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31.07.2014
Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. And this when you should start putting it on paper, different ways you can achieve it, connections? Most people when they are setting goals or going to put up new goals starts from the wrong way, they start with how .
Before you even started your going to give up because you put up so much mental blockage in your head if you start with how.
Thats why people fail with goals as well, they give up first because the goal is to small, its not enough strong why to keep them pushing. I would say GO MASSIVE on goals and have smaller goals along the way, but the end goal should be the driving force in everything ! Your goals and why should be so strong so you it can pull you through anything that comes your way. Self-Defense: a€?Practice the fight so that you dona€™t have toa€? is a phrase that is often used to describe the self-defense benefits of Wu Shen Pai training. Athletic Enhancement: There is a reason why virtually every professional sports team in virtually every major sport supplements their training with martial arts. Health: Wu Shen Pai training is a proven link to better health for people of all ages, but especially children for several reasons.
Concentration: Very few activities engage the mind, body and spirit more than training in the traditional Martial Way of Wu Shen Pai.
Respect and Courtesy: Due to the fact that Wu Shen Pai teaches techniques that could be harmful to others if applied, the instructors at WSMAA are obliged to stress the importance of respect, courtesy, and restraint. Confidence: Wu Shen Pai training virtually always lends to increased confidence in children for a couple of specific reasons. Positive Role Modelsa€?a€“ Our Instructors are achievement orienteda€?a€“ Our Instructors seek to Improve childrena€™s skills to the best of their abilities. The need to belonga€?a€“ Training in Wu Shen Pai is a distinct individual activity.a€?a€“ This creates a feeling within your child of being unique and part of something out of the ordinary. Concentration and schoolworka€?a€“ Wu Shen Pai training helps children study through increased concentration and focus.a€?a€“ At WSMAA we monitor childrena€™s academic performance as well as their behaviors in academic settings. Goal orientationa€?a€“ Achievement in our program will be evaluated periodically.a€?a€“ Children will see the result of their efforts through regular training.
Call Warrior Spirit Martial Arts Academy today to schedule your evaluation program! Wu Shen Pai Chua€™an Fa Gung Fu is not only a great way to give kids a head start on life, its good clean fun, too!
The implementation of our program is accomplished by our most skilled and accomplished Instructors. The Renaissance quickly spread from Italy to northern Europe, primarily into England and the Netherlands.
16.15.1 What were the factors leading to a new awakening through a Renaissance in northern Europe? Inability of the Roman Church to explain the causes and cures of the Black Plague that swept through Europe 1348-1350. Schism in the Roman Church lessened the peoplea€™s confidence in the stability, authority, and therefore the traditions of the Roman Church. A new hunger for studying the Scriptures in Greek and Hebrew and going back to what was taught and believed by the early Christians. Explorations by the Dutch and English opened them up to new cultures and peoples, and the excitement of being able to successfully make those long-distance journeys and come back home to talk about them filled people with great expectations of what the human being can accomplish. In northern Europe, while it too gave importance to rediscovering the knowledge of the ancient Greeks and Romans and the reading of ancient manuscripts, the focus was on Plato rather than on Aristotle. The study of ancient manuscripts included a new emphasis upon discovering and translating ancient biblical manuscripts. The study of Greek and Latin was encouraged so that accurate reading and translating of the Scriptures could take place.
The geographic distance from Rome gave a wider freedom to the authors in the Northern Renaissance in their criticisms and critiques of the Roman popes and clergy. The kings and princes of northern Europe tended to promote a degree of independence from Rome.
In the north people were more interested in reforming the Church than they were studying the classical Greek and Roman manuscripts. The beginning of the Renaissance in England is usually considered to be 1485, the same year that the War of Roses ended and the resulting beginning of the Tudor dynasty. The tumult and chaos that was expressed politically and within the Church in the Italian Renaissance was expressed similarly in the religious and political conflicts during the Tudor dynasty. Erasmus was born in present-day Netherlands and after studying for the priesthood, his intense interest in studying Latin and Greek led him to Rome.
Disturbed by the nepotism, worldliness, and immorality that he observed in Rome he traveled and lived for periods of time in France, England, Switzerland, and Germany. The most noted work by Erasmus was In Praise of Folly, a Latin essay which was widely read and received high praise, acceptance which was actually surprising to Erasmus. The essaya€™s main character is Folly, a young woman who sets about to prove that she has been the major force who has shaped history. In Praise of Folly would have never created waves if Erasmus had not included priest, popes, and theologians as targets of his satire.
There were many in the Roman clergy who opposed the Renaissance and its attacks on Scholasticism.
In the third section of the essay, Folly really jumps in with both feet in her satire about the Roman clergy. Erasmus did call for, however, a reformation of the Roman Church at more than a decade before Luther arrived on the scene. Erasmus also produced a series of textbooks, Forms of Familiar Conversation (1514), used in many schools to teach rhetoric and virtue.
He sympathized with Martin Luthera€™s call for reformation and agreed with his basic arguments.
Erasmus viewed Luther as being too radical, and Luther thought Erasmus was big on words, but weak in actual action.
Erasmus was a leading Greek and Latin scholar in Europe who believed the scriptures should be in the language of the people.
He believed the education of both boys and girls, using methods similar to his series, Forms of Familiar Conversation, was a major way to bring reform to the Church as well as elevate society to a higher level. Just as Erasmus used the fictitious Folly to convey his criticisms of the Roman Church, so More used the stories of the fictitious traveler Raphael Hythloday, in Morea€™s fable, Utopia, to advance his criticisms of England and of the reign of Henry VIII.
The setting is a conversation in Antwerp, Belgium, where a friend introduces More to a traveller, Raphael Hythloday, who supposedly accompanied Amerigo Vespucci (for whom American is named) on his journey to the New World.
Underlying the story, however, is More speaking through Hythloday concerning his opinions about the England of his day and the conditions under the reign of Henry VIII. In Utopia, thieves are required to work for the government productively in order to pay off their crimes. More is considered to be a leading humanist in Renaissance England and a true Renaissance man. More counseled Henry against divorce, and when Henry proclaimed himself head of the English Church in the Act of Supremacy of 1534, More opposed Henry and refused to sign a loyalty oath proclaiming the King as the sole head over the English Church. More, as did his friend Erasmus, believed that girls should receive the same high quality education as boys.
Served as a member of Henrya€™s Privy Council (a small group of close advisors chosen by the king and who had great influence in most matters of government), and was selected as special ambassador between Henry and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (and nephew of Henrya€™s first wife, Catherine of Aragon). Began a large history of the life of Richard III of England, which, although never completed by More, was an prime example of Renaissance history and served as a basis for Shakespearea€™s play, Richard III.
Became Lord Chancellor in 1529, the highest position in government next to the king which also made him head of both the House of Lords as well as the head of the judicial court system of England.
Fought against the Protestant Reformation, banned all Protestant books from England, and used torture to root out Protestants in England. Refused to sign the loyalty oath affirming that the King of England only had authority over the English Church. Reluctantly Henry agreed to the imprisonment of More, whose wife and children begged him to relent and sign the oath.
In July 1535 was tried for treason by a panel of jurors who included his successor as Lord Chancellor, and the father, brother, and uncle of Anne Boleyn. Other noted English authors can be included in the list of Renaissance authors, in addition to More. Even though Shakespeare was born towards the end of the Renaissance, yet he was one of the first, and considered to be the pioneer, of bringing the central values of the Renaissance to the English theater. As England increasingly moved out of the feudal system with three locked in social classes -- lords, knights, and peasants -- society was being radically reshaped to include farmers, merchants, craftsmen, housewives, government officials, soldiers, nobles, and clergy.
Shakespeare was able to weave in and through his plays themes, characters, and events found in the classical Greek and Roman literature, thus remaining true to the Renaissance spirit. The deep emotions arise within Hamlet when he discovers that Claudius killed Hamleta€™s father in order to gain the throne. To get himself together, Hamlet leaves town and over time is able to calm his emotions and think more clearly. Shakespeare takes his audience through the whole range of emotions that fill Hamleta€™s mind and spirit. As with the Italian artists, Van Eyck lived on commissions paid by the wealthy merchants and government leaders. He was especially expert at including all kinds of details in his paintings that gave a window into his time period. If someone asked you what the differences were between the Renaissance in Italy and the Renaissance in Northern Europe, what would your response be? 16.15.1A  What were the factors leading to a new awakening through a Renaissance in northern Europe? Disturbed by the nepotism, worldliness, and immorality that he observed in Rome he traveled and lived for periods of time in France,A  England, Switzerland, and Germany. The most noted work by Erasmus was In Praise of Folly,A  a Latin essay which was widely read and received high praise, acceptance which was actually surprising to Erasmus.
1.If someone asked you what the differences were between the Renaissance in Italy and the Renaissance in Northern Europe, what would your response be? 2.Erasmus is considered to be one of the most important figures of the Northern Reniassance. DESCRIPTION: Henricus Martellus was the one mapmaker who linked the late medieval cartography, just emerging from social, religious, academic and technological constraints, to mapping that reflected the Renaissance and the new discoveries. No one at that time had any knowledge of the true position and outlines of East Asia, yet the representation of East Asia is identical on both the Martellus maps and the Behaim globe. Who had most to gain from such a reckless exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia and who was the first to do so? The Arctic coasts on the Martellus map and those of north and northwest Europe resemble those of the Fra Mauro planisphere of 1459 (#249) rather than those of the Ulm Ptolemy of 1482.
In the volume of Imago Mundi, found amongst the possessions of Christopher Columbus after his death, there are numerous notes or postils written in the margins or below the printed matter.
Note that in the year a€?88 in the month of December arrived in Lisbon Bartholomew Diaz, Captain of three caravels which the Most Serene King of Portugal had sent to try out the land in Guinea. Another peculiar feature of the Martellus map is the enormous peninsula commencing due south of Aureus Chersonesus [the Malay peninsula] at 28A° south, thereafter widening to reach China. It has become clear to some cartographic scholars that South America was represented as a huge peninsula of southeastern Asia on many world maps of the 16th century, from the Zorzi sketches of 1506 to the Livio Sanuto map of 1574.
It is not so well known that this very same peninsula existed already under the name of India Meridionalis on earlier maps, drawn before the arrival in the western hemisphere of Christopher Columbus. However, the Martellus maps show a very good representation of the South American hydrographic system, including all the great rivers in the sub-continent.
A deeper study of the same maps has made possible the identification of several capes on the Atlantic coast, the swamps of the Rio Negro in Brazil, and Lake Titicaca. There was thus no known pre-Columbian historical exploration of South America by the European nations. The earlier maps extant include the so-called mappaemundi drawn by medieval churchmen in Western Christendom.
In order to detect this peninsula on pre-Martellus maps, we needed an identifying criterion.
The following is a theory expressed by Paul Gallez regarding the depiction of South America prior to Columbusa€™ voyages.
In the southernmost part of South America (?), there are the words, next to a strait: Hic sunt gigantes pugnantes cum draconious [Here live some giants who fight against the dragons]. Traditionally, the so-called Legend of the Patagonian Giants is attributed to Antonio Pigafetta, the chronicler of Magellana€™s voyage. The east-west extent from the Canaries to the coast of China is about 235A°, which agrees with the Toscanelli-Columbus concept and with the 1489 Martellus map now in the British Library. The sheets of paper on which the Yale map is drawn are of different sizes, which excluded the possibility that they were printed map sheets, for they would then have had to be the same size to fit within the map portfolio.
Roberto Almagia (1940) stated that he had identified no less than three manuscript maps of the world signed by Martellus, all virtually identical with that in the codex in the British Library.
When Columbus left Lisbon in 1485 for Spain, Bartholomew, with his highly trained skills as a cartographer in the Genoese style, stayed on in the map workshop of King John II. These two world maps by Martellus represent, along with Martin Behaima€™s famous globe of 1492, the last view of the old pre-Columbian world as perceived by Western Europe before the great expansion of the world picture during the subsequent twenty years. The Yale example shows more of the Ocean Sea in the Far East than does the British Library manuscript.
Very little is known about Henricus Martellus Germanus, a mapmaker working in Florence from 1480 to 1496.
The Indian Ocean is open to the south, but Martellus retains its eastern coast, which Ptolemy had called Sinae, home of the fish-eating Ethiopians.
Martellus retains other Ptolemaic features, such as the appearance of the northern coast of the Indian Ocean with a flattened India and a huge Taprobana. Although Martellusa€™s world maps in the Ptolemy manuscripts show an extension of the inhabited world as 180A°, those in the Insularium make it 220A° or more, an attractive feature to those who dreamed of reaching Asia by sailing west. Most of the text still isna€™t legible, but some of the parts that are appear to be drawn from the travels of Marco Polo through east Asia.
The work of Henricus Martellus Germanus epitomizes the best of European cartography at the end of the 15th century. Wolff, Hans, a€?The Conception of the World on the Eve of the Discovery of America - Introduction,a€? in Wolff, Hans (ed.), America.
AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?I mappamondi di Enrico Martello e alcuni concetti geografici di Cristoforo Colombo,a€? La Bibliofolia, Firenze, XLII (1940), pp.
AlmagiA , Roberto, a€?On the cartographic work of Francesco Roselli,a€? Imago Mundi, VIII (1951), pp.
Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?La€™opera cartografica di Enrico Martello e la a€?prescopertoa€™ della€™America,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 83 (1976), Florence, pp.
Caraci, Ilaria L., a€?Il planisfero di Enrico Martello della Yale University Library e i fratelli Colombo,a€? Rivista Geografica Italiana 85 (1978), Florence, pp.
Crino, Sebastiano, a€?I Planisferi di Francesco Roselli,a€? LaBibliofilia, Firenze, XLI (1939), pp. Francesco Rosselli was one of the earliest known map stockists and map sellers; in addition he was an important map-maker whose cartographic output spans the decades of the great discoveries.
The mapa€™s most prominent feature is, like the Martellus model, the new outline of Africa, now quite separate from Asia, and reflecting the rounding of the Cape by Bartolomeu Diaz in 1487. First, by 1486 the mathe-matical junta had solved the problem of establishing latitude by measuring the height of the mid-day sun. Or they they achieved a basic goal or a easier goal and havnt planed any more or they dont have any bigger goal.
They want strong, healthy kids who will do well in life and be safe from the violence and negative peer pressure which is so prevalent in our society today.
It can be a catalyst to promote self-confidence, assertiveness, goal orientation, calmness, and concentration.


It refers to the fact that as a child becomes more confident in their ability to defend themselves through their training in Wu Shen Pai at Warrior Spirit Martial Arts Academy, the need to defend themselves automatically decreases because they unconsciously begin to carry themselves in a more confident manner and that confidence is projected to those around them, making them less vulnerable to predatory behavior.
First of all, there are no bench sitters, every child participates and isA evaluated not against others but more importantly, against their own potential. Jones and Sifu Jones, both professional Educators, with the aim of developing the long term physical skills which will lead your child to become a world class martial artists! 20121 Kings 8:28 -- But please listen to my prayer and my request, because I am your servant. Conditions generally were shaking people from the stupor of feudalism on the one hand and blind obedience to tradition on the other. Platonism seemed to be more consistent with biblical truth with its emphasis upon the Reality Above, rather than Aristotlea€™s emphasis on the material here and now. And political structures and churches generally were more independent from Rome that in Italy.
This was especially evident in the ongoing struggles for power between Rome and the Holy Roman Emperors in Germany. Its high point was during the reign of Queen Elizabeth who reigned from 1554 until her death in 1603. He collected and studied many ancient Greek manuscripts of the New Testament and translated from the Latin Vulgate back into Greek portions of the New Testament that did not in his lifetime have sufficient Greek manuscript support. The essay, written during a stay at the home of Thomas More in England, served as an impetus for the Protestant Reformation and was used as a text to teach rhetoric.
It is a parody or spoof in which the roles normally played among mankind by her opposite, Wisdom, are assigned to Folly. At this point in the essay the tone changes from good-hearted nonsense to a darker, angrier attack on the theologians of the Church.
He sympathized with Luthera€™s attacks on the Roman Church, but the two disagreed on how to go about dealing with the problem. Each town and nation seems to have its own patron saint, rather than a dependence upon Christ. In the early days of the United States a series of reading primers, The McDuffy Reader, was used to teach reading, but biblical themes were used so that all the while the student was learning to read, biblical concepts were being absorbed.
Yet the very fact that they were condemned caused a wide publication of them, true to the emerging Renaissance spirit. He was a close friend of Erasmus, and it was while staying in the home of More that Erasmus wrote In Praise of Folly. Utopia, therefore, was a major example of the Humanist ideal of the Renaissance for freedom of speech and thought.
Stranded by Vespucci when he returned to Europe, Raphael witnessed cultures and peoples with their religions and daily life, that greatly impressed him.
He mentions the great number of thieves in the land, of the frequent use of capital punishment for thievery rather than at attempt to reform them, the bloated number of civil servants and bureaucrats in government, the excessive high rents charged by landowners, the quickness with which all of Europe seems to be to go to war, and the common tactic under Henry VIII of crying wolf concerning pending war in order to collect taxes to fight a war that never developed. He was an author, philosopher, attorney, member of Parliament, and a Greek and Latin scholar. His first wife, who was ten years his junior, lacked education and More became her teacher. His example was probably a factor in Henrya€™s daughter, Elizabeth (later to become Queen Elizabeth), receiving such a high level education that she was fluent in virtually all the major languages of Europe and considered to be one of the leading women in the Renaissance in England.
As Petrarch was to the sonnet, and Boccaccio to the novel, so Shakespeare was to the Renaissance theater.
That is, the characters were a€?flata€? -- they played a role in explaining and acting out the plays major theme or making its major point. The multi-tiered society allowed Shakespeare to explore the human thoughts and personalities of every character in the play, no matter their position in a wide-ranging social system. First was his confusion, hurt, and anger when one month after the death of her husband, Hamleta€™s mother married her brother-in-law.
The ultimate conclusion he comes to is that he must kill Claudius to avenge his fathera€™s death. Just when it appears that he is able to avenge his fathera€™s death, he fails to carry it out. Patronage was made possible because of the expert banking system, the excellent merchant fleet, and the industry of the Netherlands.
It is said that he painted in such a way as to give the viewer both a telescope and a microscope. The essay, written during a stay at the home of Thomas More in England,A  served as an impetus for the Protestant Reformation and was used as a text to teach rhetoric. Other works include A Manual for the Christian KnightA  and Forms of Familiar Conversation.
He was an author, philosopher, attorney,A A  member of Parliament, and a Greek and Latin scholar. Little is known of this important German cartographer, probably from Nuremberg, who worked in Italy from 1480 to 1496 and produced a number of important manuscript maps.
No meridians, parallels or scales of longitude are given, but estimates based on measurements of the map indicate about 230A° from Lisbon to the coast of China, or 240A° from the Canaries. The actual latitude of the Cape of Good Hope is 34A° 22a€™ south based on land measurements by Diaz, who landed three times on the south coast. He reported to the same Most Serene King that he had sailed beyond Yan 600 leagues, namely 450 to the south and 250 to the north, up to a promontory which he called Cabo de Boa Esperanza [Cape of Good Hope] which we believe to be in Abyssinia. It indicates that he was high in the confidence of the King as an expert cartographer, otherwise he would not have been present at such a secret occasion.
It was done probably in Seville after he joined his brother, entering the postil in Imago Mundi and altering his prototype map at the same time.
It seems that the prototype originally showed the Cape at 35A° south, well clear of the frame at about 41A° south, as one would expect of a competent cartographer. It is a relic of the continuous coastline that linked Southeast Asia to South Africa in Ptolemaic world maps that displayed a land-locked Indian Ocean, and it needs a name to identify it in argument. This is the India that Columbus was looking for, because it was marked in the right place on his maps.
In the post-Columbian series, the isthmus of Panama is represented with its true width, because it had been heard of by Columbus and other explorers from the aborigines; in the pre-Columbian series, the union of the peninsula with Asia is much broader, because nobody had exact information about it.
The pre-Magellanic maps have South America extending only to some degrees South; on post-Magellanic maps the land extends to 53 degrees South.
On these pre-Columbian maps, the drainage net is much better drawn than on any other representation made before 1850.
So Gallez believes that the deep and sound European knowledge of South America before its exploration by Columbus and his Spanish and Portuguese challengers has been firmly established.
But the detail of its hydrographic features mapped by Martellus in 1489 is a fact, even if this fact remains historically unexplained. In this way we have identified the Dragona€™s Tail on three maps drawn between 1440 and 1470.
As cultured persons, both Pigafetta and Magellan would have seen such maps as Walspergera€™s or others of the same family, and they would surely have taken aboard some copies of them. Long in the possession of a family from Lucca, it went to Austria in the 19th century and was bought for Yale in 1961.
Vietor, then Map Curator of Yale University, reported a gift by an anonymous donor a€?in the form of a magnificent painted world map signed by Henricus Martellus, approximately six feet by four feet (180 x 120 cm). In a private communication of June 1972, Vietor stated that X-ray examination had revealed no evidence of printing on the paper sheets and that it was hand-drawn, lettered and colored.
It was not foretold on Folio 1 and is clearly an unexpected addition to the codex of picture-islands. He was engaged in building up a large map of the world based on Donus Nicolaus and on Portuguese charts. On his globe, South Africa, between 23A° and 28A° south, extends a horn of land for hundreds of miles due eastward into the Indian Ocean.
Among the thousands of islands Marco Polo reported off the coast of Asia, an enormous Sumatra and Java are found in the south, while to the northeast is the huge island of Cipangu [Japan]. The map is remarkable for its exciting new information, although being imperfect because of its acceptance of classical and medieval antecedents. On the world map in his Insularium at the British Library, he shows the results of Bartholomew Diasa€™ rounding of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, listing the names of the various ports and landmarks along the way. This was the edge of Ptolemya€™s map - he did not show the full extent of Asia, noting that a€?unknown landsa€? lay beyond.
In the north, Greenland is a long, skinny peninsula attached to Europe and north of Scandinavia, a concept derived from the Claudius Clavus map of 1427.
One of the Insularium manuscripts at the Laurentian Library in Florence seems to be a working copy, as it has many cross-outs and corrections on the maps and in the texts.
His intelligent effort to reconcile modern discoveries with traditional knowledge, especially Ptolemy, provides a workable model for the world map in a time of rapid change. He worked in Florence prior to 1480, then was away from Italy for about two years before returning to his home town where he was active until his death some time after 1513.
The cartography of such maps is very poor: for instance, on the maps of Hieronymo Girava 1556, Johann Honter 1561, Giacomo Gastaldi 1562 and Francesco Basso 1571, the Rio Amazonas has its source in Patagonia and flows from south to north. Warrior Spirit Martial Arts Academy has developed a special childrena€™s program which aids parents in building self esteem, self confidence, and self discipline. As a matter of fact, many experts agree that in this day and age of escalating childhood obesity, increased playground violence and deteriorating family structure, if you do nothing else for your child, you should make sure that they learn how to swim and they learn martial arts.
Therefore, a child who trains in Wu Shen Pai will find their deficiencies greatly enhanced. Second, the structure of Wu Shen Pai as a traditional Martial Way is built on the concept of setting children up for success by giving them a series of realistic, short term goals that they can attain quickly (colored sashes)A while keeping them focused on an exciting, long term goal (Black Sash). The reason for his frequent relocations seems to have been a desire to avoid direct involvement with the disputes going on between Luther and Rome and to keep himself from attacks by Rome. A master of rhetoric, Erasmus playfully weaves all the major tools of rhetoric into Follya€™s (the main character) a€?proofsa€? of her centrality to human thought and behavior. She claims that no human relationships, no governments, no yielding to authority or exercise of authority are possible without a good deal of folly being involved.
Folly makes fun of their long sermons that confuse most of their listeners, and who attempt to show how brilliant they are by using Latin and Greek phrases in their sermons, when their listeners havena€™t a clue what those phrases mean.
Knowing this, Folly goes to what they do claim as their central authority (although she previously accuses them of twisting the bible to make it say what they want and to excuse their behaviors), the Bible, to show that in the Bible folly is praised. Erasmus thought Luther was going too far in his attacks and threatened the very existence of the Roman Church. His A Manual for the Christian Knight (1501), or Enchiridion, was originally a letter written to an actual soldier whose behavior was of such concern to his wife that she requested Erasmus to send him a letter. Erasmus used the same technique so that the schoolboy in his day not only learned the skills of rhetoric and virtue in Familiar Conversation but also listened to Erasmusa€™ call for reform in the Church and used the bad examples of priests, nuns, and popes to get his point across. His translation of a Greek New Testament in 1514 was one of the first attempts to improve the New Testament contained in the Latin Vulgate. They revealed that there were other ways to do things and other ways to perceived things than the traditional forms in Europe. It deals honestly with the people, who in turn give themselves in total obedience and servitude to a benign, peace-loving, strong, absolute government where all is held in common for the common good.
Under duress he finally agreed to become a special counselor to Henry VIII, against his better judgement -- and his early reluctance to serve Henry proved to be well-founded. Members of the royalty, members of Parliament, widows, school boys, popes, monks, and merchants are all analyzed, at times criticized and made fun of, however, all shown to be important individual members of society. He wore black to express his grief, which, he confided to his mother, did not adequately express the blackness of his inner feelings of grief. He was expert with the use of oil paint and many attribute its discovery primarily to Van Eyck. He painted the big picture but included many small details that reveal the culture of his day. Many books have been written in an attempt to interpret all of the meaning contained in this one painting. He attacks the use of relics, use of the papacy to gain wealth, and false miracles foisted on the gullible peasants by monks to gain power over them.
Under duress he finally agreed to become a special counselor to Henry VIII,A  against his better judgement -- and his early reluctance to serve Henry proved to be well-founded.
Ptolemya€™s geographical writings, largely unknown to Western Europeans during the earlier Christian Middle Ages in Europe, became the basis for the Renaissance in geography. His entire hopes of gaining support from King John in 1485 for such an enterprise as sailing westward to Cathay rested on his argument that it lay only 130A° to 140A° to the west.
A manuscript copy of Polo and his travels was given by the Doge of Venice to Prince Pedro in 1427 and was thereafter in the Kinga€™s Treasury in Lisbon.
Measurements of altitudinal height of the sun by astrolabe or quadrant were accurate on land but could be 2A° or more out on the rolling deck of a ship. 23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well.
He says that in this place he found by the astrolabe that he was 45A° below the equator and that this place is 3,100 leagues distant from Lisbon [19,850 km].
It was to influence the Catholic Sovereigns who were in the dark owing to the intense secrecy by Portugal regarding discovery.
There is no record extant of anyone reporting that they had seen any land or island south of the equator, nor did anybody pretend to have explored the inner part of a trans-Atlantic continent and to have mapped its rivers.
We may thus believe that this knowledge already existed before Martellus, and we should look at older maps in search of the sources that he could have had at his disposal.
They thus knew that, following their maps, they would have to sail to the south along the coast of the Dragona€™s Tail until they reached the Land of Giants, and that at the end of that land, they would find a passage to the West, to the Sinus Magnus, and thus a way to the Moluccas. It shows a great deal more ocean to the east of Asia with several large islands in it, including Japan in the far northeast. Signora Carla Marzoli of Milan, in a private communication, stated that this large map a€?had left Italy into the possession of family centuries ago and had been lodged in a Swiss bank for safety, for a long time.a€™ In 1959, through trade channels, she learned that this map was for sale.
It uses the homeopathic (heart-shaped) projection, as far as can be judged, for it lacks meridians and parallels and scales. They all omitted Cipangu but he found a separate map of Cipangu in a codex which had the same outlines as those in the Behaim globe of 1492. It was, like all important maps at that time, drawn on sheets of parchment which could be joined together almost invisibly, and mounted on linen. In the Indian Ocean, the islands of Madagascar and Zanzibar, rather poorly drawn, add an intriguing aspect.
It was the most accurate delineation available to Martin Behaim when he constructed his globe exhibiting the pre-Columbian world.
On the Martellus map there is a long peninsula to the east of the Golden Chersonese (Indochina), featuring the mysterious port of Cattigara.
The Mediterranean and Black Seas and the Atlantic coasts are taken from sea charts, while the east coast of Africa, as yet unexplored, also follows Ptolemya€™s design.
Here the habitable world is extended to 265A°, with northern Asia coming right up against the right-hand border.
According to historian Chet Van Duzer who is participating in a new (2014) digital image scanning of the Yale Martellus, a€?In northern Asia, Martellus talks about this race of wild people who dona€™t have any wine or grain but live off the flesh of deer and ride deer-like horsesa€?.
The role of experience was clearly important to Martellus, for in his copy of the Laurentian Insularium he includes a verse about his own travels, noting that he has been traveling around for many years, and adding that it is worthwhile but difficult to set a white sail upon the stormy sea.
It is a cleanly-engraved copperplate, with finely-stippled sea and six characteristic loose-haired wind-heads grouped round the border of the map. A legend at the bottom referring to the date 1498 is clearly an error for 1489, and has been copied as such from the 1489 Martellus manuscript world map with obviously similar geographic content to that of Rosselli. These maps depicted graphically the theory that Cipangu [Japan] was but 3,500 miles (5,635 kilometers) westward, and only 1,500 miles (2,415 kilometers) further lay the shores of Cathay [China].
23 is in the handwriting of Bartholomew, and was identified as his by Bishop Bartolomeo de Las Casas, who knew him well.A  Arthur Davies has made a long study of the writing of the Columbus brothers and states, without a shadow of doubt that it is in the hand of Bartholomew. Also, because of the balance in the three pieces of the fitness puzzle, they are less likely to injure themselves while participating in other athletic endeavors. Each time they experience success, their confidence improves until they believe that with hard work and dedication, they can accomplish just about anything.


Folly attacks the monks who take what they hear in the confessional booth and use that information for their own advantage and control over people.
Christa€™s followers are called to be meek, humble, and ignorant in this life, rather than to be forceful, boastful, and filled with the wisdom of the world. The true Christian chooses faith rather than reason, humility rather than self-assertion or self-righteousness, and joy rather than the drudgery of the Church.
Luther, on the other hand, criticized Erasmus for being great with the pen, but at fault for being so timid that no actual change was sought.
There was less tension and conflict among the people pictured in Utopia and freedom of speech and religion. There is abundant fresh water in Utopia, the roads are free of garbage and human filth, the buildings are clean, and those who refuse to work are banished from society. But when things went sour between Pope Leo X and Henry over Henrya€™s desire to obtain a divorce from Catherine of Aragon, things also went sour also between Henry and Thomas More. Like the Renaissance artists who created a third dimension with the use of the vanishing point, so Shakespeare created characters who were a€?humana€? characters with a third dimension, with psychological complexity, backgrounds, and points of view. He was also hurt and astounded by how quickly a new king, Claudius, was enthroned, and the people forgot his father.
Other characters in the play carry out plots, but now Hamlet, until the very end of the play.
There was less tension and conflict among the people pictured in Utopia andA  freedom of speech and religion. Like the Renaissance artists who created a third dimension with the use of the vanishing point, so Shakespeare createdA  characters who were a€?humana€? characters with a third dimension, with psychological complexity, backgrounds, and points of view.
The Martellus delineation included some Ptolemaic dogma in its continental contours and projection but significantly modified and improved upon the ancient model with regards to its contents.
The coast of Cathay is approximately 130A° West of Lisbon on the Martellus map, on the Behaim globe and in the Columbus-Toscanelli concept.
Copious marginal notes, in the handwriting of Bartholomew and his older brother Christopher, are found in the Admirala€™s copy of the printed book of Marco Polo published at Louvain between 1485 and 1490. The coasts charted by Diaz have been fitted into the circular outline of the world of the Fra Mauro hemisphere, representing such a marked trend to the southeast that the Cape of Good Hope seems to be due south of the Persian Gulf, whereas it is due south of the Adriatic. Yet the Martellus map shows South Africa extending across the frame of the map to 45A° south. He has described this voyage and plotted it league by league on a marine chart in order to place it under the eyes of the Most Serene King himself. This dates the legend as 1489, probably in January of that year, just before Bartholomew went to Seville. Arthur Davies, in his discussion of this map refers to it as the Tiger-leg peninsula; in others it is referred to as Catigara.
The best preserved copy is in the British Library and there is also a poorer copy in the University of Leiden. Considering that in 1489 Martellus knew about the inner courses of many South American rivers, we have no reason to doubt that, forty years earlier, Andreas Walsperger (#245) knew of the Patagonians. The meeting with the Tewelche in Saint Julian was the full confirmation, for Magellan and Pigafetta, of what they already knew from their maps. The Laon globe (#259), made in France about 1493 (probably by Bartholomew Columbus when he served Anne, Regent of France) has the Tiger-leg to 40A° south. She examined it and saw its connection with the Martellus map in the British Library and with the conceptions of Columbus.
Fortunately, Martellus copied most of the nomenclature and legends on to the smaller map, now in the British Library, so the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus can recover them without difficulty. Next come three regional maps, striking because of the enormous nomenclature on the coasts. The three manuscript maps were larger in scale and showed more detail than the codex world map.
This large map, 180 cm by 120 cm, formed a standard Portuguese world map, continually added to by new discoveries, including those of CA?o and Diaz. Some historians claim that their presence indicates the map cannot be dated before 1498, when Vasco da Gama returned with news of his voyage to India.
Modern Africa is so long, however, that it breaks through the frame at the lower edge of the map. Unlike Ptolemya€™s Asia, Martellusa€™ version has an eastern coast with the island-bedecked ocean beyond and additional names taken from Marco Polo.
From this we can see that in the Insularia Martellus used modern information when he had it, incorporating it into a classical format. Martellusa€™s depiction of rivers and mountains in the interior of southern Africa, along with place names there, appear to be based on African sources. He suggests that the reader might prefer to stay safely at home, and learn about the world through his book.
Like its model, the projection is the barrel-shaped (homeoteric, or modified spherical) a€?second projectiona€™ of Ptolemy. Columbus thus had documentary support for his beliefs about oceanic distances from his readings of earlier cosmographers, Cardinal Da€™Ailly (#238) and Paolo Toscanelli (#252).
Its shape, outline and position are identical with the representation of Cipangu on the Behaim globe.
It was the official version used by the Roman Church until the 20th century.) His Greek New Testament served as a major Greek text for the translation committee that produced the Authorized King James Bible in 1611. Folly accuses them of taking vows of celibacy, for example, and lives of poverty, only to lead lives filled with selfishness, women, and wine. Therefore, Christ and the Apostles were closer to Folly than they were to the a€?wisea€? leaders in the Church. How many would then be willing to spend all their wealth and efforts to procure this position? And while all people are required to work, it is of a sort that allows for adequate free time and rest.
They came alive as real, genuine persons with faults, failures, strengths, weaknesses, and individual perspectives. Even then, it is not really the result of his ability to carry out his plan, but the plan of Claudius to kill Hamlet that backfires. Not again!a€? No one can predict if he will actually Claudius, and if he does, when it will occur in the play.
Kimble demonstrated that, as far as 13A° South, the nomenclature of West African coasts is 80% identical in the two maps but bears no relation to the nomenclature of any other map of the period.
The minor differences in location between these three must be seen against the enormous exaggeration of the extent of Eurasia which they exhibit in comparison with all previous estimates. The only other claim that the Cape was at 45 degrees south is in the hand of Bartholomew Columbus. It suited Columbus admirably and it is likely that Bartholomew made the change at his direction. It is shown to more than 25A° south in the Cantino map of 1502 (Book IV, #306), Canerio map of 1504 (Book IV, #307), the WaldseemA?ller maps of 1507, 1513 (Book IV, #310) and many others.
The map is surrounded by a dozen puffing classical wind heads, and for the first time in a non-Ptolemaic map, there is a latitude and longitude scale on the side. At her request, Roberto Almagia and Raleigh Skelton examined it and pronounced it authentic. The first is of Western Europe and Morocco, cut off in the east through the center of France; the second starts from this line and extends east as far as Naples and Tunis. The Martelli were a prominent merchant family in Florence, and Enrico Martello sounds Italian enough.
If the two Ptolemy atlases can be dated as the first and last of his works, it is interesting to see that he reverts to the pure Ptolemaic form for the world in the later edition, with the lengthened Mediterranean and the closed Indian Ocean.
Ita€™s likely that this information came from an African delegation that visited the Council of Florence in 1441 and interacted with European geographers. This provided him with the ammunition to further promote his plan to sail west to reach the Indies. The Martellus map in the British Library is less than 20 inches (50 cm) from west to east, and is on a scale one-quarter that of the Yale map.
They do not worry about the future, never lose sleep over unfinished work, and are not anxious about events in their lives. Perhaps even worse, they twist the scriptures to prove their point or to excuse their behavior, and by so doing they hide the true message of the Christian faith. In fact, Christ and the Apostles promoted and praised a€?follya€? rather than the a€?wisdoma€? being taught in the churches. South of that limit, however, the Martellus map gives the outlines and nomenclature of the voyage of Bartholomew Diaz in 1487-88, while the Behaim globe has invented nomenclature corresponding to nothing in Portuguese cartography. It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that he copied a map which was originally designed to support the ideas of Columbus.
Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal. Columbus hoped Spain would support a voyage westward to Cipangu, 85A° away, and to Cathay 130A° to the west. Of course, this is mostly symbolic, as neither Henricus Martellus nor anyone else had a complete set of accurate coordinates. The sheets of the a€?Yalea€™ Martellus, together with certain regional maps, were acquired by the patron.
The one piece of information he gives us about himself, that he had traveled extensively, suggests a career in business. Again, with the Tigerleg or the Dragona€™s Tail, there has been an controversial attempt to identify it as an early map of South America, turning Ptolemy's a€?Sinus Magnusa€? into the Pacific Ocean.
Clearly, Ptolemy maps were considered as illustrations for a revered and ancient text and did not have to include the latest news. Three other surviving maps contain some of this same information, but the Martellus map covers more territory than any of them, making it the most complete surviving representation of Africansa€™ geographic knowledge of their continent in the 15th century. The splendid manuscript of Martellus preserved in the National Library at Florence contains thirteen tabulA¦ modernA¦, but is probably later than the earliest printed editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography.A  However, Martellus revised the Ptolemaic world map based on Marco Poloa€™s information on Asia, and he incorporated the recent Portuguese voyages to Africa. Due south of the Malay peninsula, at 28A° South, there appears an enormous peninsula which widens and turns north to join China again with the largely circular concept of the Fra Mauro map.A  This peninsula does not exist in fact, and seems to be a repeat of the Donus Nicolaus map of the world in the Ulm Ptolemy, cut away by the circular outline of Fra Mauro. On the face of it, seeing it on the Martellus map, it asserts that Diaz had proceeded north along the cast coast of South Africa to beyond Natal.A  His furthest point, in fact, was the Rio de Infante [Great Fish River] on the south coast, at 34A° south.
Although the Columbus brothers knew that Marco Polo had returned from China by this sea route, they inserted this great obstruction of Tiger-leg by 1485. A fool is much more pleasant to have as a friend than a wise person, who is usually somber, uptight about life, and overly concerned about living life according to the rules. They pulled the audience into the drama so that they could feel and be involved with the actors. The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa Maria in the Congo, 1482-1484). Yet that map could not have been completed until early in 1489 for it had complete details of the discoveries of Bartholomew Diaz in his voyage of 1487-88, when he circumnavigated the Cape of Good Hope (capo da€™ esperanza) and reached the Indian Ocean. At that latitude one degree was thought to be 50 miles (80 km), according to the Toscanelli letter, so that Japan was only 4,250 miles (7,200 km) west.
No wonder that, having regard to his maps, he concluded that this river flowed from Paradise.
Martellus assembled the paper sheets, stuck them on a canvas backing, made his characteristic rectangular picture frame for it and colored the seas in dark blue. His surviving work includes two editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography, a large wall map now at Yale University, and five editions of the Insularium Illustratum of Cristoforo Buondelmonti.
The correspondence between the Behaim globe and the 1489 Martellus map consequently ended in 1485, when Diego CA?o had returned from his first voyage after reaching 13A° south (Cape Santa MariaA  in the Congo, 1482-1484).
It would show King John that even if the Portuguese reached India they could not reach the Spice Islands (which were on the equator east of Tiger-leg) without having to make long voyages into the southern stormy seas. To have included Cipangu would have required a scale reduced one-sixth, too small to permit of legible nomenclature. This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus. He returned from this voyage in December 1488 and, within a year, full details, including rich nomenclature, had appeared on the map of Martellus made in Italy; this despite the utmost secrecy on the part of King John of Portugal. The fact that the map had been put away in a Swiss bank for perhaps 60 years explains why it went unobserved. Martellus had been required by his patron to include in the codex a world map and regional maps which had just come into his possession in 1489. The historian Roberto Almagia has pronounced that Henricus Martellus was an excellent draftsman, who drew upon the latest information and improved the maps he adapted for his collections. This was the time when Martin Behaim, as a member of the King Johna€™s mathematical junta, was able to study the map and proposals of Columbus.A  On the 1489 Martellus map there is an inscription next to the Congo that mentions the commemorative stone (PadrA?o) that CA?o erected at Cape Negro during his second voyage (1485-87) when he reached as far as Cape Cross. For King John and for the Catholic Sovereigns it showed that Spain could easily reach Cathay and then the Spice Islands, secure from all interference from Arabs or Portuguese in the Indian Ocean.A  Columbus may have deceived himself regarding the existence of the Tiger-leg but, since it suited his plans so admirably, one suspects that he asserted its existence just as he later made the Cape of Good Hope to be at 45A° south.
The second major difference is that, while the coasts from Normandy to Sierra Leone, on the Yale map, are based on the world map of Donus Nicolaus of 1482, the corresponding coasts on the British Library Martellus uses a Portuguese map for them. These forfeitures would be replaced by vigils, fasts, sorrows, prayers, sermons, education, weariness, and a thousand other bothersome tasks of the sort.
The furthest point reached by Diaz, the Rio de Infante [the great Fish River], is duly recorded as ilha de fonti.
His great talent for such an exacting task was his skill as a draughtsman-cartographer experienced in altering the scale of maps of islands that he was copying. Someone with access to it and to the reports of Bartholomew Diaz, drew the prototype of the Martellus map.
According to the historian Arthur Davies, this is conclusive evidence that the prototype originally terminated at 35A°, with the legend correctly placed near it. Even today, the best source for information on the voyage of Diaz is the Martellus map of 1489. The extra ten degrees in shifting the Cape to 45A° south meant more than twenty degrees extra distance in a voyage to India. Two peculiar features in the region of South Africa suggest that Bartholomew Columbus was that someone.
When Bartholomew altered the prototype map to 45A° south, he was unable to remove the legend. The policy of secrecy of King John was shattered in one great leakage by someone in a unique position to know all the details.
Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world.
Moreover, and perhaps this was the decisive factor, it would take Portuguese ships to nearly 50A° south to round Africa, into what Diaz had already found to be the roughest seas encountered anywhere in the world.A  Bartholomew, in 1512, gave evidence in the Pleitos (the great lawsuit of the Columbus family versus the Crown of Spain) and declared that he had gone about with his brother in Spain helping to gain support for his enterprise. Under the present system what work need be done is handed over to Peter or Paul to do at their leisure, while pomp and pleasure are personally taken care of by the Popesa€? (In Praise of Folly, lines 157-158). Each island-picture is surrounded by a frame, drawn and painted in ivory to give the impression of a carved wood frame, suggesting a picture hanging on a wall. Such picture-islands occupy nearly all the folios, making an Atlas of Islands, and are then followed by a superb picture-map of Italy, taken from the 1482 world map of Donus Nicolaus. The islands in this codex were copies from the Ulm Ptolemy, from the Isolario of Bartolomeo de li Sonetti printed in Venice in 1485, and from other sources. This account of Gallo was copied, almost verbatim by Serenega in 1499 and by Giustiniani in 1516. Bartholomew left Genoa as a youth in 1479 and officially made only one further visit to Italy, in 1506.
Gallo could have acquired knowledge of the role of Bartholomew only from his own lips, in 1489.



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Comments to «How to gain true confidence in myself»

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