the 15th century was in the hands of the Arabians, from whom the Portuguese seized it. Near the Persian Gulf in Arabia a mountain is represented, out of which flows a river, emptying north of Mecca, which doubtless is the Betius of Ptolemy. This is doubtless one of the passes lying somewhat to the west, where Scythia on the north joins with the highlands of Iran, and is probably the Khyber. This lake, mentioned in the fabulous stories concerning India in the middle ages, is, again, derived from Conti. In the extreme northwest, in genuine medieval fashion, a leopard and a griffin have been sketched. In this part of Asia the cosmographer places the land of Magog, whence Jews, Mohammedans, and also Christians of the middle ages, expected the coming of the destructive races at the last day. In Armenia appears Azerum, and to the southeast of this, in an incorrect position, Sauasto.
In the interior, Jerusalem, Damascus, placed far to the north; Antioch and, less accurately placed, Tiberias. Among the cities Media Arabie appears most conspicuous, and the tower decorated with a flag, and lying on the coast, is undoubtedly Dschidda, Contia€™s Zidem. In the interior are Tauria, a center of trade with remote Asia and India; and Ragis, the ancient Rhagas, a residence of Mohammedan princes, and, since the destruction by the Mongolians, a vast ruin, out of which in part the neighboring Teheran is built.
Testango, which Pizigani calls Trestago, is Tysch-kandy on the Mertwyi-Kultuk Bay, whence the commercial highway led from the Caspian Sea over the Ust-Urt plateau to Organzin, the ancient capital city Chowaresmiens on the Darjalyk. By this we are to understand Coromandel, lying on the east coast, since it appears evident the legend refers to Meliapur.
Meliapur is distinguished by a Christian church with a cross and the legend, Here lies the body of the apostle Saint Thomas. The Genoese cartographer appears to have known the trend of the coast even to Cape Verde, although his representation of the coast southward of Cape Bojador is far from correct in its details. These last-named cartographers call this gulf Sinus Aethiopicus, while the Genoese cartographer, the name being repeated many times, designates the mainland as Ethiopia, and his legend here reads: Contrary to the tradition of Ptolemy, this is a gulf, but Pomponius speaks of it with its islands. Before this bay, that is, in the open waters of the Indian Ocean, is represented a fish with a swinea€™s head. In the extreme south of the continent the Mountains of the Moon are represented as snow-covered, with the following explanatory legend: These are the Mountains of the Moon, which, in the Egyptian language, are called Gebelcan, in which mountains the river Nile rises, and from which, in the summer-time, when the snows melt, a very large stream flows.
It was the Abyssinian Christians whom the cosmographers, at the close of the 14th century, had to thank for information concerning their country. Marco Polo ascribes the use of war elephants to the inhabitants of Zanzibar, while Masa€™udi expressly states that their land was rich in elephants, which, however, were neither tamed, nor were they used in any manner. A river empties in the Syrtus west of Masrata, which comes from a lake in the neighborhood of Wadam, and which is called by Idrisi Palmenoase, a river five daysa€™ journey south of the Great Syrtus.
In addition to the elephant and the crocodile, a camel is represented in the southwest, and near it a mythical animal, which may be a dragon or a basilisk, and which, according to tradition, inhabited Africa in antiquity and in the middle ages. For instance, the name Ethiopia appears six times, and in addition, in Western Europe, Ethiopia interior, and in the east, Ethiopia Egypti. To tackle this question, it is necessary to hypothesize on the mapmakera€™s intentions and study the way he handles the space on his map. Just as important are the various dimensions of meaning on the Genoese World Map relating to faith and social life. Today, in character with the preferences of our own culture, we are persuaded to live our everyday life in a homogeneous, absolute space, neatly separated from time, notwithstanding that Albert Einstein disproved this notion. Compare, for instance, this Catalan-Estense map (#246), the Walsperger world map (#245) and this Genoese world map, all of approximately the same date, ca. Using your powers of concentration, visualize a white light flowing from the palms of your hands and from your heart center, which is situated just in front of your breastbone.
When you start to feel this power flowing in you, then say out loud the girls’ names. This will be a combination storytelling class as well as practicalities of gathering plants. This will lead into Skullcap’s specific indications and contra-indications illustrated with colorful case histories, as well as the ecology and specifics of a number of western Scutellaria spp.
Many clients have compromised GI tracts from a fast food vegan or other extended elimination diets, protein deficiencies, or multiple nutritional deficiencies. California Hispanic herbalism differs from the Mexican or Tejano, or Southwest traditions due to the various native and foreign cultures which helped form it. Special focus will be placed on of the body as a dynamic ecosystem instead of a battlefield.
Jim and Kiva will explore the underlying elements of traditional western herbalism, including sense-based herbal energetics, primary herbal actions and ways of integrating these essential components into an effective healing practice. Join Jim McDonald in an exploration of the fundamental role of diaphoretics in immunity, and how they can be used to support and enhance the body’s vital response to infections from influenza to the common cold. Although Mercola is a little distasteful in his sensationalism, what he says in this case is true. Even though digestion of the disaccharide to the monosaccharides take some time and acts as a partial brake, because the extracted sugar is very concentrated, compared to eating a naturally sugary food, the glucose and fructose surge in the system. A  So it is with a little bit of bemusement that I watch the latest explosion of the back-to-the land movement because I really never left it. A A  I giggle when we make homemade macaroni & cheese to take someplace and it is viewed as some sort of accomplishment because in my family that is pretty standard fare. A  IA  suppose I started the path about fifteen years ago although I have only been studying seriously about six years (around the same time I started blogging).
A  How do we keep the message of the websites of today from being lost in a internet archive in the same way the poster above was lost in a file cabinet?
Bring to a boil; then lower heat and simmer for about 30 minutes, until the broth is thick. A  I thought I might offer a bit of advice as to how to eat your way to a healthier nervous system.
The fun doesn’t stop on the outside though, so be quite careful when opening your first Botanical Interests seed packet. A  My Trionfo Violetto Pole Beans outgrew and outproduced my Kentucky Wonder Beans.A A  I think my Dwarf Blue KaleA  might still be alive out there under the piles of snow.
You also don’t hear hot sauceA  tossed around as an herbal preparation but these are both excellent examples of ways you can incorporate more herbs into your diet. A A  It was probablyA  have been shortly after Darian became a vegetarian and I made my first batch of homemade vegetable broth.A  I know I definitely had a handle on it by the time I was making garlic broth to use in soups. While I am sure that in cases where a blood test has shown there to be a deficiency, supplements can be useful to catch the body up.A A  I prefer to avoid the deficiency in the first place. A This is one of the reasons that I tend to focus on using herbs and foods that I can grow or wild-craft in my area. A When you dona€™t eat properly, your body does not find the nutrition in the food you eat, it will find the nutrients someplace in your body such as your bones, muscles or brain matter.A  A This is especially true of protein which your body will leach from your muscles or brain matter and vitamins and calcium which your body will take from your bones. In addition to celebrities, he also focuses on ordinary people, as seen in the works in his latest show (below) in Beijing.
It took him nearly four years to frame more than 1,000 famed faces, including actresses like Gong Li and Zhang Ziyi, and directors Zhang Yimou and Jiang Wen. For instance, he took the photo of Zhang Ziyi when she rested while performing the leading role for the film Purple Butterfly in 2003.
After visiting a solo show of the late American photographer Ansel Adams, famed for his charming black-and-white photography, Pang felt the power and beauty of the simple colors. The first act, which lasts 90 minutes, has the memorable action of ironing and folding a shirt, as some in the audience joked.
He made his only appearance when he was lit from behind a screen at the end of Act I, doing nothing but folding a shirt. He is the subject of this measured and calculated character study - of a character who is mostly absent from the stage yet increasingly comes into relief as each onstage character reminisces about him. The freedom to express such views, no matter how biased, does not equal artistic ingenuity. The only sliver of compassion he displayed was for his housekeeper, who seemed to sing his eulogy with clenched teeth. The way he listed the evils of the world before his suicide is a reminder of "the whips and scorns of time, the oppressors' wrong, the proud man's contumely, the pangs of despised love, the law's delay, the insolence of office", etc, when the prince of Denmark contemplated "making his quietus with a bare bodkin". Within the cloistered space of the stage, the balance is often tipped by actors' movements that are concentrated in one corner.
When the historical recording of Hitler's speech and mass cheering shattered the Schusters' window glasses, the message came loud and clear.
But in recent years, the village's well-preserved environment has become its greatest selling point. Now the area has more than 10,000 people who work directly or indirectly in the tourism industry. On our second morning there, a light haze hung over the river, obscuring the view of buildings on the other bank. Before entering the valley, we were able to enjoy a show that recreated a scene of boat trackers on the bank pulling a traditional sailboat with ropes. It extends along the Longjing Brook, whose mirror of light-indigo-blue water is half hidden under thick clumps of bamboo. As we walk closer, we see it is the enactment of a traditional wedding ceremony by the local Tu ethnic group.
There, tourists can enjoy a view of the peaks, the rocks and also a spectacular 1,500-meter-long karst cave. It's a great experience to see it," Australian Stave Sloan says after viewing it as part of a 15-day cruise tour along the river.
But her urban dreams are soon shattered as she is abducted by a group of people, taken to a village and sold to a family. She returns to the same village to reunite with her baby boy, whose biological father is her former captor. Through the abducted woman's perspective, readers not only see the problems of the rural areas, but also the different aspects of village life. So all the characters in the novel are part of the village, and each person has his or her position on issues," says Liang.
They try to find ways to communicate with the outside world such as by doing business, and even with Hu Die to reach a reconciliation," she says. He started writing prose in 1965, and in 1992, he completed White Deer Plain, a novel based on the county annals of his hometown, Bailuyuan in Shaanxi. Half a century later, Putzmeister has become not only a global leader in concrete pump makers, but also the embodiment of the mittelstadt - Germany's small or medium-sized family-owned businesses with time-honored traditions, values and management practices (think Bosch and Trumpf). The German businessman was lambasted for "selling the German soul to the Chinese", while Sany was mocked as "a snake that swallowed an elephant". It would have been unreasonable for Putzmeister, which had been China's market leader since 1979, to compete with a new dominant force in the world's biggest market, he says. They saw eye to eye on a key issue - trust - and he empathizes with the humble roots of Liang Wengen, the founder of Sany, a backyard soldering stick maker turned billionaire entrepreneur. When you are successful at home, you want to go abroad to grow your businesses," Schlecht says, punching the air with his fist. Years before the Sany deal, Schlecht, a self-taught philosopher, became fascinated with Confucianism, especially the notion of "Confucian entrepreneurship", which calls for applying ancient Chinese wisdom to business practice.
These are values he describes as the nuts and bolts of a global ethic for success, which he has championed. If old friends visit, he puts down his gardening tools to collect them at the airport in his black Mercedes. He has inspired a new wave of young players who aim to match his career haul of 11 ranking titles. From Emperor Qinshihuang of the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) onward, they have tried to uncover the recipe for immortality. In that beautiful land full of springs, streams and picturesque mountains, Liu An gathered the best Taoist masters - eight of them - and started his search. They didn't succeed, but what was left in the tripod was a pure, white jelly-like substance.
Doufunao literally means tofu brains while doufuhua is definitely more lyrical, translating as tofu flowers. In the south, the tender jelly is sweetened with syrups made from plain or brown sugar and flavored with ginger juice. Or they deep-fry bean curd so that its texture changes and then braise the entire block in a gravy made with soy sauce and sweet spices. It's deep-fried, served with pickled cabbage and sweet chili sauce, boldly advertising its presence through its lovely pungency.
She is now a second-year art student in Shanxi province and works part time for 12 Buildings, a studio in Beijing. Among the 32-year-old's creations is a white cat, which he has since turned into a popular emoji.
To express various levels of anguish, for example, WeChat users can share an animation of the white cat crying while laughing, sobbing in a pool of tears, or wailing while clapping its hands. In just a short while, she was producing work for instant-messaging tools like QQ and WeChat. The fox, which Xu created in high school, was among the first emojis made available on the QQ messenger in 2012.
During the Chinese New Year holiday in February, he topped the emoji charts as users rushed to send friends and relatives seasonal greetings.


However, he says China's animation industry lags behind those in the West and Japan, which have worldwide appeal.
They hope a more masculine presence can have an effect, but it appears there is still some way to go. Plus, because of the one-child policy, many children have grown up without siblings and tend to lead sheltered lives.
A post-80s generation artist, Yun graduated from the art department of Shenyang University, majoring in murals and frescoes, woodcarving and clay sculpture. Yun can lay claim to creating the split-carving technique, which allows him to compose a piece at scale while keeping the realistic details intact. He feels proud of what he has done but says it is far from enough, with hopes that such a precious cultural relic will be recognized and loved by more and more people. Now home to the iconic Tianzifang, the area is filled with numerous retail outlets, small snack shops, bars and cafes, most of which are occupied by tourists from other Chinese cities and abroad. Today, it is just another tourist attraction, albeit a very famous one, that only has a faint glimpse of its artistic core. Those who are in the area now are also planning to move out," says Yu, who recently led a team of students from Fudan University and Tongji University to conduct an in-depth survey on the current situation of Tianzifang, which is quickly losing its artistic soul to commercialization. Many men would smoke cigarettes and play poker on tables in the courtyard in the afternoon," says Zheng, who is widely regarded as "the father of Tianzifang". He leased out the 10,000-square-meter space occupied by the idle factories on a 20-year contract and moved the street market indoors. This was also the time when Huang Yongyu, another well-known painter, named the area "Tianzifang" as a tribute to an ancient Chinese painter of the same name.
Galleries, cafes and boutiques have since opened like clockwork alongside old Shanghai homes, imbuing the area with a unique charm not seen before in the city. Calls were made for the place to be torn down to make way for high-rise shopping malls that were part of a real estate project by Taiwan's ASE Group. Formerly a slaughterhouse, the place is now home to several creative agencies and design studios. But as time passed, I began to realize the importance of protecting the origins of the place," says Zhou. Middle-aged housewives carrying bags of vegetables would squeeze past expats sipping cappuccino at outdoor cafes. Between 2004 and 2008, as many as 6,000 people would walk along Taikang Road's crowded lanes on weekends. He is now paying 40,000 yuan and said that the rent will exceed 60,000 yuan after his current contract expires in two years. The place is now filled with more tourism-related items instead of original art works," says Yan, adding that he plans to move out of Tianzifang after fulfilling his rental contract despite his attachment to the area.
It's no surprise that many talented artists are leaving the area," says Zhou Xinliang, the resident of Tianzifang. Over the past five years, retail outlets have steadily replaced the art studios and galleries, which now account for just 2 percent of the shops in Tianzifang. Though he said he does not think that this will lead to the demise of the place, he is concerned that it will eventually result in a change of appearance and the loss of its iconic architecture. This is getting lost in the process of commercialization," she says, adding that she is very impressed with how the buildings in Tianzifang are preserved. London's Victoria and Albert Museum has peeled back fashion's layers to expose everything from long johns to lingerie in Undressed, an exhibition tracing the hidden history of underwear. For centuries, people have worn undergarments for practical reasons of protection, hygiene and comfort - but there has always been an element of sexuality and drama as well. The show, which features more than 200 items made between 1750 and the present day, is dominated by women's undergarments: corsets and crinolines, stockings and shifts, chemises and stays. More recent items include David Beckham boxer shorts and crotch-enhancing Aussiebum briefs. There are 19th-century models with whalebone stays, a modern-day red and black rubber corset by House of Harlot, and one worn by burlesque artist Dita Von Teese with a wince-inducing 18-inch waist. The exhibition traces the history of brassieres, from their development as "bust supporters" in the 1860s through their wide adoption in the early 20th century to the introduction of Lycra in the late 1950s. Ehrman says people have been revealing their undergarments since at least the 16th century.
In this exhibit, 110 years after the flight of '14 Bis', we want to show the young that using the imagination is a way of promoting discoveries," Gringo Caria, the curator of the exhibit, says. The world's first cafe using the tiny domestic unmanned aircraft as servers has opened in a Dutch university. Already, Ethiopia and Rwanda are beneficiaries of light factories dealing in leather and textiles. The grant is a lot of money and for it to be spent in three years, the absorptive capacity needs to be thoroughly worked on. The great number of patients they treat provides Chinese doctors, those in big hospitals in particular, with more than enough opportunities to accumulate clinical experience, but China is not the right place for doctors wanting to make a lot of money, Liu said. To save the life of the patient, Liu proposed that the family directly contact the producer to get the material and they did so.
He needs to train someone who is as skillful as he is and as dedicated to the work as he is to take over from him.
We look at opportunities in sectors related to the growing middle class and the growing consumer demand driven by the private sector as opposed to the State-owned sector. We want to make sure that we understand the risks and we are able to get compensated appropriately.
But you also have a population in terms of structure that is going to be disproportionally old as a result of the one-child policy.
It's an honor in many ways, because China is a wonderful country with an incredible past and a really exciting future.
I don't mind, whatever way works for a bookshop to keep still open, I'm very happy to do that.
It's about this generation of Chinese youth, where they're going to, what problems they are facing, how they are moving out into the world. I've become much more mature and gained a lot of valuable business management experience from my two failures.
When I saw the news in 2014 about Chinese e-commerce company Alibaba listing in the United States, I was amazed by its achievements. It pushed us to rein in the tide as we were considered the source, transit and destination countries. The international community should recognize this, as China can become a leader in global wildlife conservation," he says. Vision 2030 outlines development of key infrastructure to move the economy into the middle-income bracket.
He emphasizes the need for strong domestic policies and regulations to defuse such conflicts by encouraging partnerships.
However, the map is not well preserved, a fact due in part to careless handling, in part to its peculiar mounting which evidently is very old. The map was made not for practical use but for display, probably in the library of the Spinola family. It has been read to refer to Marino Sanudoa€™s map, to the knowledge of sailors (though ungrammatically), and to Marinos of Tyre.
It is, however, but mere conjecture to assert that our draughtsman had a Marinus map before him while working out his sketch, though it conforms to the geographical notion of that ancient cartographer. A standard way of describing the earth, from Bede to the Catalan Atlas (#235), was to compare it to an egg. But since this is a description of the cosmographers, who make no mention of it, it is omitted from this narration.a€? Who are the cosmographers, who also appeared in the caption cited above but in a more negative context?
Angelo Cattaneo has identified the source of this legend as Chapter 18 of Pero Tafura€™s Andancas e viajes de Pero Tafur por diversas partes del mundo avidos, written c.
Between the Dniester, at that time the western boundary of the Mongol empire, and the Dnieper is the city Lordo, a name that often appears in references to treaty relations established between the Mongols and the people of the Occident.
Here we also find Lisbona, Sibilla, Taragona, Barcelona, Saragosa, and a few other names which are illegible. From the names given which so frequently appear in the history of the period that of Constantinople is omitted. All these are taken from the Conti narrative: Java major is thought to be Borneo, and Java minor the island now known by that name. West of the Golden Chersonese is an animal with the tail of a fish, a humanlike head and large horns and ears, with outstretched arms so attached to the body as to make them serviceable in flying or swimming. Heinrich Wuttke (Karten der seefahrenden Volker) provides a transcription of the captions in the margins and in the figure. In the place of Ptolemya€™s Taprobana two islands are represented, the larger of which, though appearing in outline to be Taprobana, is rather to be taken as a representation of Sumatra, while the smaller bears the name Ceylon. The inhabitants of this Taprobana, which in their language is called Ciamutera, are barbarians, having large ears in which they wear ornaments, and they dress in linen clothes. According to a conjecture of Yule, the name Sumara, which appears in a manuscript of Marco Polo as the name of one of the kingdoms of the island, is only a corruption of Sumatra.
The other legend, near the picture of a three-masted ship, reads: The Indian Sea is filled with many islands, rocks and sand-banks. Chinese junks, after an interval of five hundred years, again sailed the Indian Ocean at the end of the 13th century.
In addition to the sails, which were made of bamboo matting and attached to four or more masts, these Indian ships had rudders, which were handled by from ten to thirty men. Marco Polo called it the Sea of Ghel, or Ghelan, since Gilan, the city whence silks came, was to the Italians the best-known city on its shores. A mountain range farther eastward, and stretching in a northeast-southwest direction, is the east Iranian mountain range, along which flows the Indus.
Here was a national highway over which, immediately preceding this period, the wild people of central Asia so frequently came into southern Asia. In these rather remarkable sketches we probably have a reference to the lakes of Udaipur and Dbar on the southern highlands of Mewar, which lakes in fact lie between the Indus and the Ganges. Yule refers to it as one known in the fourth century of the Christian era, in which allusion is made to the hyacinth or jacinth.
In Turkestan is the legend King Cambellannas, son of the great Khan, by which legend is probably meant Timur, who reunited the numerous small kingdoms into which, about 1350, Dschagati had fallen. On most of the early maps of the middle ages this land of Gog and Magog is represented, but with the advance of knowledge of Asia the names were given to lands further northward. Of the cities which are here most distinguished there may be named Sinope, which is adorned with a Genoese banner.
Of the cities of Parthia only the name Yier appears, by which perhaps Dschordschan is meant.
Maabar, it should be noted, is not to be confounded with Malabar, or Melibar of Marco Polo.
There was scarcely a Christian traveler from the time of Montecorvino and Marco Polo, returning with information concerning the so-called Thomas Christians, who had failed to visit Meliapur near Madras, since the place of Saint Thomasa€™ burial was a sacred spot not only to Christians but also to Mohammedan pilgrims. The Arnona Civitas of the Genoese cartographer seems to lie in about the position of Contia€™s Cernove, reached by him in a fifteen daysa€™ journey from the mouth of the river. The southern coast of Africa is made to extend in a flattened curve toward the east, which representation is similar to that on the world maps of Sanudo, of Leardo, and of Fra Mauro (#228, #242, #249).
A legend here reads: This animal, called the sea hog, gathers its food with its snout like the land hog. This legend gives us the Arabic name for the Mountains of the Moon as Gebelcan, which is doubtless the same as Gebel Camr. The Blue Nile, however, is represented according to most recent information from Abyssinia; this river, uniting with the Atbara, forms one river which flows out of a large lake, in which an island is represented.
It may be noted that even today the banks of this lake, as well as its islands, are the site of numerous churches and monasteries. There can be no doubt that in the lands on the west side of the Red Sea elephants were captured by the Ptolemies in great numbers, tamed and made use of in war, as Ptolemy Euergetes testifies in the inscription from Adulis that he employed Troglodytic and Ethiopian elephants against those from India. It is difficult to determine whether by this Wadi Schegea or Wadi um el Cheil is to be understood. One here recalls the description which Idrisi gives of a dragon living on an oasis to the east of Sahara, so enormous in size that it was often mistaken for a mountain.
But since that is a representation of cosmographers who have given no description of it, therefore an account of it is here omitted.
What is clear is the mapmakera€™s declaration of intent, his striving for accuracy and a near-natural depiction of the world, all of which make his map look rather modern. Using these histories, he concentrated his attention on certain regions, emphasizing especially Asia, distinguishing certain locations through different forms of depiction, thereby creating a hierarchical space. Perhaps in answering certain questions one should not look too hard for historical transitions or changes in cartography, as this tempts one to privilege current representational conventions. Therefore, although this study focuses on maps that are centuries old, it just might enhance our understanding of the current conflict between our daily experience and our theoretical knowledge of space and time. This class explores some of our options as herbalists to bring our unique set of skills and medicines to a wider audience. Symptom pictures range from full-blown chronic fatigue symptoms to multiple food sensitivities and brain fog. Included are foundational elements of working with the whole person and the whole plant rather than isolating or compartmentalizing either human or herb. Special attention will be paid to the differentiation and use of diaphoretics that stimulate, relax or do both at once.
The four pillars of evaluation and treatment - 1) energetics, 2) organ systems, 3) action and 4) specific indications. In nature typically in a piece of fruit, the sugar is a mixture of sucrose (glucose bound to fructose), free glucose, and free fructose. The glucose enters the controlled glycolysis pathway, but the fructose bypasses it, and floods the Krebs cycle and the related fat-building pathway in large amounts, symbolically like a -flood- into those pathways below the control point in glycolysis.
A  You need to eat enough to provide your body with the foods you need.A  It is almost impossible to do this with two meals a day so your body begins to crave foods that will give it that quick energy fix. There is nothing quite so satisfying as a healing soup simmering away slowly on the stovetop, while the flavors and properties of the herbs flow gently into the food. A Dona€™t fight with yourself (or your family) to entirely give up a questionable food substance, just dona€™t abuse your body with it and use the healthiest form of the substance possible. A A vast majority of health complaints in this country; fatigue, mental fogginess, depression, etca€¦ are caused by your bodies natural response to incomplete nutrition. Raped by Hei Liang, a member of that family, she lives through her troubles until her mother rescues her with the help of police and a reporter.
It tells of changes to the land over 50 years from the end of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).
Evenings find him helping his wife, Brigitte, make his favorite Swabian noodles or pizza before he retreats to his home office to "fantasize" about new projects. From behind the wheel, the silver-haired Swabian then doubles as an animated tour guide to the picturesque Neckar Valley, his childhood home. Barry Hearn, the chairman of World Snooker, says the Chinese government is pouring investment into sport, which will help the country dominate not only snooker, but also other sports within 10 to 15 years. In the face of increasing globalization, food is also one of the last strong visages of community and culture.
A fresh collection of 16 Budding Pop emojis released on March 12 was downloaded 4 million times within 24 hours. In 2005, Yun started his fruit pit carving career, and in 2007 he founded his workshop, Yiren Hequ, attracting many young artists to pit carving. As an artist, you need to devote your feelings, explore your innovative techniques, and commit, he says. Yun has done his part: creating the next generation of fruit pit carvers with the same dream. You choose and you program it like you want," student and project leader Tessie Hartjes says. Japan delocalized to China and now they have to do the same to sustain their competitive streak," he says. While he was not infected by the virus, several of his colleagues were not so lucky and they are still suffering from the sequelae after they were infected at that time. We don't focus on what happens to the Shanghai Stock Exchange on Wednesday or what currency markets do on Thursday.
The challenge for us is how we take this 4.3 percent and get something closer to 25 percent.
It also involves being incredibly diligent when we decide to make any individual investment, whether it is a piece of real estate or in a PE company.
I think my philosophy is that taking risk is part of the job and part of constructing a good portfolio. And I think it's just great to have the opportunity to be present to watch these rapid changes happen on a day-to-day basis, watch the society blossom, and watch China become a real high-profile member on every level of the world society.
To prevent the crinkling of the parchment, as would appear, it has been mounted on four boards of suitable width and of about half an inch in thickness, which boards have been adjusted to fold. In support of the last idea, it is noteworthy that the map appears to extend 225A° by 87A°, the extent of the habitable world, according to him. This abandonment of the more common circular form enabled the cartographer to show features that were increasingly squeezed on 15th century mappaemundi. The main purpose of the analogy seems to have been to describe the various spheres surrounding the earth (egg white, shell), but the idea of an egg shape could have been derived from these works. In the Indian Ocean are shown a mermaid and a fish with a devila€™s head, while on land nearby is a snake with a human head. Prester John is represented behind a wall, protecting him from the future rampages of Gog and Magog. This monster is said to attack the ships of the Indians, usually breaking them immediately, but its crest can get stuck in the ship's wood and as a result the creature, unable to escape, kills itself.
Sara was the capital of the Kipchak, and in the 14th century was a city of great importance, but in 1395 was destroyed by Timur.
Though the names Sanday and Bandam have not been satisfactorily explained, the reference in the legend to spices and cloves makes it fairly certain that they are islands of the Moluccas group.
If we have here an attempt at a representation of the Gulf of Siam, the city Pauconia is probably Bangkok.
A legend gives the following information: This species of fish, recently [caught?] in Candia, feeds upon the meadows of the shore like cows. A legend near this reads: The island of Ceylon, having a circumference of three thousand miles, is rich in rubies, sapphires, and cata€™s-eyes, and produces cinnamon from trees similar to our willow tree. Marco Polo, the first traveler from the west who seems to have brought definite word from Sumatra, called it Java the Less, under which name, however, according to the Genoese cartographer, we are to understand Java or Borneo.
Their ships, therefore, are constructed with many compartments, to the end that if they are broken in any part, the remaining parts may be sufficiently strong to complete the course. Marco Polo, who, on his homeward journey, sailed in one of them as far as Malabar, gives us a detailed picture of these boats.
The larger vessels also carried small boats, which were used, as Marco Polo states, a€?to lay out the anchors, catch fish, bring supplies aboard, and the like.
Mons Synai, near the northern border of the Red Sea, is represented, on the summit of which is the Convent of St. Aside from the Volga and the Ural, two other rivers are here represented, rising in a range of mountains that extends in an east-west direction. This river forms through its four outlets a conspicuous delta, and receives from the neighboring mountain range two tributaries. Indeed, from the most ancient times this important highway was the connecting link between northern and southern Asia, and its architectural ruins a€”the fortifications erected by the different peoples at different timesa€”point to its significance. It was one known to the Byzantines, to the Arabs, and to the Chinese, but it seems to owe its origin to India. King Cambalech, that is, the Great Khan, is represented in a picture as ruling Cathay, and the King of India is represented on horseback with sword in hand. Here the cosmographer seems to rely in the main on Arabic sources, and especially on Idrisi. On the Persian Gulf lies Ragan, by which Arragan is probably to be understood, whose ruins are found in the vicinity of the present Babahan, with Fars on the Ab Ergum. Destroyed first by Genghis Khan in 1221, and again by Timur, this great Asiatic frontier commercial city in the time of Conti was in ruins.
The tradition that the holy Thomas preached Christianity in India, suffered martyrdom, and was buried in a mountain had its origin in very early times. Conti gives a vivid description of this part of the Ganges River, up which river, as he states, he sailed for the space of three months; and from his description one might conclude that he had passed entirely through Hindustan, and that after he had made the desired commercial observations he turned about to make a long sojourn in Maharatia, perhaps one of the four important cities to which he refers. The southern continental boundary of the Indian Ocean appearing on Ptolemya€™s world maps, reduced to a long and narrow peninsula by Sanudo and Fra Mauro, is still further reduced by the Genoese cartographer. The name Djihal-alqamar, Mountains of the Moon, according to a conjecture of Kiepert, was derived in Ptolemya€™s time erroneously from Djibal-qomr, Blue Mountains. Meroe, however, does not, as with Ptolemy, lie on a river island, but on a river peninsula.
The large island Dek, or the Holy Daga Island, dedicated to Saint Stephen, is now inhabited by hermit monks, and to it the outside world is not admitted. In Tunis a river is made to empty into the Mediterranean, which is probably the Medscherda, with one branch emptying on the north side of the Gulf of Tunis, and with another into the Gulf of Hammamet. It had the form of a snake in that it crawled on the ground, but had large ears extending forward. Professor Fischer thinks this is to be understood as signifying that the Genoese cosmographer based his information on pre-Christian authors, that is, Pliny and Ptolemy, while omitting his own view concerning the position of the earthly paradise.
The mapmaker saw apparently no inconsistency in depicting different times simultaneously or one element in multiple locations, melding time and space seems to be effected unconsciously. In studying cosmological models of the Middle Ages, it would be more constructive to look for continuities that might even expose our modern understanding of homogeneous space as an illusion. It will draw heavily from my 5 years working at a mixed modality (conventional and holistic) free clinic in my hometown as well as other places I have volunteered. Humans have no natural mechanism to deal with this, so the liver does 3 things, start making a lot of of fat and, if chronic, increasing the enzymes that manufacture fat, reduce the production of ATP via the Krebs cycle, and become resistant to the effects of insulin which would otherwise tell the liver to stop releasing glucose into the system. A A  EvenA  though that changed a bit when my parents moved us to town, my family hung on to a great deal of that lifestyle.
Unfortunately in our society,A  candy bars and coffee are far more available than a leafy green salad or a whole-grain snack.A  You have to plan a bit more to provide yourself with healthy alternative but it is completely worth the effort.
It declined in the mid-19th century, but the art is back in force in places like Suzhou, Weifang, Guangdong and Liaoning.
Despite the fact that it is common for the dangerous operation to fail and the patient's family had signed a consent form for the operation exempting the surgeon from responsibility if the operation was not successful, the family accused Liu of collaboration with the medical material producer. The job of getting more capital into the market is one of the most important strategic issues that we have. What defines what we do at the CPPIB is constant learning and refinement of the processes and our knowledge. In certain parts the colors are yet brilliant, though softened with age; in other parts they have almost disappeared, and nothing has contributed more to this destruction than the nibbing of part-on-part. Without an expert and minute palaeographical investigation, it is impossible either to accept or reject the attribution to Toscanelli, but Crino presented a case which requires further examination. What we now know about Marinos is mostly from Ptolemya€™s criticism of him, but the Arab geographer al-Maa€™sudi reported in the 10th century that he had seen Marinusa€™ geographical treatise. Jerusalem does not appear in the center of the map but is considerably to the west of a center located south of the Caspian Sea. Another possibility is that the oval form represents the mandorla, or nimbus, which surrounded Christ in many medieval works of art. The title of Ptolemya€™s work, as it circulated through Italy in the 15th century, was usually given as Cosmographia rather than Geography, a less familiar Greek term.
As we might expect from a Genoese map, good use has been made of the nautical chart as well.
Van Duzer adds that Tafura€™s account derives from Poggio Bracciolinia€™s Facetiae, written between 1438 and 1452, which describes a very similar monster that attacked some women by the seashore, and was killed and exhibited in Ferrara. Between the Dnieper and the Don the author has made a suggestive reference to the custom of that migratory folk of transporting their houses about with them on wagons drawn by oxen, a custom also attributed to the early Teutons and the Huns. Saratellis, if this is a correct reading of the name, is probably the Saracanco of Balducci Pigolotti. We may have in this gulf one of the earliest cartographical representations of the Yellow Sea and the Gulf of Petchili. In this island there is a lake, in the middle of which is a noble city whose inhabitants, given over to astrology, predict all future events. Conti gives to the island a circumference of about two thousand miles, as does Marco Polo, which is very nearly correct. These, moreover, are supplied with several masts, from three to ten, and having sails made of reeds and palm-leaves joined together, they pursue their courses with great rapidity. When the ship is under sail, she carries these boats slung to her side.a€? Many of the vessels had as many as four decks, and even the smaller ones, fifty or sixty cabins.
Catherine; and we also find here the highlands of Armenia, out of which flow the Euphrates and Tigris, these highlands being especially distinguished by a representation of Noaha€™s Ark. From the mountain range on the northern border of Parthia, a great range stretches diagonally across the entire Asiatic continent, to the gulf indicated on the east, to which gulf reference has been made.
Very properly, the name of Alexander is associated with it, since through his founding of Alexandria ad Caucasum the southern region was secured against the attack of the northern barbarians, the Scythians, who, in the language of the middle ages, were called Tartars.
They owe their origin in part to artificial dams, and serve the purpose of reservoirs for artificial irrigation. Northern Asia is properly made to appear as a region covered with pine forests, a representation which is to be found on no other early world map, and which seems to suggest that the Genoese mapmaker was in possession of somewhat detailed information concerning the character of the region. He places Magog north of the mountain range stretching entirely across Asia, Gog south of the same, and on the border range several towers are indicated. In the highlands of Iran appear the names Media, Zilan, Parthia, Aria, Aracosa, Gedrosia, Cormania and Persis. This place, incorrectly located on the coast, is not referred to by Conti, nor is it to be found on any other map. The name Machin seems clearly to be a modification of the Sanskrit Maha Chin, that is, Great China, a name which the Persian and the Arabic writers frequently used for Manzi, the southern part of China.
Legends are here inscribed on either side of a broad scroll, wherein the author refers to his work and gives the date of its composition, which legends are almost illegible. This seems to refer to the snow-peaks of the Kilimanjaro and Kenya, as seen from a great distance, which mountains send their waters toward the interior of the continent. Even the irrigation canals, which lead out from the Nile in Nubia and Egypt, are represented by the Genoese cartographer. About the time that the Genoese cartographer produced his map he could well have received excellent information concerning Abyssinia. A similar river, dividing into two branches near its source, empties into the sea in Algeria east and west of Algiers, and a smaller one east of Ceuta. Medieval cosmographers place this now in East Africa, now in East Asia, but more frequently in the latter. Taking his stated aim for truth seriously would imply that all of these features were part of his truth. A large piece of this class will be devoted to answering attendeea€™s practical questions about their personal situations and how they can bring their skills forward. If we would fill our bellies with fruit we would still only get a relatively small amount of free fructose. Current scientific A thinking on the adverse metabolic effects of sugar, the cluster of diseases that appear when the sugar trade emerges in a region, is that the overfeeding of the fructose pathway and the resulting consequences are responsible for the insulin resistance and obesity. Most of it seems much like sucrose, 45 percent glucose and 55 percent fructose, not all that different. A  Once you address your eating patterns, you can begin to look at the nutrients your body needs to properly support your nervous system.
Bee pollen is an amazing nutrient which I should devote a whole blog entry to, but I do worry about our dwindling bee population and the availability of this nutrient.A A  Consequently,A  I use it sparingly and with a great deal of respect for the creatures who created it in mind. Liu said that although he had no connection with the producer, in the end, the hospital paid the patient's family compensation. On the question, of main interest here, as to the correspondence between the letter of 1474 and the map of 1457, it is possible, however, to form some opinion. The highly pictorial character of this well-preserved map leads us to think of it as more traditional than it actually is.
In the 14th century didactic poem, a€?Il Dittamondoa€? Fazio degli Uberti, described the inhabited world as long and narrow (a€?lungo e strettoa€?) like an almond (mandorla), with no apparent religious significance. Certainly, neither Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela, nor Pliny had given a location for Paradise, save for fantasies about the Fortunate Islands, and the Genoese mapmaker appears to associate classical with scientific geography.
These fantastic creatures join other wonderful but real animals, such as a giraffe, a leopard, a crocodile, two monkeys, and a swordfish. Illustrations of the monster which are very similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map accompany excerpts from the Facetiae which are appended to various 15th and 16th century editions of Aesopa€™s fables. Such a wagon with driver and oxen, rather crudely sketched, is represented moving eastward, near which appears the legend, Ubi lordo errat. The other [story relates] that certain of their trees bear fruit which, decaying within, produces a worm which, as it subsequently develops, becomes hairy and feathered, and, provided with wings, flies like a bird. According to Pigolotti, Sara could be reached in a day by water from Astrakhan, Saracanco in eight days by water or by land.
Longer legends take material from Conti on the funeral practice of wife burning (a€?if they refuse out of fear, they are forced to do ita€?), the cultivation of pepper, the collection of human heads in Sumatra, the sea-tight compartments of Chinese junks, the practice of tattooing, and the availability of spices and multicolored parrots.
Sanday sends saffron, nuts, muscatas, and maces to the Javas, Bandan an abundance of cloves. Magog (Gog is missing), the Tatars, the Ten Lost Tribes, the Antichrist and the Alexander story are mixed as though they naturally belonged in the same place - as they by then did, at least in the literature and exegesis directed to the literate but not learned. The position of Ceylon was now well known, being here placed to the east of a peninsula that we can recognize as the southern point of India. In its outlines Further India, UltraIndia (Southeast Asia) is Ptolemaic, a fact which is especially noticeable in the very prominent peninsular character. And these [ships], loaded in particular with spices and other aromatics, sailing rather often to Mecca in Arabia, trade with the Western merchants through an exchange of their goods.
South of the Caspian Sea we find a quadrangle framed by mountains that appears to be Parthia, according to the representation of Ptolemy. The Genoese cosmographer must have had information concerning the numerous towers scattered here and there over this pass.
They are remarkable for their natural surroundings, and for the palaces of the rulers of Mewar erected on their banks. In the extreme north appears the figure of a man casting himself into the sea, whose act is explained in the following legend: It is the custom of these people, as old age comes on, to cast themselves from the steep precipices into the sea. The people Gog appear as a group of dwarfs covered with a shield, who are attacked by two cranes. On the Sea of Marmora is Palolimen and Diascinolo which on English charts is represented as Eskel Bay, a semicircular harbor with a very good anchorage twelve kilometers east of the mouth of Susurulu Tschai.
Including in part Indo-China, the name Machin may also include Southeast Asia, for which there is support in certain 15th century references, as there are people of Southeast Asia among whom the custom of tattooing prevails; this being particularly true of the Laos and the Burmese. One of them seems to read: This sea is called the ocean which, according to cosmographers, stretches out infinitely in every direction, covering the earth except about a fourth part here laid down. It was doubtless through Arabic merchantmen that the Alexandrian geographer derived his information, on a visit to the east coast of Africa. On an island in a lake of Abyssinia there appears to be a floating house, and near it the legend: In this lake there is an island, Tana by name, which contains forests and groves and a great temple of Apollo. In 1439 Pope Eugenius IV named an apostolic delegate to that region, and sent a letter to Prester John, the ruler of Abyssinia; and we also learn that an Abyssinian ambassador appeared at the Council of Florence in the year 1441. If the Genoese cosmographer, in the well known regions, represents somewhat arbitrarily his watercourses, we can certainly expect to find this in the less known regions.
Three human figures are introduced to represent the political and ethnographical situation, one a turbaned Mohammedan ruler of Egypt, with the inscription Dominus; the other a crowned head with black hair, carrying a banner, on which is a cross with the inscription, Presbyter Johannes Rex, denoting the Christian ruler of Abyssinia. The north coast of Africa embraces Mauretania, to which Regnum fesse and, in part, Regnum Trenecen belong. Calata is probably Idrisia€™s Al Cal, near Msila in the highlands of the Schotts, a significant city before the rise of Bougie, the capital city of the kingdom of the Hammaditen. If we digest starch that has fructose in the chain of sugars in the starch, that is really slow.
The problem is that in HFCS, the fructose is -free- it does not have to be split from sucrose, and is not bound to fiber. Kimble, there are at least three distinct influences, in addition to the portolan [nautical] chart tradition, that can be detected in these examples: Classical, Christian and Arab. Oversized crowned or turbaned kings, monstrous and simply exotic animals, an elephant bearing an elaborate howdah, and scary sea monsters associate with more scientific signs, such as flags and city symbols. Ptolemya€™s maps, while not exactly oval, were wider from east to west than they were high (north to south). A partially finished network of rhumb lines appears on the map, and on the right are two scale bars, though they are more a sign of intention than reality. One such edition is Sebastian Branta€™s Esopi appologi sive mythologi cum quibusdam carminum et fabularum additionibus (Basel: Jacobus de Phortzheim, 1501), in which Bracciolinia€™s text about the monster is cited and accompanied by an illustration of the monster quite similar to that on the 1457 Genoese map. A good picture of a Mongol appears on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, and also one west of the Black Sea, being drawn about the time of the destruction of their rule. The reference appears to be to a marine animal, perhaps the dugong, which, resembling a cow and accustomed to graze in the fields along the seashore, was captured in the East and brought to Venice.
In this as well as in other parts of extreme southern Asia the Geonoese cosmographer seems especially to exhibit an acquaintance with the record of the distinguished Italian traveler Nicolo di Conti who referred to Ceylon as Zeilan. Cannibals inhabit a part of this island, who, continually waging war with their neighbors, make a collection of human heads as treasures, and he who has the most heads is the richest.
It stretches toward the south, terminating in a prominent Golden Chersonese, a name which the legend suggests: Here gold is found in abundance with jewels and precious stones.
In the Gulf of Iskanderun a river empties, flowing out of the northeast, recognizable as the Dschihan, on which lies the city Antioch.
These mountains clearly are the Taurus, Paropamisus and the Emodas of Ptolemy, the continental axis of Asia, that is, the Hindu Kush, the Quen Lun, the Nan Schan, and the other border mountains of eastern central Asia today, which in their spurs reach almost to the Gulf of Petchili. As in questions relating to the Nile, Ptolemy showed himself to be better informed than were geographers of later date, even to very recent times, so it also appears that his representation of the mountain systems of Asia, though somewhat altered by our author, was remarkably well done in the larger general features.
This statement concerning the lakes as represented on our map is supported by the fact that a mountain appears to the southwest, from which a river flows to the south, at the mouth of which lies Cambay. A legend gives the following explanation: These are of the generation of Gog, who do not exceed the height of a cubit, who do not attain the age of nine years, and who are continually molested by cranes.
On the same strait, but farther to the southeast, lies a second city, Caila, near which is the legend, Caila, where they use the leaves of trees instead of papyrus.
The Genoese cartographer clearly considers Burma a part of Machin, which since the 13th century had belonged to China.
This sea, disturbed by the force of the moon, ebbs and flows around the earth every lunar day, as Albertus says in his Natural History. In support of the statement that the Genoese cosmographer was well informed concerning Abyssinia may be found the representation of a war elephant carrying a tower filled with armed men.
A third figure, unmistakably a negro, in the southwest, holds a ball (?) in his hand, and is described in the following legend: These are the people who live degenerate lives, among whom there is no distinguishing name, who behold the rising and the setting sun with direful imprecations. The result is that in the Krebs Cycle, the entrance of glucose into the cycle is highly regulated by enzymes, when ATP is adequate to high, if forms a brake on the glycolysis pathway, but fructose, on the one hand, enters the cycle one step below the control point. Inscriptions on the map, as well as recently discovered geographical features, however, proclaim the map to be a document of cartographic thinking similar, if not as large and ambitious, to that of Fra Mauro (#249).
For a 15th century mapmaker, this form made convenient room for discoveries in the Atlantic and in Asia.
The Genoese mapa€™s sea monsters reflect the cartographera€™s interest in exotic wonders, which is everywhere in evidence on the map, and typical of the scientific outlook of the early modern period, which was driven by curiosity and took a great interest in marvels. The Italians were then in close relations with the Golden Horde from Moncastro, Kaffa, Sudak, and Tana as centers, and were, therefore, in a position to know intimately their customs and manner of life. Bandan, moreover, has parrots of three kinds: red ones, those of variegated color with yellow beaks, and white ones the size of hens.
That rare animals at the time of the construction of our map were brought to Italy, where they were viewed with astonishment by the natives, certain observations of Benedetto Dei bear witness.
This description of Taprobana appears clearly to have been taken from Conti, and it is very interesting to observe that our cartographer, not in a very successful manner, has attempted to bring the report of Conti into accord with Ptolemy. The Caucasus stretches across the isthmus between the Black and the Caspian seas, and as numerous rivers rising in the Caucasus empty into the former, the mountain range had to be drawn nearer the Caspian Sea in order that there might be sufficient space for the range and the representation of the Iron Gate near Derbent. The Ptolemaic Imaus, which divides Scythia into Hither and Further Scythiaa€”Scithia citra ymaum montem and Scithia ultra ymaum montesa€”is very prominently represented on our map.
Herein in particular does the value of the Genoese map appear in a comparison with the larger map by Fra Mauro (#249), although the latter is richer in details. Even today in northeast Asia, there may be found a people among whom suicide is common, the result of a belief that should one depart this life before the feebleness of old age comes on, a life of happiness in the hereafter is secured.
Idrisi also represents the people Gog as dwarfs, and our cosmographer identifies them as the pygmies of Pliny, who placed them in the mountains of the north of India, exactly as does the Genoese cosmographer, in a beautiful valley protected from the cold winds, where they are molested only by the attacks of the cranes. On the west coast only the name Altoluogo appears, which name one finds on almost all sea charts. The city Calacia, lying in the interior, seems more difficult to distinguish, which city is referred to by Conti, but is not definitely located. Caila is Contia€™s Cahila on the Gulf of Manaar, Marco Poloa€™s Cail, and Ptolemya€™s Colchi. It appears from this that Albertus Magnus was one of the Genoese cartographera€™s authorities. Historically, anthropologically, evolutionarily, we didn’t need to evolve a control on the fructose metabolic pathway.
A few years ago, the lead article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition proposed the introduction of unbound liquid fructose into the food supply as -the- cause of the epidemic of obesity and diabetes that began to manifest around 1980 and continues to expand today.A Free liquid fructose appears to be benign or even beneficial because there is no spike of glucose, or even of insulin after ingesting it. Crone, is that the letter definitely refers to a chart for navigation, while the 1457 map is primarily a world map drawn by a cosmographer.
By the end of the century, the circular form was becoming impractical, and once the Americas were added to world maps, it was gone almost completely.
The demon-like monster in particular is evidence of the cartographera€™s research in recent travel literature to find sea monsters for his map.
If this is so, this is the first time that the much sought after spice islands appear clearly on a map. Mention may be made of the peacock which he brought from Alexandria for Cosimo de Medici; also of a chameleon, and, more important than all, of a big serpent with 100 teeth which he seems to have brought to Florence from Beirut (possibly a reference to the crocodile). This city is distinguished by a strong tower and the legend: This is Derbent, which in their language [means] a gate of iron. It branches in diagonal directions westward of the sources of the Indus, that is, nearly twenty degrees farther westward from the continental axis than it is represented by Ptolemy. In the representation of the Indus, for example, with its five branches, our author follows Ptolemy.
The river Ava, as well as the southern parallel tributary of the Ganges, and the two Chinese rivers, the one flowing to the southeast and the other to the northeast, come from a mountain which is further explained by the legend: In this mountain carbuncles are found.
Two legends are here inscribed, the one relating to the medieval geographical myth concerning the ten lost tribes of Israel, and the other to Antichrist. This identification of Gog with the pygmies of classical antiquity is peculiar to this map. There may have been a Persian maritime city by this name on the coast of Oman, since by reason of favorable winds and gulf currents the two coasts of the Persian Gulf stood in such close relations that again and again in their history Persian rule controlled the Arabic coast, and Arabic rule the Persian coast. For centuries, even into the 16th, Caila was the central point of commerce between China, Further India, and the archipelago of the east and the trade centers of the Mediterranean.
Though the geography of India as here laid down presents difficulties, there are difficulties which are equally great along the east coast.
The other legend for which Professor Fischer failed to get an intelligible reading asserts that: Beyond this equinoctial line Ptolemy records an unknown land, but Pomponius, and in addition many others, raising a doubt whether a voyage is possible from this place to India [the Indians], say that many have passed through these parts from India to the Spains, and . With some degree of certainty we may identify the Wadi Draa, represented as flowing through many lakes and emptying south of Cape Bojador. On the Mediterranean, from east to west, we find Larissa, Alexandria, Senara (in the Medicean atlas, Zunara, and Vesconte also gives Zunara). If the natural pathway for glycolysis is like water rushing down a white water canyon, with a dam at the bottom to prevent flooding, the natural fructose pathway is like a small stream that enters -below- the dam with no control on it. There is instead a spike of fat in the form of triglycerides, but no one notices that (only fasting TG are even measured in routine lab tests). Further, the Toscanelli chart presumably depicted the ocean intervening between the west coast of Europe and the a€?beginning of the Easta€™. Conti describes them as lying on the extreme edge of the known world: beyond them navigation was difficult or impossible owing to contrary winds.
The Iron Gate, usually associated with Alexander the Great and the apocalyptic people, Gog and Magog, has an important place on the world maps of the middle ages.
In the region at the foot of the mountain between the Indus and the Ganges we find the Indian desert represented. Judging from the rivers that spring there from, and from this legend, we are led to conclude that the mountain-land is eastern Tibet. The one to the east of Inaccessible mountains, designated here as Ymaus mons, reads: From this race, that is, from the tribe of Dan, Antichrist is to be born, who, opening these mountains by magic art, will come to overthrow the worshipers of Christ.
The towers referred to above are explained in the following legend: King Prester John built these towers in order that those shut therein might not have access to him.
In the account of his voyage Vasco da Gama gives information concerning the city and kingdom of Cael.
Whether the rivers emptying still further southward represent the numerous rivers which empty south of Senegal and Cape Verde, it is not possible to determine.
On the portolan charts there is always represented a large bay in the southeast corner of the Great Syrtus, which must have been an important harbor. And as the liver adapts to habitual use of sugar or fructose, -then- insulin resistance is increased and insulin and glucose rise to higher levels than before and the individual becomes pre- or full blown diabetic.
On the map of 1457, this ocean is split into two, and falls on the eastern and western margins. In the southern sea there is a note: In this sea, they navigate by the southern pole (star), the northern having disappeared. Doubtless it was the medieval wall stretching from the mountains to the sea near Derbent, closing the road along the Caspian Sea to the peoples of the steppes on the north, that called forth the legend of the Iron Door. In contrast, the Ganges is represented according to recent information, that is apparently from the record of Conti.
The representations of our cosmographer are here very erroneous, and the errors may perhaps be attributed to Conti and Poggio, since one is led to conclude by a careful study of the Conti narrative that it is not simply the story of a practical merchant traveler, but a story often adorned by the additions of a learned copyist. The other reads: Here dwell the ten lost tribes of the Hebrew race with the half tribe of Benjamin, who, unrestrained by their law and being degenerates, pass an epicurean existence. These towers stretch along the crest of the mountains, as if intended to protect the more highly civilized parts of China from the wild people of north and central Asia. Farther southward, Antioceta, a fortification on the coast often referred to in the 15th century; also corocho, the ancient Corycus, northeast of the mouth of the Selefke. The tree whose leaves, it is stated, are used for paper is not the paper-mulberry tree, but the fan-palm.
It owes its origin as a harbor to a high, rocky headland, perhaps formerly an island, which extends from the southwest to the northeast and continues in a long chain of rocks. Though Crino raised many points of interest, he did not establish his case beyond reasonable doubt. The Carbuncle Mountains and the art of obtaining these valuable stones play an important role in the records of all cosmographers of the middle ages. It seems probable that we have here an early reference to the Great Wall of China, which appears on no other medieval map. This is Straboa€™s Cape Korykos with the Koryken Cave, where in Greek, in Roman, in Byzantine, and also in Armenian times stood a fortification. Calacia, or Calacatia, according to Batuta, is Kalahat, Kalhat, Kilat or Kilhat, in Oman southeast of Muskat, where its ruins may yet be seen near a small fishing village of the same name. The fanlike leaves, about two hundred square feet in size, the Singhalese are said to use in the place of paper. Biasutti argued that the horizontal and vertical lines on the map are parallels and meridians taken from the world map of Ptolemy, and that the longitudinal extent of the old world approximately corresponds to his figure of 180 degrees. However, Conti did not himself visit these islands, though he gives their position as fifteen daysa€™ journey east of Java major and minor, to which their products were brought for transportation to the west. Two of these tributaries on the left seem to be the Brahmaputra and the Barak, though the larger one on the north may be intended as the Irawadi, since on this lies Ava, and above it is a legend taken from Conti: Rather the Ganges which otherwise is called the Dava. On the Catalan world map of 1375 appears a legend with an interesting pictorial representation. Abulfeda and Raschiduddin, his contemporary, refer to the great wall as the Wall of Gog and Magog.
Here we find Tarsso and Layazo, which in the middle ages was a harbor of Lesser Armenia, and an important terminal on the commercial route to India. The ancient Pusk olay manuscripts in the Buddhist monasteries were all written with an iron stylus on such paper, that is, on the leaves of the talipot palm, prepared by cooking and drying. It is difficult to see, therefore, if this map of 1457 was similar to that sent to Portugal, where its importance lay, for this information was accessible to all inquirers. Cloves at that time came only from the small islands of the Moluccas lying west of Halmahera, which perhaps the Genoese author has attempted here to represent. The word is Persian, signifying gate or narrow pass, and is a name often met with in Persia. Though our cosmographer makes certain mistakes in relation to the chief stream of India, yet his representation of the hydrography of Asia is near the truth, and, as stated, is much better than that given by Fra Mauro. A mountain is indicated with a deep valley out of which a bird flies, having a piece of meat in its beak, and out of the same valley a river flows which in its course forms the boundary between India and China.
As the builder of this wall, our cosmographer in his legend names Prester John who appeared on the Catalan map of 1375 in the Nubian and the Abyssinian regions, and from that time on the name seems to have been connected with the last-named region, though, as the Genoese map shows, it did not completely disappear from central Asia.
Kalhat, from the time of Idrisi to the arrival of the Portuguese, was the most important harbor and port of departure from Oman and the entire Persian Gulf to India, as was earlier Sohar and later Muskat. The interest of the cartographer seems more probably to have lain in Contia€™s description of the oriental spice islands and the possibility of reaching them by circumnavigating Africa.
The name Sanday is unknown, and Bandan is only a corruption, and should not be confounded with Banda, as cloves do not come from that island.
As the Indus and its delta received special consideration, so also did the Ganges, the mouth of which is marked by the following legend: The mouth of the Ganges River, the width of which is fifteen miles, on whose banks grow canes so large that they exceed [the size of] the arm, and the islands grow nuts which we call Indian.
There is support for the belief that in the letter of Alexander III, the ruler of Abyssinia is to be understood, although the great majority of the allusions to him seem to support the idea that the original Prester John was a central Asiatic ruler. It appears that at the time the Genoese map was drawn the shipping from the Persian Gulf and from Ormuz followed the coast from Oman almost to Ras-el-Hadd, and from that point with the monsoons direct to India. His work is clearly related, though not closely, to the great map of Far Mauro, his contemporary. The wall stretching landward along the mountain ridge is yet, in part, well preserved, and one can follow its ruins for a distance of many miles. According to popular tradition, it extends along the entire ridge of the Caucasus, and so it appears on this map extending from the second iron door, or pass, across Asia.
From Maharatia, Conti states that he made a thirteen daysa€™ journey eastward to the Carbuncle Mountains, that is, to the border mountains of Burma, which the Genoese mapmaker attempts to represent.
The first European who actually visited the Moluccas was the Italian Varthena, about seventy years after Contia€™s expedition to the East. A legend on the map of the Pizigani makes it clear that the wall from Derbent was originally constructed to protect the Persian territory from the people of the steppe region. The islands were considered as lying on the boundary of the habitable and known world, and as marking the limit of navigation.



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