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02.10.2013
The Tripartite Theory of knowledge A classical definition of knowledge An agent (A) can be said to know a proposition (P) if: P is true (the truth condition) A believes P (the belief condition) A has sufficient evidence for P (the evidence condition This definition of knowledge is called Justified true belief Having two of these conditions is not enough to count as knowledge. The Lucky Punter A gambler finds a four leaf clover so bets on a horse that day believing that his horse will win now that he has this lucky charm. Problems with the tripartite theory The Gettier Problem Smith has applied for a job, but has a justified belief that "Jones will get the job".
Attacking Sense Experience Objects in the distance Small objects Other arguments from illusion are possible But surely apart from these the senses are reliable? The Demon Hypothesis An argument against a priori knowledge The ultimate in scepticism A test which any candidate for certainty must pass Imagine a demon were fooling us in everything we see and think If this scenario were true, could anything still be certain? The Search for Certainty Restates his sceptical approach Like Archimedes he is looking for 1 fixed point Assumes he has no body Assumes everything revealed by the senses is a lie Assumes the Demon fools him at every turn Can anything be known if we assume all this?


The Cogito Cogito ergo sum I am, I exist (Meditations) I think therefore I am (Discourse) Defeats the Dreaming Argument you must exist to dream Defeats the Demon Hypothesis You must exist to be fooled A self-authenticating statement You affirm its truth each time you think it But surely we know external objects better than we know the mind? Rationalism and Empiricism A major dispute running through the entire history of philosophy has to do with the source(s) of human knowledge. The Wax Example Wax has one set of properties when cold But all its properties change when heated Yet we still think its the same wax.
They leave cookies out for him that are eaten the next morning and as promised the presents arrive every Christmas day. In this case p is true (3x7 is 21) and Billy has evidence for p (he has been to the classes) but he doesnt believe P.
In this case p is true (the horse did win) and the punter believed p (he sincerely thought the horse would win) but his evidence for this belief seems inadequate.


In this case the children believe P (they think Santa is real) and have evidence for believing P (teachers and parents confirm it) but P isnt true Is this knowledge? So his belief that "the man who will get the job has 10 coins in his pocket" was justified and true but isnt knowledge. Infinite regress argument Every justification in turn requires justification and arguably this demand for justification is never sated.



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