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18.02.2016
Die Software der Mindmaps von Edraw ist eine kostenlose Software fur Erstellung der Mindmaps und beinhaltet zahlreiche intelligente Symbole, Links und klassische Beispiele.Mit dieser Software konnen Sie die Design-Geschwindigkeit viel erhohen, sich besser auf das Denken konzentrieren und die Mindmaps, Brainstorming-Diagramme, Projektzeitleiste, inspiriertes Design und Projektanalyse leicht erstellen. Wir glauben, dass nicht nur Sie von der Bequemlichkeit der Software profitieren werden, die Menschen in der Nahe von Ihnen werden davon auch profitieren!
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Sie konnen unser Produkt fur Testverwendung kostenlos herunterladen, um Edraw besser zu verstehen. While we'll introduce and explore a few approaches to active learning together as the week continues, we wanted to provide a few initial assumptions up front to help introduce you to the topic as we understand it.
Countless examples from the history of education demonstrate both that people tend to support what they help create and that meaningful learning is strongly correlated with learners’ active involvement in learning processes. This online workshop session on active learning is intended to instigate meaningful learning and thoughtful reflection about your own participation in teaching and learning.
Earlier we wrote that active learning could be simply defined as doing things and thinking about what you're doing. Active learning, in our experience, is also closely allied with what many educators refer to as Student-Centered Instruction [SCI]. Learners engage in structured, exploratory activities that stretch their current levels of knowledge and ability. Learners construct knowledge together, working collaboratively, exchanging ideas, testing, extending, developing, and evaluating each others' ideas, and sharing instructional responsibilities. Learners devote significant amounts of physical, psychological, and intellectual energy to learning tasks and class projects. Learner effort is focused more on acquiring and developing skills and competencies than on receiving transmitted information or explanations. Learners are involved in higher-order thinking and making activities (analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating, creating, translating).
While we believe that all participants have a shared responsibility for producing an environment conducive to active learning, it's true that instructors still bear much of the responsibility for cultivating spaces where active learning is the norm and learners can flourish in the ways described above. In this activity, we'd like to use the class discussion forum as a way of getting to know other class participants a little better as well as sharing learning goals, ideas, and tips.
What's something you'd like to learn in the coming year (feel free to borrow ideas from others in the class!)?
The idea that meaningful learning requires active engagement is an ancient one, and while it is not especially revolutionary, our contemporary educational practices don't always reflect what we believe or know about active learning. The term "active learning" and the related idea of "student-centered" (rather than "teacher-centered") learning became prominent nodes of interest among educators during the late 1970s and early 1980s. To learn more about Dewey’s ideas, we recommend reading "My Pedagogic Creed" [1896], which succinctly presents many of his ideas about the purpose of education, or his book Democracy and Education [1916]. The Italian doctor and educator Maria Montessori [1870-1952] developed an educational philosophy in the early part of the 20th century that has had a massive impact on the way that chidren and young adults around the globe experience learning. If you'd like to read about Montessori's approach to pedagogy in her own words, we recommend her book The Montessori Method [1912]. In 1945, the British philosopher Gilbert Ryle [1900-1976] published an influential lecture in which he argued that philosophers had not paid enough attention to the common-sense difference between two kinds of knowledge: knowing that something is the case and knowing how to do things, a distinction which has come to be known as the difference between declarative and procedural knowledge (knowing that and knowing how, respectively). The Swiss psychologist and educational philosopher Jean Piaget [1896-1980] is best known for his study of children's cognitive development, and his interest in how learner's construct knowledge. Another developmental psychologist whose ideas have been particularly important to contemporary ideas about active learning was Lev Vygotsky [1896-1934]. Make a plan to communicate to this person how their influence on your learning has benefited you.
For example, when I [Steel] was doing this activity for myself, I chose my mother, and was surprised to hear her tell me about how she had started and run something called a "joy school" for me and several neighborhood children when I was very young.
We've tried to show on this page how many of the best ideas and practices of the contemporary higher education have their roots in the experiments and convictions of teachers from the past.
Active learning can take many forms, follow different models, and serve many different instructional goals. Collaborative active learning emphasizes structured group work, sharing, and project coordination in order to solve an academic task or to learn or develop a new skill. Problem - and inquiry-based learning activities have a flexible format but typically follow a pattern of diagnosis and evaluation of a challenge or problem.
Some teaching approaches that can work well with problem- and inquiry-based learning activities are: discovery or self-exploration activities or processes, technology-enhanced role simulations, case-centered instruction, and model scenario training. Games and simulation exercises immerse students in responsive active learning environments that frequently simulate a real-life experience. Some teaching approaches that work well with games and simulation activities are: problem-based learning (see above section for some additional details), technology-enhanced instruction, "third place" classroom teaching concepts (the idea that instruction can happen in a third space that is situated in or approximates the real world and is neither in the classroom or online). This model of active learning is a broader catchall term that refer to both changes in the physical environment in a learning space as well as adjustments of content and delivery to accomodate more active learning. Most any active learning teaching approach (or traditional teaching approach, for that matter) can work well in an active learning space. If you'd like to learn more about these active learning spaces, check out "Learning in libraries: New center marries instructional and study space," a recent news article about the WisCEL space in Wendt Commons.
If you'd like to read more about active learning and explore details of some of the models and approaches mentioned above, here are some additional resources that we'd recommend. A brief summary digest of Charles Bonwell and James Eison seminal 1991 book, Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom.


Key ideas from Joel Michael and Harold Modell's Active Learning in Secondary and College Science Classrooms: A Working Model for Helping the Learner To Learn. We can't recommend the outstanding National Resource Council publication How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School highly enough.
As we've seen in the previous section, there are a number of approaches to making learning more active. To get started, download the Guided Self-Assessment worksheet to record your information, or use your own system to write down your notes. Refer to the previous page for examples of how to align active learning with learning objectives.
Take note of where your changes fall on the spectrum of risk of implementation and impact on learning.
Demonstrate your ability to improve existing activies or assignments to increase their active learning potential for a small class environment. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. No Rights Reserved.To the extent possible under law, the owner of this work has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to it.
In its most elemental form, active learning means doing things and thinking about the things that you're doing (what psychologists call metacognition). In this session we'll provide some means-tested, effective ways to incorporate active learning into your lives, introduce you to some of the ongoing conversations around the topic in higher education, and invite you to take an active role in constructing useful knowledges on this topic. While that's true, another functional definition of active learning would be the intentional construction of skills, abilities, or knowledges through participation or contribution.
Student-Centered Instruction is an approach to instruction which prioritizes the abilities, needs, and interests of the student (learner), so that student needs determine course content, activities, materials, and pace of learning. In the next pages of this module, we'll explore some of the ways that instructors have helped facilitate active learning, but first, we want to invite all of you to think about and share some of your own succesful experiences as active learners in the activity below.
Based on your own prior experiences and the experiences described by fellow class participants, what are some learning methods that you will certainly pursue in accomplishing this goal? On this page, we'll take a look at some of the thinkers and ideas which have been most influential on our current ideas about active learning and effective student-centered instruction. As their era's leading buzzwords, they filled much the same role that blended learning and MOOCs are filling today.
In other words, learning involves the active construction of meaning by the learner, who combines new information with existing mental models in order to make sense of the world that they encounter. In his influential book Democracy and Education [1916], Dewey wrote that learning means something which the individual does when he studies.
In a series of influential books she published between 1909 and 1917, Montessori laid out what she called a "scientific pedagogy" that emphasized mixed-age classrooms, student autonomy, uninterrupted opportunities for creative exploration, and carefully designed learning environments. In Ryle’s lecture, he observes that I can't be said to have knowledge of [a] fact unless I can intelligently exploit it. For Piaget, knowledge was the ability to modify, transform, and operate on an object or idea in a way that grants the learner understanding through the process of use or transformation. While Vygotsky produced several works of great importance, his most influential idea is probably his conception of the Zone of Proximal Development [ZPD]. In many ways this page focused on declarative knowledge and employed a lot of the techniques and approaches associated with older, more passive forms of instruction that we disparaged as being part of the "banking" model in the opening paragraphs. Tell them, sincerely, how they made a difference in your life and thank them for what they've done. As a part of your exchange with this influential guide or teacher, ask them who or what influenced their teaching style, approach to learning, or educational philosophy.
Without my even knowing it, Richard and Linda Eyre, the founders of the joy school movement, had been indirect influences on my own early learning experiences, and I've made it a goal to learn more about this program, its founders, and its educational philosophy during the coming weeks.
We believe that this is true for almost any idea or practice, that nearly everything we believe, know, and do has a rich and interesting contextual history, a past worthy of exploring. Many of these approaches have areas of overlap with each other and draw on similar pedagogies that focus on student-centered instruction and course learning objectives. This group work can take the form of pair work, small groups of students, or all-class collaboration. The students would be asked to 1) define or identify the problem or challenge, 2) diagnose potential reasons for this problem, 2) brainstorm and evaluate alternative solutions or options, and 4) choose the most appropriate solution and justify the reason for their choice. Disciplines like physics, economics, nursing & medicine, and sociology often rely on problem-based learning strategies (as well as many other disciplines). These activities can help create learning situations that would not otherwise be available in the traditional classroom and allow safe, fun opportunities for learners to develop, practice, and improve coping skills for potentially stressful, unfamiliar, complex, or controversial situations.
In addition to technology-enchanced gaming, other examples of games and situated learning activities can run the gamut from in-class mini dramas or play acting to study abroad scenarios. Space and teaching format interventions can involve reorganizing and reconceptualizing the classroom space so that the environment better encourages independent student work, allows for a fluid and flexible use of class time and work, and fosters collaboration amongst students. We have a growing number of these active learning spaces at UW-Madison, including the Wisconsin Collaboratory for Enhanced Learning [WisCEL] spaces in College Library and Wendt Commons. Again, we'll be discussing aspects of these models and approaches in depth in Weeks 2-3 when we address specific active learning goals, pedagogies, and activies in small classrooms, active learning spaces, and large lecture courses. In this activity, you'll think though the implications of how a part of your course might work when using one or more of the four models of active learning. The search screen will show a response to your query that offers a brief definition, selected by Google’s algorithms, that it believes best defines your word or term.


Instructors provide structured opportunities for students to learn independently and from their peers, encouraging them to become fully involved in their own learning and coaching them as they develop any skills they need to do so effectively. Over the past few decades, an increasing number of teachers, educational researchers, cognitive psychologists, and instructional designers have shown sustained interest in developing, propagating, and evaluating models of teaching and learning that afford greater opportunities for participation, exploration, and collaboration to students and learners. Some even visualized education as the filling of smaller, mostly empty vessels [students] with content knowledge poured out from a large, overflowing vessel [instructor], an idea that's satirized deliciously in the Far Side cartoon below:. Over the subsequent years, her educational ideas gained traction across several continents, so that today that are an estimated 30,000 schoold currently using some version of Montessori education. He believed that learning was an activity, and that in emerged from experiences the learner had, both physically and logically, with objects around them. The zone of proximal development is the distance between what an individual learner is currently able to do independently and what they have shown an ability to do under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers. It could be a parent, a grade-school teacher, a college professor, a roommate, a fellow member of a bookclub, a river rafting guide, anyone whose teaching style made a difference for you, who initiated meaningful learning. There are many ways to do this: write a letter (anonymous or signed), send an email, make a phone call, visit face to face. Find out how they become the guide or teacher that they became, who or what influenced their growth and learning, and share your own experiences and insights where relevant.
As you investigate the roots and influences of the experiences and knowledges that are most meaningful in your own life, you'll find unexpected things that you'll want to learn more about. In this way, active learning module and lesson design planning relies heavily on the >backward design process (discussed at greater length in Week 2 of our Blended Learning Module, where instructors will identify and craft key learning objectives for their students and then work "backward" to design assessment opportunities and in- and out-of-class activities that respond to these learning objectives and help the students be successful in achieving them. Many of these approaches draw on the use of partnerships and targeted working groups in the classroom environment and leverage the community-building energies that these groups foster. Problem- and inquiry-based learning asks the students to assume responsibility and a higher level of engagement with their learning process (and the teaching process) while also encouraging critical assessment, inquiry, and skillful analysis of course materials and topic content. In addition to helping augment course materials, these types of activities can encourage personal initiative and often generate very high levels of motivation, engagement, and enthusiasm. This reorganization can range from rearranging class furniture and making other design modifications to establishing new teaching and learning "movements" which alter the classroom's 'traffic flow' to simply recognizing the different ways that people might naturally occupy a space when they're actively engaged in the learning process. These representations can be well or poorly formed but are continually accessed and updated by each individual learner, including the individual(s) responsible for filling the traditional role of the instructor. Dewey believed that people come to understand themselves and the world through their interactions with other people and things in the world, and that the purpose of education is to produce an environment in which useful interactions could be developed and sustained. In her book, Education for a New World [1946], Montessori provides a good summary of her basic ideas regarding the ideal student-teacher interaction by declaring that Education is a natural process spontaneously carried out by the human individual, and is acquired not by listening to words but by experiences upon the environment. There is a distinction between the museum-possession and the workshop-possession of knowledge.
Vygotsky believed that what children are able to do with the assistance of others is even more indicative of their present level of mental development than what they can do alone.
Do you have someone in mind, someone who helped or inspired you to become an active learner? You choose the means of communication, but the challenge is the same for everyone: to express gratitude to this guide or teacher. In our experience, this conversation can be just as rewarding as Step 2, and sometimes even more illuminating. When it comes to investigating the impact and influence of meaningful teachers, the potential for infinite regress is immense (it seems to be a case where it really is turtles all the way down!) We hope that you'll continue broadening and deepening your exploration and that you'll share the fruits of your inquiry by encouraging others to branch out, dig deeper, and connect more widely as they take responsibility for their own active, meaningful learning. This helpful Educause article on active learning design by 3 Virginia Tech educators briefly touches on a few of these key design elements and how some might be unique to the active learning environment. The effect can be increased student engagement, student accountability for their participation and group contributions, and enhanced class cooperation. These types of activities can often be very interactive and deeply rewarding for the students, since they frequently feel a sense of accomplishment while completing and sharing their findings.
In the sections below, we'll look at five thinkers whose ideas have provided many of the underpinnings of modern constructivist ideas of learning.
He emphasized the need for active learning when he claimed that there is no such thing as genuine knowledge and fruitful understanding except as the offspring of doing. The task of the teacher becomes that of preparing a series of motives of cultural activity, spread over a specially prepared environment, and then refraining from obtrusive interference. Ryle's ideas, developed at greater length in his subsequent work, especially The Concept of Mind [1949], have been of special importance for psychologists and educators interested in developing active learning processes which facilitate meaningful learning by increasing procedural rather than declarative knowledge. The zone of proximal development offers a way of thinking about what kinds of things an individual is best prepared to learn and master for themselves, and helps teachers and learners identify knowledges, skills, or abilities that are currently at the upper level of a learner's competence. In other words, the zone of proximal development focuses not on what I can already do, but what I am almost able to do. For most learners, their zone of proximal development is always changing, since the things that they can perform today with assistance they will soon be able to perform independently, growth which prepares them for further learning. Piaget's ideas have had an enormous influence on our contemporary understanding of childhood development and our ideals of teaching and learning. This idea has great relevance for models of active learning, since they often emphasize the value of collaborative exploration and peer teaching and focus on the the practical acquisition of procedural knowledge. To understand more about Piaget's thought, we'd recommend looking at The Moral Judgment of the Child [1932], one of his most significant books.



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