Science and knowledge are critically important to enable society to understand and respond to threats posed by climate change. UNEP has a legacy of facilitating credible impact assessments based on the drivers-pressures-state-impact-responses (DPSIR) framework used for the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) series. Adaptation research is an applied activity, generally aimed at solving specific problems and supporting innovation and change in government, industry and the community.
Sardana Boyakova is Head of Arctic Studies Sector at the Institute of the Humanities and Problems of Minority Peoples of the North of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Yakutsk).
Nikita Vrosky is Project Coordinator at the Interregional Non-governmental Organization a€?Center for Support to Indigenous Minority Peoples of the Northa€?.
Tatyana Isaeva is Candidate of Sciences (PhD) in Culturology, Vice-Director for Research of the Surgut Museum of Local History.
Igor Krupnik is Curator of Arctic and Northern Collections at the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institute (Washington, USA). Olga Murashko is Researcher at the Research Institute and Anthropology Museum named after D.N.
Andrew Wiget is Professor Emeritus at New Mexico State University, where he was Director of The New Mexico Heritage Center, and worked for 20 years with American Indian tribes. Anatoly Savvinov is Senior Researcher at the Institute of the Humanities and the Problems of Minority Peoples of the North of the Siberian Brach of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Yakutsk). Olga Starodubova is Senior Researcher at the Department of Archaeology, Ethnography and Natural Sciences Research of the Surgut Museum of Local History. Vyacheslav Shadrin is Researcher of the Section of Arctic Studies of the Institute of the Humanities and the Problems of Minority Peoples of the North of the Siberian Brach of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Yakutsk). Victoria Sharakhmatova is Assistant professor of the Chairs of Economics and Management of the Far Eastern Branch of the All-Russia Academy of External Trade of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation and the Kamchatka State Technical University (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky). The Association of World Reindeer Herders, Commission for UNESCO of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Department of Indigenous Minority Peoples of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Assembly of the Representatives of the Native Minority Peoples of the North, KhMAO-Yugra Duma, Media Center of the Yugan Khanty Native Community Association "Yaoun-Yakh".
When I think about water conflict, though, I ask myself if we know more now than we did about the relative vulnerability to water risk.
It is plausible that climate change is causing internal and cross-boundary migration that is affecting security around the world. So what  specifically do you analyze and consider to determine if a war or significant conflict is caused by climate change?   One approach involves looking at countries that are less vulnerable, or that have become less vulnerable over time, than their neighbors or peers and measure the degree of conflict in them.  In Africa, according to ND-GAIN, countries like Tanzania and Zambia have become less vulnerable over time. A rapidly growing body of research examines whether human conflict can be affected by climatic changes. This website is the digital version of the 2014 National Climate Assessment, produced in collaboration with the U.S.
The National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. A team of more than 300 experts guided by a 60-member Federal Advisory Committee produced the report, which was extensively reviewed by the public and experts, including federal agencies and a panel of the National Academy of Sciences.
Adaptation refers to action to prepare for and adjust to new conditions, thereby reducing harm or taking advantage of new opportunities. Climate change affects human health, natural ecosystems, built environments, and existing social, institutional, and legal arrangements. Adaptation actions can be implemented reactively, after changes in climate occur, or proactively, to prepare for projected changes.4 Proactively preparing can reduce the harm from certain climate change impacts, such as increasingly intense extreme events, shifting zones for agricultural crops, and rising sea levels, while also facilitating a more rapid and efficient response to changes as they happen. Adapt, Adaptation: Adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment that exploits beneficial opportunities or moderates negative effects.
Adaptive Capacity: The potential of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, take advantage of opportunities, and cope with the consequences. Mitigation: Technological change and substitutions that reduce resource inputs and emissions per unit of output. Multiple Stressors: Stress that originates from different sources that affect natural, managed, and socioeconomic systems and can cause impacts that are compounded and sometimes unexpected. Resilience: A capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from significant multi-hazard threats with minimum damage to social well-being, the economy, and the environment. Risk: A combination of the magnitude of the potential consequence(s) of climate change impact(s) and the likelihood that the consequence(s) will occur. Vulnerability: The degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Substantial adaptation planning is occurring in the public and private sectors and at all levels of government; however, few measures have been implemented and those that have appear to be incremental changes.
Process for Developing Key Messages: A central component of the process were bi-weekly technical discussions held from October 2011 to June 2012 via teleconference that focused on collaborative review and summary of all technical inputs relevant to adaptation (130+) as well as additional published literature, the iterative development of key messages, and the final drafting of the chapter.
The key message and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in the peer-reviewed literature as well as the more than 130 technical inputs received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input.
Barriers to implementation of adaptation include limited funding, policy and legal impediments, and difficulty in anticipating climate-related changes at local scales. The key message and supporting text summarize extensive evidence documented in the peer reviewed literature as well as the more than 130 technical inputs received and reviewed as part of the Federal Register Notice solicitation for public input. There is no "one-size fits all” adaptation, but there are similarities in approaches across regions and sectors.
Literature submitted for this assessment, as well as additional literature reviewed by the author team, fully supports the concept that adaptations will ultimately need to be selected for their local applicability based on impacts, timing, political structure, finances, and other criteria.4,9 Similarities do exist in the types of adaptation being implemented, although nuanced differences do make most adaptation uniquely appropriate for the specific implementer.
Climate change adaptation actions often fulfill other societal goals, such as sustainable development, disaster risk reduction, or improvements in quality of life, and can therefore be incorporated into existing decision-making processes. Vulnerability to climate change is exacerbated by other stresses such as pollution, habitat fragmentation, and poverty. Climate change is only one of a multitude of stresses affecting social, environmental, and economic systems. The effectiveness of climate change adaptation has seldom been evaluated, because actions have only recently been initiated and comprehensive evaluation metrics do not yet exist.
Numerous peer-reviewed publications indicate that no comprehensive adaptation evaluation metrics exist, meaning that no substantial body of literature or guidance materials exist on how to thoroughly evaluate the success of adaptation activities.4,19,20,21 This is an emerging area of research. The 2012 Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans for Federal agencies contain specific sections on adaptation.
Through their first climate change cooperative agreements in 2010, CDC awarded $5.25 million to ten state and local health departments to assess risks and develop programs to address climate change related challenges.

USDA is using existing networks such as the Cooperative Extension Service, the Natural Resource Conservation Districts, and the Forest Service's Climate Change Resource Center to provide climate services to rural and agricultural stakeholders. The National Roadmap was developed in 2010 to identify short- and long-term actions to reduce climate change risks to the nation's forests and grasslands. Through the Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISAs) program, develop collaboration between researchers and managers to better manage climate risks. The USACE Civil Works Program initial climate change adaptation plan in 2011 has a goal to reduce vulnerabilities and improve resilience of water resources infrastructure impacted by climate change.
The Navy Arctic Roadmap (November 2009) promotes maritime security and naval readiness in a changing Arctic.
Develops community-based, high-resolution (temporal and spatial) models for climate projections and integrated assessment models that increasingly reflect multi-sectoral processes and interactions, multiple stressors, coupled impacts, and adaptation potential. FEMA released a Climate Change Adaptation Policy Statement establishing the Agency’s approach to supporting the Department in ensuring resilience to disasters in the face of climate change. Established a framework to help ensure the sustainability of fish, wildlife, plants, and habitats in the face of climate change.
DOI operates a National Climate Change and Wildlife Center and eight regional CSCs, which provide scientific information and tools that land, water, wildlife, and cultural resource managers and other stakeholders can apply to anticipate, monitor, and adapt to climate change. NPS actions span climate change science, adaptation, mitigation, and communication across national parks, including exhibits for park visitors, providing climate trend information for all national parks, risk screening and adaptation for coastal park units, and implementing scenario planning tools. Phase 1 of the 2008 study assessed transportation infrastructure vulnerability to climate change impacts across the Gulf. These selected EPA initiatives provide resources and tools to build the capacity of coastal managers, water utilities, and tribal environmental professionals to plan for and implement adaptation strategies. In addition to formal adaptation plans, numerous states have created sector-specific plans that consider long-term climate change (Figure 28.1). Climate change and associated sea level rise present serious challenges to coastal communities around the world. ASR helps governments, corporations, and other organizations effectively adapt to climate change challenges. Decision makers need sound information on vulnerabilities to climate change grounded in the best science available. It has developed different vulnerability and impact assessment (VIA) methodologies suitable for different purposes, including climate change VIA assessment at the national and municipal levels.
While we are not currently pursuing new research, our website remains as a valuable resource for those interested in accessing our suite of publications or learning more about climate change adaptation research in Victoria. Since the 1980-ies she has been organizing and participating in folklore-ethnographic expeditions in Karelia and Ob Region (over 30 field trips), as well as international interdisciplinary research projects in Western Siberia. She graduated from the Moscow State History and Archive Institute (1986), Doctor of History. He graduated from the Biology and Soil Department of the Moscow State University named after M.V. She graduated from the Institute of the Countries of Asia and Africa at the Moscow State University named after M.V. In 1970 he was awarded honours diploma by the Leningrad State Pedagogical University named after A.I. He is Researcher at the Section of Evenk Phylology of Institute of the Humanities and the Problems of Minority Peoples of the North of the Siberian Brach of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Yakutsk). He is Chair of the Council of Elders of the Yukagir People and Vice-President of the Association of the Indigenous Minority Peoples of the North of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). She graduated from the All-Russia Academy of External Trade and holds the degree of Candidate of Sciences (PhD) in Economics.
In Vietnam, actually, while investigating innovations in water infrastructure service delivery sparked by a community fight over access to water in Haiphong. Yet that question of water and conflict continues to erupt and spill over from small-town skirmishes to all-out wars.  Noted journalist Tom Friedman has written about it in an April 2012 column, The Other Arab Spring, and a May 7, 2013, column, Postcard from Yemen. It turns out that we do know a lot more.  For instance, examining countries on a short fuse in water-stressed regions of the world through the ND-GAIN index, it’s apparent that the Sahel and the Horn of Africa both show significant water vulnerability. At the recent New York Climate Week, Brigadier General Steven Cheney, CEO of the American Security Project, noted that 70 percent of global militaries consider climate change a threat to security.  He identified regions such as S.
Drawing from archaeology, criminology, economics, geography, history, political science, and psychology, we assemble and analyze the 60 most rigorous quantitative studies and document, for the first time, a striking convergence of results. Adaptation planning is occurring in the public and private sectors and at all levels of government but few measures have been implemented. Uncertainties about future socioeconomic conditions as well as future climate changes can make it difficult to arrive at adaptation decisions now. Adaptation considerations include local, state, regional, national, and international issues. This chapter highlights efforts at the federal, regional, state, tribal, and local levels, as well as initiatives in the corporate and non-governmental sectors to build adaptive capacity and resilience in response to climate change. Although several social, economic, and technological actions would reduce emissions, with respect to climate change, mitigation means implementing actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed and stored by natural and man-made carbon sinks (see Ch.
An example would be when economic or market stress combines with drought to negatively impact farmers. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity. Moreover, additional citations are used in the text of the chapter to substantiate this key message.
Sharing best practices, learning by doing, and iterative and collaborative processes including stakeholder involvement, can help support progress. Adaptation to multiple stresses requires assessment of the composite threats as well as tradeoffs amongst costs, benefits, and risks of available options. A challenge of creating adaptation evaluation metrics is the growing interest in mainstreaming; this means that separating out adaptation activities from other activities could prove difficult. Actions include coordinated efforts at the White House, regional and cross-sector efforts, agency-specific adaptation plans, as well as support for local-level adaptation planning and action. Agencies are required to evaluate climate risks and vulnerabilities to manage both short- and long-term effects on missions and operations. The Guidebook builds on this previous work and provides science-based strategic and tactical approaches to adaptation.

Through the Regional Climate Centers (RCCs) and the Digital Coast partnership, deliver science to support decision-making. The Roadmap identifies four goals that serve as the foundation for guiding the Department’s response to climate change that include using a robust decision making approach based on the best available science. The Climate Change Roadmap (May 2010) examines broader issues of climate change impacts on Navy missions and capabilities globally. Energy Sector Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and Extreme Weather" examines current and potential future impacts of climate trends and identifies activities underway and potential opportunities to enhance energy system climate preparedness and resilience. FEMA’s action areas focus on developing actionable "future risk" tools, enabling state and local adaptation, and building resilience capabilities.
Created a network of 22 LCCs to promote shared conservation goals, approaches, and resource management planning and implementation across the United States. State governments can create policies and programs that encourage or discourage adaptation at other governance scales (such as counties or regions)44,45 through regulation and by serving as laboratories for innovation.46,47 Although many of these actions are not specifically designed to address climate change, they often include climate adaptation components. We work collaboratively to understand local impacts of climate change scenarios and apply advanced technology to develop innovative solutions that work in concert with the natural world. Equally important is sound information on the potential social and economic impacts of climate change, particular on more vulnerable groups like the extreme poor. The scope of her professional interests cover folklore, mythology, oral history and traditional nature use of Ugric peoples inhabiting the Ob Region, and regional studies. Lomonosov (1972) and holds Candidate of Sciences (PhD) degree in Biology The field of his professional interest is general and specialized issues related to the development of the Russian North.
She has been studying the problems of social and economic development of the indigenous peoples of the North since 1996. That escalated into a major conflict that left two water workers dead before the People’s Committee came to its senses and considered a new way to approach fair water access. And I’m hearing rumblings from my Notre Dame colleagues who suggest a rear-view mirror look at Darfur reveals that the conflict that forced people off their land was less about sectarian strife and more about lack of access to water. Indicating that are such barometers as the projected change in precipitation and percent of population with access to improved water supply.
Asia Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, Mali and the Middle East as “tinder boxes” for various  reasons that concern flooding and drought, which are triggering competition for resources.
We find strong causal evidence linking climatic events to human conflict across a range of spatial and temporal scales and across all major regions of the world. However, the pace and magnitude of projected change emphasize the need to be prepared for a wide range and intensity of climate impacts in the future.
For example, the implications of international arrangements need to be considered in the context of managing the Great Lakes, the Columbia River, and the Colorado River to deal with drought.2,125 Both “bottom up” community planning and “top down” national strategies4 may help regions deal with impacts such as increases in electrical brownouts, heat stress, floods, and wildfires. While societal adaptation to climate variability is as old as civilization itself,229 the focus of this chapter is on preparing for unprecedented human-induced climate change through adaptation. Meeting discussions were followed by expert deliberation of draft key messages by the authors and targeted consultation with additional experts by the lead author of each key message. They aim to support development of effective and costed adaptation options, and to create more clarity on the choices available to decision makers based on sound science and knowledge.
She is member of the International Association of Arctic Social Studies and Folklore Fellows Communications Society. The areas of her professional interests include traditional cultures of .indigenous peoples of the North, biology of marine animals and birds.
The areas of professional interests include ethnic history of the peoples inhabiting the North-East of Asia, the history of settlement of the Arctic regions, ethnic ecology. He is Candidate of Sciences (PhD) in Sociology and Academician of the Academy of the Northern Forum. He initiated several expedition projects in Siberia (Chukotka, Taymyr, Evekiya, Tyva, Mountainous Altai). Their vulnerability could possibly be having an impact on other  susceptibilities, such as food and health and wellness.
The magnitude of climate’s influence is substantial: for each one standard deviation (1?) change in climate toward warmer temperatures or more extreme rainfall, median estimates indicate that the frequency of interpersonal violence rises 4% and the frequency of intergroup conflict rises 14%. Such a mix of approaches will require cross-boundary coordination at multiple levels as operational agencies integrate adaptation planning into their programs. A map of illustrative adaptation activities and four detailed case examples that highlight ongoing adaptation activity across the U.S. The scientific and assessment activities lay the foundation for UNEP’s policy support and capacity building work. Her translations were published by such publishers as Rossica: International Review of Russian Culture (2007). Since 1994 he had been Member of the Parliament of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and permanent representative of the State Assembly (Il Tumen) of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. The fields of his professional interests are cultural anthropology and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples of the North.
She has been involved in the ethnographical research of the peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East, field research in Yakutia.
The areas of his professional interests include ethnical history, traditional culture, culture and contemporary processes in Siberian ethnic communities. His professional interests include traditional ecological ethics of the indigenous peoples of Yakutia, environment protection, climate changes and adaptation of indigenous peoples of the North, and preservation of cultural heritage. Because locations throughout the inhabited world are expected to warm 2? to 4? by 2050, amplified rates of human conflict could represent a large and critical impact of anthropogenic climate change. Since March 2008 he has been Deputy Chair of the State Assembly (Il Tumen) of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Her professional interests include traditional knowledge, cultures and subsistence systems of the indigenous peoples of the North in the past and in present time. Other publications include the stories Reindeer of My Childhood and Uimkans Head to the North, novels The Bank of Fortune, Golden Reindeer, Reindeer People, etc.

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