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During the '''Australian gold rushes''', significant numbers of workers (both from other areas within Australia and from overseas), relocated to areas in which gold had been discovered. After the California gold rush+ began in 1848, causing many people to leave Australia for California to look for gold there, the New South Wales government rethought its position, and sought approval from the Colonial Office in England to allow the exploitation of the mineral resources and also offered rewards for the finding of payable gold.
The first gold rush in Australia began in May 1851 after prospector Edward Hargraves+ claimed to have discovered payable gold near Orange+, at a site he called Ophir+. The Australian gold rushes changed the convict colonies into more progressive cities with the influx of free emigrants. In 1885, following a call by the Western Australian government for a reward for the first find of payable gold, a discovery was made at Halls Creek+, sparking a gold rush in that state. In August 1788, convict James Daley reported to several people that he had found gold, "an inexhaustible source of wealth", "some distance down the harbour (Port Jackson+, Sydney)". Some convicts who were employed cutting a road over the Blue Mountains+ were rumoured to have found small pieces of gold in 1815. The first officially recognised gold find in Australia was on 15 February 1823, by assistant surveyor James McBrien, at Fish River+, between Rydal+ and Bathurst, New South Wales+. In 1834 with government help, John Lhotsky+ travelled to the Monaro district+ of New South Wales and explored its southern mountains.
In 1837, gold and silver ore was found about 30 miles (48 km) from Segenhoe near Aberdeen+.
Pawel Edmund Strzelecki+ geologist and explorer, found small amounts of gold in silicate+ in 1839 at the Vale of Clwyd near Hartley+, a location on the road to Bathurst.
Gold is believed to have been found in Northern Tasmania at The Den (formerly known as Lefroy or Nine Mile Springs) near George Town+ in 1840 by a convict. The Reverend William Branwhite Clarke+ found gold on the Coxs River+, a location on the road to Bathurst, in 1841. Gold found in Pyrenees Ranges near Clunes+ and in the Plenty Ranges near Melbourne+ in 1841 and the gold was sent to Hobart+ where it was sold. Beginning in 1843 gold samples were brought several times into the watchmaker's shop of T.J. A shepherd named Smith thought that he had found gold near the Ovens River+ in 1844, and reported the matter to Charles La Trobe+, who advised him to say nothing about it.
It is said that John Gardner found gold-bearing quartz in 1847 on Blythe Creek, near Beaconsfield, on the other side of the Tamar River from George Town.
Gold found by a shepherd named McGregor at Mitchells Creek+ near Wellington+, New South Wales, in 1848 on the Montefiore's squatting run, "Nanima".
Gold was first detected in Western Australia in 1848 in specimens sent for assay to Adelaide+ from copper and lead deposits found in the bed of the Murchison River+, near Northampton+, by explorer James Perry Walcott, a member of A.C.
Various small finds were made up to 1882, when Alexander McRae+ found gold between Cossack+ and Roebourne+, with one nugget weighing upwards of 9 dwt+ (14g). This did not stop people finding gold, however, and in the year 1850, according to Brentani's wife Ann, the "gold came down from the country in all directions". The first substantiated find of gold in Tasmania reported to have been made by a Mr Riva of Launceston, who is stated to have traced gold in slate rocks in the vicinity of The Den (formerly known as Lefroy or Nine Mile Springs) near George Town in 1849. In March 1850 pastoralist William Campbell+ found several minute pieces of native gold in quartz on the station of Donald Cameron at Clunes.
Edward Hargraves, accompanied by John Lister, found five specks of alluvial gold at Summerhill near Bathurst in February 1851. In January 1851, before Hargraves' find of gold in February 1851 at Summerhill near Bathurst in New South Wales which started the first Australian gold rush, George Hermann Bruhn had left Melbourne to explore the mineral resources of the countryside of Victoria.
On 9 June 1851 a reward of ?200 was offered to the first person to discover payable gold within 200 miles (320 km) of Melbourne. On 1 July 1851 Victoria became a separate colony and, on the same day, James Esmond+ in company with Pugh, Burns and Kelly, found alluvial gold in payable quantities near Donald Cameron's station on Creswick's Creek, a tributary of the Loddon, at Clunes+, 34 km (22m) north of Ballarat. The particulars of the precise location, with Esmond's consent, was published in the ''Geelong Advertiser'' on 22 July 1851. On 20 July 1851 gold was found near present-day Castlemaine, Victoria+ (Mt Alexander Goldfields) at Specimen Gully in today's Castlemaine suburb of Barkers Creek+. On 8 August 1851 an auriferous deposit of gold was found 3 kilometres west of Buninyong, Victoria+, near Ballarat. On 21 August 1851 gold was found at Ballarat, Victoria+ in Poverty Point+ by John Dunlop and James Regan.
In the report of the Committee on the Claims to Original Discovery of the Goldfields of Victoria published in ''The Argus'' (Melbourne) newspaper of 28 March 1854, however, a different picture of the discovery of gold at Golden Point at Ballarat is presented. According to the Bendigo Historical Society, it has today, contrary to the findings of the Select Committee of 1890, become "generally agreed" or "acknowledged" that gold was found at Bendigo Creek by two married women from the Mount Alexander North Run (later renamed the Ravenswood Run), Margaret Kennedy and Julia Farrell. When Margaret Kennedy gave evidence before the Select Committee in September 1890 she claimed to alone have found gold near "The Rocks" in early September 1851.
Margaret Kennedy and Julia Farrell were, however, but one pair of the serious contenders for the first finders of gold on what became the Bendigo Goldfields. Who was employed as a shepherd by Mr Fenton, and claimed to be the first discoverer of gold. In September 1890 a Select Committee of the Victorian Legislative Assembly began sitting to decide who was the first to discover gold at Bendigo. The first persons digging for gold at the Bendigo Creek in 1851 were people associated with the Mount Alexander North (Ravenswood) Run.
They were soon joined by miners from the Forest Creek (Castlemaine) diggings including the journalist Henry Frencham (1816–1897). There is no doubt that Henry Frencham, under the pen-name of "Bendigo", was the first to publicly write anything about gold-mining at Bendigo Creek, with a report about a meeting of miners at Bendigo Creek on 8 and 9 December 1851, published respectively in the ''Daily News'', Melbourne, date unknown and 13 December 1851 editions of the ''Geelong Advertiser'' and ''The Argus'', Melbourne. In late November 1851 some of the miners at Castlemaine (Forest Creek), having heard of the new discovery of gold, began to move to Bendigo Creek joining those from the Mount Alexander North (Ravenswood) Run who were already prospecting there.
Henry Frencham may not have been the first person to find gold at Bendigo but he was the first person to announce to the authorities (28 November 1851) and then the world ("The Argus", 13 December 1851) the existence of the Bendigo gold-field. Woods Almanac, 1857, states that gold was possibly found at Fingal (near Mangana) in 1851 by the "Old Major" who steadily worked at a gully for two to three years guarding his secret.
Payable gold was found in May 1852 at Echunga in the Adelaide Hills in South Australia by William Chapman and his mates Thomas Hardiman and Henry Hampton. Gold was found in Queensland near Warwick+ as early as 1851, beginning small-scale alluvial gold mining in that state.
The first Queensland goldrush did not occur until late 1858, however, after the discovery of what was rumoured to be payable gold for a large number of men at Canoona near what was to become the town of Rockhampton+.
This first Queensland goldrush resulted in about 15,000 people flocking to this sparsely populated area in the last months of 1858. In late 1861 the Clermont+ goldfield was discovered in Central Queensland near Peak Downs, triggering what has (incorrectly) been described as one of Queensland's major gold rushes.
In 1862 gold was found at Calliope+ near Gladstone+, with the goldfield being officially proclaimed in the next year. In 1863 gold was also found at Canal Creek (Leyburn+) and some gold-mining began there at that time, but the short-lived goldrush there did not occur until 1871–72.
In 1865 Richard Daintree+ discovered 100 km (60 miles) south-west of Charters Towers+ the Cape River goldfield near Pentland+ in North Queensland. The Crocodile Creek (Bouldercombe Gorge+) field near Rockhampton was also discovered in 1865. Gold was also found at Morinish+ near Rockhampton in 1866 with miners working in the area by December 1866, and a "new rush" being described in the newspapers in February 1867 with the population being estimated on the field as 600. Queensland had plunged into an economic crisis after the separation of Queensland+ from New South Wales in 1859. More goldfields were discovered near Rockhampton in early 1867 being Ridgelands and Rosewood+. The most important discovery in 1867 was later in the year when James Nash+ discovered gold at Gympie+, with the rush under way by November 1867. The very rich and productive area, which covered only an area of 120 square miles (300 km2), was officially declared the Gympie Goldfield in 1868.
These ideas were taken from interviews with 15 of the nation's top motivational speakers and authors, including motivational speaker Brian Tracy, authors Les Brown and Dr.
A number of gold finds occurred in Australia prior to 1851, but only the gold found from 1851 onwards created gold rushes.
Hargraves had been to the Californian goldfields and had learned new gold prospecting+ techniques such as panning+ and cradling.
These hopefuls, termed diggers, brought new skills and professions, contributing to a burgeoning economy.
In August, the gold rush had spread to include the goldfield at Buninyong+ (today a suburb of Ballarat) 45 km (28 m) away and, by early September 1851, to the nearby goldfield at Ballarat+ (then also known as Yuille's Diggings), followed in early September to the goldfield at Castlemaine+ (then known as Forest Creek and the Mount Alexander Goldfield) and the goldfield at Bendigo+ (then known as Bendigo Creek) in November 1851. Lieutenant-Governor, Charles La Trobe+ visited the site and watched five men uncover 136 ounces of gold in one day. Australia's total population more than tripled from 430,000 in 1851 to 1.7 million in 1871. On the pretense of showing an officer the position of his gold find, Daley absconded into the bush for a day. Stein was a Russian naturalist with the 1819–1821 Bellinhausen+ expedition to explore the Southern Ocean+.
The find was described in the newspapers as the discovery of a gold and silver mine about 30 miles from Thomas Potter Macqueen's Segenhoe Estate, by a Russian stockman employed in the neighbourhood of the discovery, which was located on Crown land. The shepherd did not disclose where he had found the gold, just that if men were to take engagements with squatters+ may, in addition to receiving their wages, may also discover a gold mine.
From the earliest days of the Colony of South Australia men, including Johannes Menge+ the geologist with the South Australian Company+, had been seeking gold "armed with miner's pick, numberless explorers are to be found prying into the depths of the valleys or climbing the mountain tops.

About April 1847 a shepherd took a sample of ore about the size of an apple, that he believed to be copper, into the jewellery store of Charles Brentani in Collins Street, Melbourne, where the sample was purchased by an employee, Joseph Forrester, a gold and silver smith.
Smith, a mineralogist and manager of an iron works in New South Wales, had been inspired to look for gold near Bathurst by the ideas of Roderick Murchison+, president of the Royal Geographical Society, who in 1844 in his first presidential address, had predicted the existence of gold in Australia's Great Dividing Range, ideas which were published again in "The Sydney Morning Herald" on 28 September 1847 suggesting that gold "will be found on the western flanks of the dividing ranges". His report about his finds subsequently led to the discovery of payable gold and the first Western Australian Goldrush. In December 1848 Chapman came into the jewellery store of Charles Brentani, in Collins Street, Melbourne, with a stone that he had "held for several months".
She and her husband purchased as much as they could but had difficulty in supplying the money.
William Campbell is notable as having been the first member of the electoral district of Loddon of the Victorian Legislative Council+ from November 1851 to May 1854.
Then, in April 1851, John Lister and William Tom, trained by Edward Hargraves, found 120 grams of gold. On his trek Bruhn found, on a date unknown, indications of gold in quartz about 2 miles (3 km) from Edward Stone Parker's station at Franklinford (between Castlemaine and Daylesford). Henry Frencham, then a reporter for "The Times", and shortly afterwards for "The Argus", was determined to be one of the persons to claim this reward. This gold was shown at the precise spot where it had been found to Webb Richmond, on behalf of the Gold Discovery Committee, on 5 July, the full particulars of the locality were communicated to the Lieutenant-Governor on 8 July and a sample was brought to Melbourne and exhibited to the Gold Discovery Committee on 16 July. Esmond and his party found the gold after Esmond had been told by George Hermann Bruhn of the gold that had been found in March 1850 on Cameron's property at Clunes and that in the vicinity were quartz reefs which were likely to bear gold.
Publication of Esmond's find started the first official gold rush in Victoria in that same month. The gold was first found by Christopher Thomas Peters, a shepherd and hut-keeper on the Barker's Creek, in the service of William Barker. The gold was discovered in a gully in the Buninyong ranges, by a resident of Buninyong, Thomas Hiscock+.
They stated that Regan and Dunlop were one of two parties working at the same time on opposite sides of the ranges forming Golden Point, the other contenders for the first finders of gold at Ballarat being described as "Mr Brown and his party". A Select Committee of the Victorian Parliament inquiring into this matter in September and October 1890 examined many witnesses but was unable to decide between the various claimants. A monument to this effect was erected by the City Of Greater Bendigo in front of the Senior Citizens Centre at High Street, Golden Square on 28 September 2001. She claimed that she had taken her (9 year old) son, John Drane with her to search for gold near "The Rocks" after her husband had told her that he had seen gravel there that might bear gold, and that she was joined by her husband in the evenings. The date of September 1851, or soon after, and place, at or near "The Rocks" on Bendigo Creek, were also mentioned in relation to three other sets of serious contenders for the first finders of gold on what became the Bendigo goldfields, all associated with the Mount Alexander North Run (later renamed the Ravenswood Run). They stated that there were 12 claimants who had made submisions to being the first to find gold at Bendigo (this included Mrs Margaret Kennedy, but not Mrs Julia Farrell who was deceased), plus the journalist Henry Frencham who claimed to have discovered gold at Bendigo Creek in November 1851.
Alfred Shrapnell Bailes, Mayor of Bendigo 1883-84, and member of the Legislative Council of Victoria 1886-1894 and 1897-1907, stated that ''"upon the whole, from evidence which, read with the stations books, can be fairly easily pieced together, it would seem that Asquith, Graham, Johnson and Bannister, ''(the three shepherds residing at the hut on Bendigo Creek and their shepherd visitor Johnson)'' were the first to discover gold"''. The beginnings of this gold-mining was reported from the field by Henry Frencham, under the pen-name of "Bendigo", who stated that the new field at Bendigo Creek, which was at first treated as if it were an extension of the Mount Alexander or Forest Creek (Castlemaine) rush, was already about two weeks old on 8 December 1851. This gold find was probably at Mangana and that there is a gully there known as Major's Gully. After returning to his father's farm from the Victorian goldfields William Chapman had searched the area around Echunga for gold motivated by his mining experience and the ?1,000 reward being offered by the South Australian government for the first discoverer of payable gold. According to legend this gold was found at Canoona near Rockhampton by a man named Chappie (or Chapel) in July or August 1858.
This was, however, a small goldfield with only shallow gold deposits and with no where near enough gold to sustain the large number of prospectors. The small rush attracted around 800 people by 1864 and after that the population declined as by 1870 the gold deposits were worked out. The Cape River Goldfield which covered an area of over 300 square miles (750 km2) was not, however, proclaimed until 4 September 1867, and by the next year the best of the alluvial gold had petered out. In 1868 the mining shanty town which had quickly grown with tents, many small stores and liquor outlets, and was known as "Nashville", was also renamed Gympie after the Gympie Creek named from the aboriginal name for a local stinging tree.
This is mainly because, prior to 1851, the colonial government of New South Wales+ (Victoria+ did not become a separate colony until 1 July 1851, and Tasmania+ did not become a separate colony until 1856) had suppressed news of gold finds which it believed would reduce the workforce and destabilise the economy. The mateship that evolved between these diggers and their collective resistance to authority led to the emergence of a unique national identity.
In 1855, Victoria enacted the Chinese Immigration Act 1855, severely limiting the number of Chinese passengers permitted on an arriving vessel.
Stein claimed to have sighted gold-bearing ore while he was on a 12-day trip to the Blue Mountains in March 1820.
In 1843, Clarke spoke to many persons of the abundance of gold likely to be found in the colony of New South Wales. The shepherd refused to disclose to Forrester where he had obtained the nugget, but stated that "there was plenty more of it where it came from" on the station where he worked about 60 miles (96 km) from Melbourne.
Chapman said that he had found the gold where he worked on Charles Browning Hall (later Gold Commissioner) and Edmund McNeill's station at Daisy Hill (near Amherst) in the Pyrennes Ranges. Campbell was in 1854 to receive a ?1,000 reward from the Victorian Gold Discovery Committee as the original discoverer of gold at Clunes. This discovery, instigated by Hargraves, led directly to the beginning of the gold rush in New South Wales. After leaving Parker's station Bruhn arrived at Donald Cameron's station at Clunes in April 1851. On 11 June 1851 he formed one of a party of 8 to search for gold north and north-east of Melbourne. As a result the Gold Discovery Committee were of the opinion that this find was the first publisher of the location of the discovery of a goldfield in the Colony of Victoria. By 1 August between 300 and 400 diggers were encamped on the Clunes Goldfield, but soon moved to other fields as news of other gold discoveries spread. When the gold was shown in the men's quarters Peters was ridiculed for finding fool's gold, and the gold was thrown away. Hiscock communicated the find, with its precise locality, to the editor of the "Geelong Advertiser" on 10 August. John Dunlop and James Regan found their first few ounces of gold while panning in the Canadian Creek after leaving the Buninyong diggings to extend their search for gold. The committee stated that "where so many rich deposits were discovered almost simultaneously, within a radius of little more than half a mile, it is difficult to decide to whom is due the actual commencement of the Ballarat diggings." They also agreed that the prospectors "had been attracted there (Ballarat) by the discoveries in the neighbourhood of Messrs. They were, however, able to decide that the first gold on the Bendigo goldfields was found in 1851 at "The Rocks" area of Bendigo Creek at Golden Square+, which is near where today's Maple Street crosses the Bendigo Creek. This acknowledgement is not shared by contemporaneous historians such as Robert Coupe who wrote in his book "Australia's Gold Rushes", first published in 2000, that "there are several accounts of the first finds in the Bendigo area".
She also gave evidence that after finding gold she "engaged" Julia Farrell and went back with her to pan for more gold at the same spot, and it was while there that they were seen by a Mr Frencham, he said in November. His hut was situated on the site of the Happy Jack Hotel, Lockwood, the hotel being named after him, as he was affectionately known as "Happy Jack".
The first payable alluvial gold deposits were reported in Tasmania in 1852 by James Grant at Managa (then known as The Nook) and Tower Hill Creek which began the Tasmanian gold-rushes. Chapman, Hardiman and Hampton were later to receive ?500 of this reward as the required ?10,000 of gold had not been raised in two months.
The gold in the area, however, had first been found north of the Fitroy river on 17 November 1857 by Captain (later Sir) Maurice Charles O'Connell+, a grandson of William Bligh+ the former governor of New South Wales, who was Government Resident at Gladstone.
This goldrush was given the name of the 'duffer rush' as destitute prospectors ''"had, in the end, to be rescued by their colonial governments or given charitable treatment by shipping companies"'' to return home when they did not strike it rich and had used up all their capital.
Newspapers of the day, which also warned against a repeat of the Canoona experience of 1858, at the same time as describing lucrative gold-finds reveal that this was only a small goldrush.
Ridgelands with its few hundred miners was described as "the most populous gold-field in the colony" on 5 October 1867, but it was very soon overtaken and far surpassed by Gympie.
Successful men and women find out what it's going to cost to make their dream come true. Before the end of the year, the gold rush had spread to many other parts of the state where gold had been found, not just to the west, but also to the south and north of Sydney.
Although not all diggers found riches on the goldfields, many decided to stay and integrate into these communities. With gold sitting just under the surface, the shallowness allowed diggers to easily unearth gold nuggets. Between 1852 and 1860, 290,000 people migrated to Victoria from the British Isles, 15,000 came from other European countries, and 18,000 emigrated from the United States. To evade the new law, many Chinese were landed in the south-east of South Australia and travelled more than 400 km across country to the Victorian goldfields, along tracks which are still evident today.
Gold was found in January 1846 by Captain Thomas Terrell at the Victoria Mine near Castambul+, in the Adelaide Hills+, South Australia, about 10 miles (16 km) east of Adelaide+. Alexandre Duchene and Joseph Forrester, both working for Charles Brentani, confirmed the stone contained a total of 38 ounces of 90 per cent pure gold, and Brentani's wife Ann purchased the stone on behalf of her husband. At the time of the find in March 1850 Campbell was in the company of Donald Cameron, Cameron's superintendent, and a friend.
This was the first gold rush in Australia and was in full operation by May 1851, even before it was officially proclaimed on 14 May 1851, with already an estimated 300 diggers in place by 15 May 1851. Cameron showed Bruhn samples of the gold that had been found on his station at Clunes in March 1850. News of the discovery was published first in the ''Geelong Advertiser'' on 7 July and then in Melbourne on 8 July. Esmond was in 1854 to receive a ?1,000 reward as "the first actual producer of alluvial gold for the market".
However Henry Frenchman, a newspaper man who in June had claimed, unsuccessfully, the ?200 reward for finding payable gold within 200 miles (320 km) of Melbourne, had followed them and noticed their work. Esmonds (Clunes) and Hiscock (Buninyong)" and "by attracting great numbers of diggers to the neighbourhood" that "the discovery of Ballarat was but a natural consequence of the discovery of Buninyong".

Also, as stated by local Bendigo historian Rita Hull: "For decades many historians have made the bold statement that Margaret Kennedy and her friend Julia Farrrell were the first to find gold at Bendigo Creek, but on what grounds do they make this statement?". She confirmed that they had been panning for gold (also called washing) with a milk dish, and had been using a quart-pot and a stocking as storage vessels. On 13 December Henry Frencham's article in ''The Argus'' was published announcing to the world that gold was abundant in Bendigo.
The first registered gold strike was made by Charles Gould at Tullochgoram near Fingal and Managa and weighed 2 lb 6ozs. Initially worried that his find would be exaggerated O'Connell wrote to the Chief Commissioner of Crown Lands on 25 November 1857 to inform him that he had found ''"very promising prospects of gold"'' after having some pans of earth washed. The authorities had expected violence to break-out and had supplied contingents of mounted and foot police as well as war ships.
The Chinese miners at Cape River moved to Richard Daintree's newly discovered Oaks Goldfield on the Gilbert River in 1869. On 8 January 1867 the Queensland Government offered a ?3,000 reward for the discovery of more payable goldfields in the state. This was the first large goldrush after Canoona in 1858, and Gympie became 'The Town That Saved Queensland' from bankruptcy. In 7 months, 2.4 million pounds of gold was transported from Mount Alexander to nearby capital cities. Governor Arthur Phillip+ then ordered Daley to again be taken down the harbour to point out where he had found the gold. In that same year, Clark showed the sample and spoke of the probable abundance of gold to some members of the New South Wales Legislative Council+ including Justice Roger Therry+, the member for Camden+ and Joseph Phelps Robinson+, then member for the Town of Melbourne+. Some of the gold was made into a brooch sent to Queen Victoria and samples were displayed at the Great Exhibition+ at the Crystal Palace+ in 1851. A sample of this ore was given to Captain Clinch who took it to Hobart, Captain White who took it to England, and Charles La Trobe+. Before 14 May 1851 gold was already flowing from Bathurst to Sydney, an example being when Edward Austin brought to Sydney a nugget of gold worth ?35, which had been found in the Bathurst District. Michel and his party were in 1854 to receive a ?1,000 reward from the Victorian Gold Discovery Committee "as having, at considerable expense, succeeded in discovering and publishing an available goldfield".
John Worley, George Robinson and Robert Keen, also in the employ of Barker as shepherds and a bullock driver, immediately teamed with Peters in working the deposits by panning in Specimen Gully, which they did in relative privacy during the next month.
Hiscock was in 1854 to receive ?1,000 reward from the Victorian Gold Discovery Committee as the substantial discoverer of the gold deposits of "superior value" in the Ballarat area. Just days later, in mid-December 1851 the rush to Bendigo had begun, with a correspondent from Castlemaine for the ''Geelong Advertiser'' reported on 16 December 1851 that "hundreds are on the wing thither (to Bendigo Creek)". Further small finds were reported during the same year in the vicinity of Nine Mile Springs (Lefroy). Within seven weeks there were about 600 people, including women and children, camped in tents and wattle-and-daub huts in "Chapman's Gully". Chapel was a flamboyant and extrovert character who in 1858 at the height of the goldrush claimed to have first found the gold. The New South Wales government (Queensland was then part of New South Wales) sent up the "Iris" which remained in Keppel Bay during November to preserve the peace. The enterprising Chinese diggers who arrived in the area, however, were still able to make a success of their gold-mining endeavours.
The frustration and wasted time, energy and money will probably cause you to give up long before you get to the Rockies.
Before being taken down the harbour, however, on being warned by an officer that he would be put to death if he attempted to deceive him, Daley confessed that his story about finding gold was "a falsehood". In evidence that Clarke gave before a Select Committee of the NSW Legislative Council in September 1852, he stated that the subject was not followed up as "the matter was regarded as one of curiosity only, and considerations of the penal character of the colony kept the subject quiet, as much as the general ignorance of the value of such an indication." Towards the end of 1853, Clark was given a grant of ?1000 by the New South Wales government for his services in connection with the discovery of gold. As a consequence of the gold find by Chapman official printed notices were posted on a number of prominent places in the town (Melbourne) proclaiming the fact that gold had been found in Port Phillip (Victoria). Observing, however, the migration of the population of New South Wales and the panic created throughout the whole colony, and especially in Melbourne, and further motivated by a ?200 reward that had been offered the day previous to anyone who could find payable gold within 200 miles (320 km) of Melbourne, on 10 June 1851, Campbell addressed a letter to merchant James Graham (member of Victorian Legislative Council 1853–1854 and 1867–1886) stating that within a radius of 15 miles of Burn Bank, on another party's station, he had procured specimens of gold. At 5pm on 13 June 1851 Frencham deposited with the Town Clerk at Melbourne, William Kerr, specimens of gold. On 1 September 1851 the first gold licences in Victoria were issued to dig for gold in this locality, "which was previous to their issue on any other Goldfield".
When Barker sacked them and ran them off for trespass, Worley, on behalf of the party "to prevent them getting in trouble", mailed a letter to ''The Argus'' (Melbourne) dated 1 September 1851 announcing this new goldfield with the precise location of their workings.
Instead Chapel had been employed by O'Connell as but part of a prospecting party to follow up on O'Connell's initial gold find, a prospecting party which, according to contemporary local pastoralist Colin Archer, ''"after pottering about for some six months or more, did discover a gold-field near Canoona, yielding gold in paying quantities for a limited number of men"''.
The Victorian government sent up the "Victoria" with orders to the captain to bring back all Victorian diggers unable to pay their fares; they were to work out their passage money on return to Melbourne. The clock is ticking, there are no time-outs, and sooner or later your number is going to be called.
He had manufactured the specimen of gold ore that he had exhibited from a gold guinea+ and a brass buckle and he produced the remains of the same as proof. Unfortunately for the investors, and everyone else concerned, the mine's total gold production never amounted to more than 24 ounces. The Bertini's shop was thronged by persons wanting to see the nugget and asking where it had been found. Campbell divulged the precise spot where the gold had been found in a letter to Graham dated 5 July 1851. This then indirectly led to the first gold rush in Victoria from Esmond's subsequent discovery of payable gold at Clunes in July 1851. O'Connell was in Sydney in July 1858 when he reported to the Government the success of the measures he had initiated for the development of the goldfield which he had discovered. O'Connell had reported that ''"we have had some trying moments when it seemed as if the weight of a feather would have turned the balance between comparative order and scenes of great violence"'', and according to legend both O'Connel and Chapel were threatened with lynching. The goldfield covering an area of over 1600 square miles (4000 km2) was officially declared in August 1863.
Prior to this date, however, James Esmond and his party were already at work there mining for gold. Bruhn also forwarded specimens of gold to Melbourne which were received by the Gold Discovery Committee on 30 June 1851. For example, Mike Ferry, who was once a top salesperson selling audiotape programs, believed realtors needed help developing sales skills. It not only became a number-one bestseller but also hatched an entire series of Chicken Soup books that have sold more than 10 million copies! Many convicts, however, continued to believe that Daley had indeed found gold, and that he had only changed his story to keep the place of the gold find to himself. This could perhaps be categorised as the first, though unofficial, gold rush in Victoria, or perhaps the gold rush that was stamped out. This was because Cameron had earlier shown specimens of the gold to George Hermann Bruhn, a German doctor and geologist whose services as an analyst were in great demand.
Bruhn was in 1854 to receive a ?500 reward from the Victorian Gold Discovery Committee "in acknowledgment of his services in exploring the country for five or six months, and for diffusing the information of the discovery of gold".
Within a month there were about 8,000 diggers working the alluvial beds of the creeks near the present day town of Castlemaine, and particularly Forest Creek which runs through the suburb today known as Chewton+ where the first small township was established.
Three police constables were appointed to maintain order and to assist the Gold Commissioner. So he started The Mike Ferry Organization, a seminar and training company for the real estate industry. James Daley's fate was to hang in December that same year (1788) for breaking and entering and theft.
Charles La Trobe quickly put an end to the search for gold in February 1849 by ordering 10 mounted police (William Dana and Richard McLelland in charge of 8 native troopers) to 'take possession of the Gold-mine', 'prevent any unauthorised occupation of Crown Lands in the neighbourhood' (Hall and McNeill's station was leased from the Crown), dismiss the gold-seekers and prevent any further digging at Daisy Hill. Communication of this knowledge by Hermann to James Esmond was to result in the discovery by Esmond on 1 July 1851 of payable quantities of alluvial gold at Clunes which then resulted in the first Victorian gold rush. By August 1852 there were less than 100 gold diggers and the police presence was reduced to two troopers. And by the end of the 1970s, Your Erroneous Zones had become the number-one best-selling nonfiction book of the entire decade.
A township quickly developed beside the present main road from Bell Bay to Bridport, and dozens of miners pegged out claims there and at nearby Back Creek. Despite this, this goldfield could not compete with the richer fields in Victoria and by 1853 the South Australian goldfields were described as being 'pretty deserted'. There were further discoveries of gold in the Echunga area made in 1853, 1854, 1855, and 1858 causing minor rushes.
There was a major revival of the Echunga fields in 1868 when Thomas Plane and Henry Saunders found gold at Jupiter Creek. By September 1868 there were about 1,200 people living at the new diggings and tents and huts were scattered throughout the scrub. By the end of 1868 though, the alluvial deposits at Echunga were almost exhausted and the population dwindled to several hundred. During 1869 reef mining was introduced and some small mining companies were established but all had gone into liquidation by 1871. After the revival of the Echunga goldfields in 1868, prospectors searched the Adelaide Hills for new goldfields. Gold was found at many locations including Balhannah, Forest Range, Birdwood, Para Wirra, Mount Pleasant and Woodside.

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