Climate change is recognised as a serious and cross cutting issue and the UK is the first country in the world to have introduced legally binding climate change legislation under the 2008 Climate Change Act.
According to Safeguarding our Soils, a Strategy for England (Defra 2009) soil plays a vital role in the fight against climate change.
Green infrastructure provides areas where natural processes, such as evapotranspiration and runoff interception, can continue to occur. The functionality of open green spaces becomes increasingly important when viewed against the backdrop of a changing climate.
A different climate will have implications for the costs of, and approaches to, maintaining spaces such as increased watering during droughts, greater pressure on spaces as they are used more intensively and an effect on the health of some species of vegetation. Even as climate change tests the strategies of designers and planners, it provides them with opportunities. Courtyards, especially when coupled with vegetation and water features, help to moderate the microclimates of surrounding environments.
Reducing the need for mechanical cooling in buildings has been a focus for UK planning guidance for some time and there is a growing interest in using design techniques to alter the temperature balance of cities. In fact, policies should be used to encourage the optimal composition of urban green space through green space strategies.
Figures produced by PriceWaterhouseCoopers show how a shift in spending from grey to green of just 0.5% could increase investment in urban green space by 141%.
Green infrastructure supplies a route to climate change adaptation that can be applied across a range of urban settings, helping to reduce urban temperatures and carbon emissions.
Vietnam always prioritizes climate change adaptation, a confirmation of Vietnam Deputy Prime Minister, Foreign Minister Pham Binh Minh on behalf of Vietnamese Government in his speech upon attending the UN Climate Change Summit at the initiative of UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, took place on September 23, 2014 in New York (USA). Deputy Prime Minister, Foreign Minister Pham Binh Minh delivers speech at UN Climate Summit 2014.
Country leaders informed the situation, policies and actions of their countries to contribute to keeping global temperature not exceeding 2 degrees Celsius, increasing resilience, coping with climate change. Deputy Prime Minister Pham Binh Minh affirmed that as one of the countries being most severely affected by climate change and sea level rise, Vietnam always prioritizes climate change adaptation by promoting active steps. Expressed concern about the increasingly complex and unpredictable developments of climate change, Deputy Prime Minister Pham Binh Minh urged countries to have strong commitment and put more efforts in negotiations in order to achieve a legally new binding global framework on climate change in 2015 to the world can achieve the goal of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere and global average temperatures not rising above 2 degrees Celsius.
Deputy Prime Minister stressed that the new global agreement needs to cover all areas from adaptation to mitigating emissions, showing principle of common responsibility but having differentiation as prescribed by the UNFCCC, ensure clarity and transparency of countries’ contribution and have evaluation mechanisms, inspection and supervision. Developed countries should also strengthen implementation of commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, provide finance and modern technologies for developing countries to deal with climate change issues.
At the same day, Deputy Prime Minister Pham Binh Minh had a bilateral meeting with the Foreign Ministers of Paraguay, Ukraine and Colombia. Deputy Prime Minister proposed Paraguay to facilitate of Vietnam shipbuilder enterprises, especially Vinashin to join the project of building barges and ships in this country.
During the meeting with Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine, Deputy Prime Minister Pham Binh Minh highlighted the deep concern of the Party and State of Vietnam to the lives of 10,000 people of Vietnamese community who are living and working in Ukraine.

Talking with Colombian Foreign Minister, Deputy Prime Minister Pham Binh Minh suggested Colombian government to further facilitate Vietnamese businesses of oil and gas, telecommunications, including Viettel, to expand operations in this country based on successful experience of projects implemented in Latin America countries, such as Haiti, Peru. Deputy Prime Minister also suggested that the three countries to support Vietnam running for election to the vital organs of UN such as the Economic and Social Council 2016-2018 term and the UN Security Council for the period 2020-2021.
Foreign ministers of countries appreciated international position and role of Vietnam, affirmed their desire to promote multifaceted cooperation and early conclusion of the cooperation Agreement on economics, trade, investment, science, technique with Vietnam. Science and knowledge are critically important to enable society to understand and respond to threats posed by climate change.
UNEP has a legacy of facilitating credible impact assessments based on the drivers-pressures-state-impact-responses (DPSIR) framework used for the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) series.
Open spaces and previously developed  land (PDL) can and will make a valuable contribution to helping both to reduce concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (the cause of climate change), and to help adapt effectively to the impacts of change (building resilience to a changing climate).
Trees and vegetation have a natural cooling effect as they provide shade, potentially reducing surface temperature, by 5°C, to 20°C. However, ecosystem services provided by green infrastructure are often overlooked and undervalued.
The UKCIP09 climate change scenarios suggest increases in the average summer temperature of between 1°C and 5°C by the 2080s and an increase of 30% in average winter rainfall. Urban green spaces require an effective program of maintenance and limitations on water use, which can often stem from extended dry periods, and can affect the health of vegetated surfaces.
Central courtyards or semi-open shaded spaces provide “cool pools” for cross ventilation of nearby spaces. The rising recognition of the importance of green infrastructure has implications for policies that encourage infill development, higher housing densities and the reduction or loss of gardens. It may even be feasible to consider influencing the public through education, social pressure and incentives to improve the likelihood that people will change their behaviour to improve conditions.
Using these figures, CABE has urged government to set up a national green infrastructure taskforce and for local government to be equipped with the skills necessary to design and manage green infrastructure. Clear guidance is needed for local authorities and other practitioners on how to manage public urban green spaces to respond to a warmer future.
However, it is important to ensure that local conditions are properly considered and planned for.
Attending the meeting there were nearly 120 Presidents, Prime Ministers and many senior leaders of the countries. He asked the Ukraine Government to create conditions to ensure safety, stability for Vietnamese, especially in the conflict areas as Donetsk and Lugansk. Decision makers need sound information on vulnerabilities to climate change grounded in the best science available. It has developed different vulnerability and impact assessment (VIA) methodologies suitable for different purposes, including climate change VIA assessment at the national and municipal levels. In addition, evapotranspiration from vegetation consumes a significant proportion of the available heat energy in the atmosphere.

These scenarios do not take the urban surface into account and the factor of increase is likely to be significantly higher in densely urbanised areas.
The need to manage high temperatures and reduce the effects of floods and droughts justifies the creation and maintenance of green infrastructure.
The temperature of air drawn into courtyards is cooled by each courtyards mass, vegetation and a lack of insolation.
However, there are limiting factors that cannot be altered, such as soil type, and designers need to find innovative ways of incorporating adaptations into new buildings. CABE argues that a shift is needed in public spending from grey projects, like road building and heavy engineering projects, to green schemes like street trees, parks, green roofs and waterways. There is a need to adopt innovative design and engineering approaches to reduce urban temperatures and adapt to the future climate. Equally important is sound information on the potential social and economic impacts of climate change, particular on more vulnerable groups like the extreme poor.
This energy is used to convert water in the leaves into water vapour, which is then transpired through the trees.
Although sub-optimal, dead vegetation’s climate moderating effects remain an improvement on traditional roofing mediums. This leads to further positive spin-offs, as urban green spaces play a significant role in improving air quality and preserving biodiversity.
This natural ventilation reduces the need for mechanical cooling and thereby the carbon footprint of a building.
Future proofing adaptation techniques need to take account of emerging technologies, the embedded carbon of solutions and the constraints imposed by future requirements. They aim to support development of effective and costed adaptation options, and to create more clarity on the choices available to decision makers based on sound science and knowledge.
For some locations, it has been estimated that evapotranspiration can reduce peak summer temperatures by 5°C. But a combination of living roofs, large trees and soft landscaping can absorb heavy rainfall, store and recycle it for summer irrigation. As such, green infrastructure represents the state of the art and the high level of adaptability required to cool our cities for decades to come.
The scientific and assessment activities lay the foundation for UNEP’s policy support and capacity building work.

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