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30.09.2013
SML taught NHTSA compliant Master Radar Laser Instructor course to law enforcement agencies in Las Cruces, NM in March 2010. SML To Serve Texas State University As Consultant-SML met with professorial faculty of Texas State University in March to participate in a longitudinal study on the effectiveness of a state-wide ban on hand held cell phone use in school zones. As Texas has made the use of cell phones in school zones a primary offense, officers can make a traffic stop for the offense. SML Launches Research Into Double Fines-During the quarter, SML has conducted research in work zones with and without Double Fine laws to determine if therei?? is a difference between work zone speeds with and without the notifications. SML Testifies For Corpus Christi, TX As An Expert Witness-At the invitation of the Prosecutora€™s Office of Corpus Christi, TX SML served the court as court recognized a€?expert witnessa€? in a January 2010 trial. Navajo Nation Law Enforcement Agency Invites SML To Assist In Controlling Speeds-February saw SML travel to Window Rock, NM to assist the Navajo Nation Police Agency in exploring new technologies in controlling speeds in what has become the deadliest highway in the i??nation, U.S.
Illinois HB6083 Laser Gun Judicial Notice Bill Close To Reality-HB6083 filed on 11 March 2010 standardizes laser gun judicial notice state-wide. SML Teaches DBC At North Richland Hills, TX Police Department-In February 2010, SML taught officers of the North Richland Hills Police Department, 120 sworn officers, the Distance i??Between Cars, DBC, feature of their new Laser Technology Inc.
Annual Detector Test Date Finalized-SML has announced 25,26,27 June 2010 for the dates of its Annual Detector Test.
SML Serves Ohio As Expert Witness-At the request of the Hamilton, Ohio Prosecutora€™s Office, SML testified as a court recognized expert witness in severali?? a€?judicial noticea€? trials during April 2010. Members of he Chicago Bar Association comprised of judges, defense lawyers, prosecutors, and officers from the Chicago Police Department attended the meeting in early April in downtown Chicago. Public Roads To Publish SML Work Zone Speed Limit Research-Public Roads Magazine, NHTSA, has been forwarded SML Research Project: #SML10-286-Speed Limit Compliance In Deadly, Dangerous Work Zones.
Results of the SML research ranged where only .03% of Texas drivers were obeying the work zone speed limit of 50 mph to 15% obeying the work zone speed limit of 60 mph in Arkansas. All new models of radar detectors werei?? evaluated to see if theiri?? performance matched their claims. SML Contracted To Teach NHTSA Standard Radar Laser Instruction At Navajo Nation-SML has been contracted by the Navajo Nation Police Agency to teach Master Radar Laser Instructor Curriculum to officers in Shiprock, New Mexico in late July 2010.
SML taughtA  NHTSA compliant Master Radar Laser Instructor course to law enforcement agencies in Las Cruces, NM in March 2010. A A A  As Texas has made the use of cell phones in school zones a primary offense, officers can make a traffic stop for the offense.
SML Launches Research Into Double Fines-During the quarter, SML has conducted research in work zones with and without Double Fine laws to determine if there is a difference between work zone speeds with and without the notifications.A  This research compliments current SML research into compliance with interstate work zone speed limits began in 2009.
Navajo Nation Law Enforcement Agency Invites SML To Assist In Controlling Speeds-February saw SML travel to Window Rock, NM to assist the Navajo Nation Police Agency in exploring new technologies in controlling speeds in what has become the deadliest highway in the nation, U.S. SML Teaches DBC At North Richland Hills, TX Police Department-In February 2010, SML taught officers of the North Richland Hills Police Department, 120 sworn officers, the Distance Between Cars, DBC, feature of their new Laser Technology Inc. All new models of radar detectors were evaluated to see if their performance matched their claims. SML Contracted To Teach NHTSA Standard Radar Laser Instruction At Navajo Nation-SML has been contracted by the Navajo Nation Police Agency to teach Master Radar Laser Instructor Curriculum to officers in Shiprock, New Mexico in late July 2010.A  Officers will follow dictates of the benchmark court decision of Honeycutt v. The (e,2e) spectrometer vacuum chamber (figure 1) is manufactured from 304 grade stainless steel, the construction being carried out by Vacuum Generators using a design of Jones, Read and Cvejanovic, full details of which may be found in T. 3mm thick mu-metal magnetic shielding is placed both internally and externally to decrease extraneous external magnetic fields to less than 5mG at the interaction region. All inputs and outputs to the spectrometer pass through the vacuum chamber via feedthroughs on the top flange. The top flange of the vacuum system is a 25mm stainless steel flange with 11 conflat CF70 flanges arranged around a central 200mm flange designed for locating a hydrogen source.
Two flanges are used for the high voltage channeltron and photomultiplier tube inputs and pulse outputs. Three rotary motion feedthroughs allow the analysers and electron gun angles to be changed externally via stepper motors for both analysers and for the electron gun.
The ionisation gauge is placed at right angles to the main flange to prevent light from the thoriated iridium filament entering the vacuum system, which would increase noise on the photomultiplier tube. The ionisation gauge feedthrough is sooted, and a loose cover is placed over the entrance in the chamber flange to prevent stray light from the ion gauge entering the vacuum system. The target gas enters the system via a CF70 flange which has two 6mm stainless steel tubes welded into the flange.
The other gas feed is connected to a hypodermic needle set at 90A° to the incident beam for measurements in other geometries. The gas jet which is not currently used in the interaction region can be used to non-locally fill the chamber with gas for background counting measurements.
The final CF70 flange is used when the photomultiplier tube is cooled, usually during baking of the system following exposure to atmosphere. The tube is cooled by passing vapour from a liquid nitrogen source through expansion coils wrapped around the photomultiplier tube housing. The electron gun is a two stage non-selected gun designed by Woolf (Ph.D thesis, University of Manchester) (see figure 3). The gun consists of a filament, grid and anode source which is focussed using a triple aperture lens through two 1mm defining apertures in the centre of the gun.
The apertures define the electron beam pencil and beam angles, and are focussed onto the interaction region using a second triple aperture lens located between the apertures and interaction region. The electron gun is shielded using advance (constantin) sheet which is grounded to the body of the gun mounting. The gun is mounted onto an x-y translation table to allow placement of the electron beam as accurately as possible to the centre of rotation of the analysers and electron gun rotation axis. The gas jet is mounted from the electron gun using a narrow support of 310 stainless steel, and the Faraday cup can be attached to this support. The original unselected electron gun built by Woolf was completely rewired and a custom built PTFE 25 way inline wire-wrap plug and socket was placed between the 52 way vacuum electrical feedthrough and the electron gun. The wiring from the 52 way feedthrough to the inline plug is shielded colour coded 30 awg PTFE coated advance wire, and the inline plug and socket connectors are non-magnetic gold plated wire wrap pins. The electron analysers are constructed from molybdenum and are mounted from two rotating gear plates controlled externally via the rotation feedthroughs on the top flange (see figure 2). The input electrostatic lenses for each analyser are three element cylindrical lenses as shown in figure 4. The interaction region is focussed onto the entrance aperture of the hemispherical energy analysers with a beam angle of around zero degrees, the image of the analyser entrance aperture being larger than the size of the interaction region.
Field gradients around the input and exit apertures are corrected using standard Jost correctors. The energy selected electrons passing through the exit apertures are finally collected by Mullard X919BL channel electron multipliers which amplify the single electron to produce a current pulse at their output. A principle source of noise on the signal pulses arises from the turbo-molecular pump motor. The noise from the turbo pump is reduced to ~ 5mV using these techniques, and as the average pulse height from the saturated multiplier is around 20-40 mV, this allows adequate discrimination following amplification.
The pre-amplifiers located external to the vacuum system are commercial 100X preamplifiers with 400pS rise-times, manufactured by Phillips Scientific. The NIM signals produced by the discriminators drive two ORTEC 437 Time to Amplitude Converter's via appropriate delay cables and an ORTEC pulse delay unit.
The main TAC output feeds an ORTEC Multichannel Analyser card located in the PC controlling the experiment, whereas the second monitor TAC drives an external MCA, allowing convenient monitoring of the coincidence signal as the experiment progresses. The high voltage supplies to the electron multipliers are two Brandenberg 5kV supplies controlled by the main PC via serial DAC's.
Principally the filter is used to reduce pickup noise from entering via the HT cable onto the multiplier output. Secondly, the filter has a slow response time for high voltage spikes, and reduces the probability of damage to the pulse electronics should the EHT supply suddenly turn on or off. Capacitor C2 decouples the 1kW load resistor to earth for high frequency pulses from the CEM's, and the voltage appearing across this load is connected via the capacitor C3 to the input of the 6954 preamplifier.
Since the input impedance of the preamplifier is 50W and the CEM is effectively an ideal constant current supply, most of the current passes through to the preamplifier.
Finally, the 10M resistor prevents the output to the preamp from rising above ground when the preamp is disconnected from the circuit and is therefore a safety device for the preamplifier when initially connected. The original design placed the atomic beam nozzle and Faraday cup on the same support structure fixed to the body of the electron gun, with the atomic beam direction being in the detection plane when the perpendicular plane geometry is chosen (see figure 2). A second configuration is adopted for exclusively perpendicular plane coincidence experiments, the atomic beam nozzle being oriented at an angle of 45A° to the detection plane so that the gas effusing from the nozzle does not fill the analysers when they oppose the nozzle (see figure 6). In this configuration the support strut for the atomic beam nozzle is terminated lower than the detection plane, as is the nozzle itself. For non-perpendicular plane measurements the Faraday cup is once mounted from the support strut and the gas effuses perpendicular to the electron beam direction.
One difficulty when aligning an (e,2e) coincidence experiment lies in the focussing the incident electron beam and analysers onto the interaction region. The throughput of electron current as detected by the Faraday cup is insensitive to both position and focusing of the electron beam, since the cup opening is usually made quite large (in this case 6 - 10mm) and the bias voltage applied to the cup to prevent electrons returning to the interaction region allows all electron trajectories within this opening to be detected. Conventionally, following maximisation of the Faraday cup current, the beam is steered and focussed onto the gas jet as detected by counts in the analysers. This has the disadvantage that the overlap volume is maximised for both atomic and electron beam density, which tends to place the interaction volume as close as possible to the output of the atomic beam nozzle, which is almost certainly not in the centre of the detection plane. To eliminate the need for time consuming iterative techniques and the associated errors due to detection geometry, a separate method for tuning the electron gun is adopted that does not depend upon the analysers. The interaction between the target and the electron beam not only produces ionisation, but the valence states of the target also are excited with various probabilities depending upon the incident energy of the electron beam.
These photons are detected by the photomultiplier tube, by placing a 450nm A± 50nm optical filter in front of the photocathode.
The interaction region is therefore defined where an aperture in front of the photocathode is focused by the lens. The plano-convex focussing glass lens is covered by a grounded fine tungsten mesh to eliminate surface charging. The photomultiplier tube may be cooled by circulating nitrogen gas boiled off LN2 through copper coils encircling the photomultiplier tube housing. The photomultiplier tube used in the experiment is a 9789QB EMI photomultiplier tube with a bi-alkali photocathode peaking in the blue region of the optical spectrum.
As with the electron multiplier circuitry, it is important to optimise the load of the photomultiplier tube so that reflections along the feeder line to the counting electronics are minimised. The 1nF 6kV capacitors across the dynodes close to the output stage are used as charge storage pumps that quickly refurbish the surface charge on the dynodes, allowing increased counting rates.
The dynode resistors are 1% tolerance metal film resistors as these are more stable with temperature. The EHT supply to the photomultiplier tube is a Brandenberg 2kV supply operating at 1500V for this tube. The negative going output pulses from the tube measure typically 200-500mV in height, and therefore are able to directly drive an ORTEC 473A constant fraction discriminator located in one of the NIM crates. All resistors and capacitors for the dynode chain are soldered to the photomultiplier tube base internal to the vacuum system, using standard 5-core solder.
Typical pulse heights from the electron multipliers in saturation mode are 25-40mV, whereas the typical height of the photomultiplier tube pulses is of the order of 250mV. The electron multiplier pulses are obtained from the multiplier supply circuitry as explained above. The amplified pulses from the 6954 amplifiers pass along doubly shielded RG-58 cable to the input of the ORTEC 473A discriminators.
The two analyser discriminators are located in separate NIM crates to increase isolation and reduce common mode pickup.
The slow rise-time positive outputs from the 473A discriminators pass to three ORTEC 441 rate-meters which allow counting and monitoring of the pulses.
The fast NIM pulses from the analyser 473A CFD's pass through appropriate delay lines to two 437 TAC's. This second multichannel analyser allows the operator to monitor the total accumulated coincidence signal during operation. The lens supplies that control the voltages impressed onto the lens elements and deflectors in the experiment were developed over a number of years, and therefore take different forms. Three of these supplies feed the deflectors in the electron gun, the other two supply the input deflectors in the analysers. In a second 19" crate is located the gun lens high voltage supplies together with the high voltage supplies for the Faraday cup.
In a third 19" crate is located the analyser voltage supplies together with a set of serial loading supplies that control the electron multiplier EHT supplies. A further supply controls the current boost circuitry located in the filament constant current supply unit (see below). The outputs of each computer controlled supply that drives an individual lens element or deflector are connected to a 70 relay switching board. The Digital voltmeter is in turn accessed via an IEEE-488 interface which is addressed by an 8086 slave PC which converses with the central PC which controls the experiment. The outputs from the relay board connect to the spectrometer via shielded multicore cables which take the gun voltages to the 52 way feedthrough and the analyser voltages to the two 19 way feedthroughs located on the vacuum flange. The gun supply multicore also carries the filament supply current to the 52 way feedthrough. The Faraday cup current is measured by the Keithley Digital voltmeter when under computer control but this can also be measured by an external pico-ammeter. In addition to the analyser electrostatic lens and deflector voltage connections, the 19 way CF70 feedthroughs are used to control signals from internal sensing opto-isolators which control the stepper motor interlocks.
The stepper motors that drive the analysers and electron gun around the detection plane are five phase motors with integral 10X reduction gearboxes driving the rotary motion feedthroughs. The intelligent stepper motor drivers are addressed via a serial port located on the controlling PC bus. An additional interference problem was traced to the RS232 serial line from the controlling PC. The PC bus was found to be poorly earthed due to very little copper being used for the bus earth.
This was cured by decoupling the 0V RS232 line from the main 0V line for the stepper motors, as is shown in figure 10.
The analyser stepper motor supplies have a facility for halting the motors using limit switches which are optically coupled to the internal 68000 logic circuits driving the supplies.
The SD5443-3 phototransistor normally illuminated by the TEMT88PD photodiode during operation ensured a fail-safe mechanism should any of these components fail (this automatically prevent the motors from running).
Should the analysers move into a position as defined by the four criteria (a) - (d) above, a shutter located on the analyser turntables moves between the appropriate photodiode and phototransistor, shutting off the light and thereby shutting down the stepper motor current. Only motion in the opposite direction is allowed by controlling logic, allowing the analyser to move away from the point of imminent collision but no closer.
The six pairs of optocouplers that prevent the analysers moving into the Faraday cup, electron gun and gas jet support are located on the mounting struts supporting the main body of the spectrometer. Two optocouplers are located on the side of analyser 2, and two shutters are located on the sides of analyser 1 to prevent the analysers colliding with each other. Finally a ninth optocoupler is located over the electron gun counterweight which monitors when the gun is at an angle less than 65A°, where the sweep angle around the detection plane is reduced.
The current boost circuit operates from a serial driven supply card as detailed previously. The main filament drive is through six power diodes that feed the current from the constant current supply to the filament.
The Darlington transistor T1 feeds additional current to the filament via three parallel 10 turn 100W trim resistors through a 1N4007 diode.
As the constant current supply acts as an infinite resistance source, the boost circuit supplies additional current only when the voltage at the anode of the feed 1N4007 exceeds the output voltage of the constant current supply.
Finally, the filament bias voltage (and hence energy of the electrons) is set to the midpoint of the filament by two 100W balancing resistors located across the terminals. In addition to the ADC buffer card, three independent isolated regulated supplies drive REF01 voltage reference sources for measurement of the positions of 10 turn potentiometers located on the analyser and electron gun rotary drive shafts. The angular position of the electron gun and analysers is calibrated when the system is opened using visible laser diodes that define these angles to an accuracy of A±0.2A°.
Figure 13 shows an overall block diagram detailing the computer control and high speed pulse interfacing to the spectrometer. Winter is a great time to get out and have fun and to stay active this season you need to stay happy, well and flu virus free. Many of you have this info from last year but a revision is always good to help you adjust 'your sails'a€¦..
Two to three serves of green leafy vegetables daily will help keep up your Vitamin C - as will fresh fruit. For those of you more at home with supplements than fruit and vegetables, an effective way to increase your intake of Vitamin C without stomach upsets and loose stools is to mix 2000-5000mg (Adult dose) Vitamin C powder into 1 litre of filtered water and sip it during the day. For those of you who embrace the Winter Yuletide festivities and refuse to entertain even the faintest possibility of catching a flu - here is our Mulled Wine Recipe and subsequent Hang-Over Cure - by request.


Drink 1 glass before retiring (Perhaps you should think ahead and prepare this before you venture out as it could be interesting getting this all together when really inebriated. I hope this will be of some help in keeping the nasties away or bouncing you back from some self-imposed 'nasties'. If you need a tonic as a preventative (or you catch a flu and need one for treatment) I can make one for you. Red Nose Day, held annually on the last Friday in June, is the major fundraiser for SIDS and Kids. SIDS and Kids is dedicated to saving the lives of babies and children during pregnancy, birth, infancy and childhood and to supporting bereaved families. I am currently on Long Service Leave from the NSWDEC until mid August, subsequently travelling here and there and catching up with people. Those of you who know me well, also know that the Winter Magic Festival at Katoomba is upon us (20th June).
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This item will be shipped through the Global Shipping Program and includes international tracking. Will usually ship within same business day if paid before 14:00 PDT (excludes weekends and holidays). You might begin your school days with a 30-40 minute devotional, looking something like this. Beautiful Girlhood (If you change or alternate the pronouns, this book can be used for a boy or a mixed group of boys and girls. Beyond Boyhood (If you change or alternate the pronouns, this book can be used for a girl or a mixed group of boys and girls. The memorization system will aid the child in forming a habit of attention and retention of the scripture, poetry, and more.
Everyone over 6 should have personal scriptures and a three ring devotional binder.A  Begin with prayer.
Very little is said about Jesusa€™ childhood and youth in the scriptures, however, the apostle Luke thought it would be important for all children learn about Jesusa€™ early life. Ask a Child to Read: a€?I suppose no one had more or greater experiences regarding the protection which comes from wearing the whole armor of God than did Daniel.
Ask a child to read: Daniel and his three friends, whom we know as Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, begged permission to refuse the kinga€™s meat and wine, and the prince who had charge over them told Daniel that the king would be very angry if they appeared less healthy and fair to look upon than the others through their failure to eat the kinga€™s fare.
Ask a child to read: After ten days they looked better and appeared healthier than all the others, so they were allowed to continue. Do you wait for Mother and hold her chair,a€?Or sit down and eat as though shea€™s not there?
How ought mothers and fathers do their duty in helping their children increase in favor (good manners and habits)? When Mother or Father ask you to play outside, eat good food, drink water, or study and work hard, from whom is the commandment really coming?
Ask a child to read: a€?And it came to pass that I, Nephi, returned from speaking with the Lord, to the tent of my father. Ask a child to read: For behold, Laban hath the record of the Jews and also a genealogy of my forefathers, and they are engraven upon plates of brass. Leta€™s sing a primary song, Nephia€™s Courage, which will help us understand this even better. Besides FHE, the family Devotional is the most important part of raising children, in my opinion. The focus of the study is to determine if the ban has reduced accident i??and fatalities in school zones. When seat belt legislation was first passed it was viewed legally as a secondary offense meaning the officer could not make a traffic stop for the infraction.
The Chicago Police Department presented a PowerPoint presentation of training and use of laser systems by the Department.
The focus of the study is to determine if the ban has reduced accident and fatalities in school zones.A  TSU intends to use SMLa€™s long term study of cell phone use in school zones in Illinois, Colorado, and Texas completed in late 2009. Both research projects will be combined for national publication in police and public safety publications.A  Analysis has been made in Mississippi, Alabama, and Colorado. The Annual Test will take place in El Paso on a test course SML has used for the past ten years.
Both El Paso and Las Cruces enacted city-wide bans on hand held cell phone use while driving in early spring of 2010. Digital Ally has renamed the new entry Laser Ally.A  See Digital Allya€™s website for specifications and details about the new entry. One of these is internally connected to a gas jet which can be set at 45A° to the incident electron beam and is used in the perpendicular plane experiments.
These stainless steel feeder tubes are connected to the nozzle using grounded shielded PTFE hose. One follows the anode, another corrects the beam direction between the apertures and a third steers the beam onto the interaction region.
This shield is coated with aerodag colloidal graphite to reduce patch fields on the surface of the metal, and is made as small as possible to allow the analysers to approach the gun as close as is feasible when non-perpendicular plane geometries are selected (see figure 2).
The XY translation table is mounted from the rotating yoke, to which is attached the photomultiplier tube.
This allows the gun to be dismounted from the system without the need for rewiring of the feedthrough when the need arises (filament changes, cleaning etc). The wiring between the gun and inline socket is also shielded colour coded PTFE coated advance wire facilitating spot welding to the electrostatic lens elements of the gun.
The analysers are mounted onto x-z translation tables that allow them to view the interaction region accurately over the full range of angles accessible. These lenses have a capability for energy zooming of around 10 : 1, and have a maximum entrance acceptance angle of A±3A° as defined by the entrance apertures.
This ensures that the overlap volume accepted by each analyser encompasses the interaction volume for all detection angles as the analysers move in the detection plane.
These devices use an activated lead glass internal surface which has a high coefficient of secondary electron emission when a high voltage (around 3000V) is applied across the multiplier. This noise may be picked up by the channel electron multiplier and the high voltage feed to the multiplier, and is generated internally in the vacuum system. The CFD's are operated in NaI mode as this has a 2ms dead time following the initial pulse, thus reducing the possibility of false triggering due to any mismatching impedance reflections along the delay cable.
These EHT supplies are connected via VERO 200 high voltage couplings to high voltage cable connecting to the pickoff circuitry located on the high voltage feedthroughs. This allowed the analysers to roam the detection plane over a complete 360A° angular range. The configuration of the target source hypodermic when perpendicular plane measurements are conducted.
The common procedure is to initially maximise the current from the gun onto the Faraday cup, then onto analyser counts as the electron beam is moved through the gas jet.
Maximising the Faraday cup current is therefore only a crude preliminary alignment of the incident electron gun beam. This therefore assumes that the analysers are initially focused onto the interaction region, and a slow iterative technique must be adopted where the analysers and electron gun are tuned so as to maximise the signal from both analysers.
In this case a true differential cross section is not obtained, since the scattered and ejected electron trajectories lie in a different plane than defined in the initial experimental alignment.
An EMI 9789QB reduced photocathode photomultiplier tube is installed in the vacuum system together with optical focussing and defining elements (figure 2). A group of these excited states decay back to lower valence states with the emission of visible photons at wavelengths around 450nm for both helium and argon targets. Tuning of the electron gun to PMT counts therefore guarantees that the electron gun is steered and focussed to the point at the centre of the detection plane independent of the analysers or gas beam density. This is mainly used when the vacuum system is baked at temperatures above 55A°C, since the photocathode is rapidly damaged by temperatures exceeding this.
The tube is a venetian blind dynode construction, and has a reduced photocathode to decrease the noise on the output of the tube to less than 20Hz. The photomultiplier tube base was thoroughly cleaned in an ultrasound following location of these components, to displace any flux residue from the solder joints. It is therefore necessary to amplify the channeltron pulses prior to transmission to the discriminators, whereas the photomultiplier tube pulses are sufficiently large to not require further amplification.
These pulses are amplified by Phillips Scientific 6954 100X amplifiers located external to the EHT feedthroughs connected by 10cm lengths of RG-58 cable. These crates are further decoupled from the AC mains supply using filter circuitry on each supply line. Internal to these rate-meters buffer 7400 TTL chips have been added to send to 32 bit counters located in the main PC via RG-58 cable. These supplies are fully floating, their mid-point voltage being equal to the lens element voltage in which the deflectors are housed. All these supplies are fully computer controlled isolated units with low output impedance to reduce noise and eliminate current loops. This relay switching unit allows either the voltage or the current on each lens element to be measured by a Keithley Digital voltmeter.
This drive is further reduced internally by 10X reduction gears, resulting in a reduction ratio of 100:1. This led to the ground line of the RS232 serial line moving around with respect to the 0V stepper motor reference as drive current to the motors returned along the ground line.
The optocoupler logic circuit circuit that controls the stepper motors and avoids collisions between the analysers, the electron gun, the Faraday cup and the hypodermic support. Added to this filament supply is a computer controlled current boost circuit that can be used to increase the filament current during electron gun tuning. The additional current then returns to the 12V DC regulated supply via a second 1N4007 diode. This therefore depends upon both the current driving the filament, as well as the resistance of the filament when hot (typically 4W - 6W). This supply feeds current to the filament without changing the characteristics of the main constant current supply used while operating the spectrometer.
These high stability reference sources ensure that the analyser and electron gun positions are accurately measured with time. A datalogger internal to the controlling PC establishes a cubic spline relationship between the measured angles and the corresponding ADC conversion from the potentiometers. This PC also controls the selection of the relay motherboard for measurement of the required lens element either in voltage or current mode when a request is sent from the controlling computer via an RS232 serial line. After the age of 30 the number starts to decrease to about two per year (there is a definite upside to getting older!!) So, now that I have you feeling less than optimistic, what should you do for treatment if a cold snags youa€¦.. This includes not only milk, but ice cream, all yoghurt except plain, and especially cheese. Research has shown that zinc reduces the severity and duration of cold symptoms particularly a sore throat. Where possible buy seasonal and organic or if gardening appeals you could try applying some good Permaculture techniques.
If you are congested and cana€™t breathe very well because your nose is plugged upa€¦a€¦.there is a great variety of herbs which can help build your immune system and address specific symptoms. Surprisingly, there is very little garlic breath with this a€“ possibly something to do with the lemons. For you risk takersa€¦think of it like a healthier version of touching your nose or walking a straight line - please be careful with sharp knives or get a friend to help).
If you have recently been to clinic and I have all your current information, you can just ring ahead and we probably wona€™t need to bring you in for a consultation. Funds raised through Red Nose Day activities assist SIDS and Kids in providing vital services and programs to the Australian community.Follow the link for mor information on how you can help.
I find it better in some ways than regularly attacking your emails as I personally spend way too much time each morning deleting trade ads and info mails. All information offered in this newsletter is for general interest only and is NOT to take the place of recommendations by qualified health practitioners with access to your complete medical history. Yep, my favourite little festival of the year, when Katoomba in the beautiful Blue Mountains resonates with all sorts of interesting a€?stuffa€™! If you'd like to get the additional items you've selected to qualify for this offer, close this window and add these items to your cart. Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or tab and request a shipping method to your location. All returned items MUST BE in the original packaging and you MUST PROVIDE us ,specific reason for the return, and your eBay ID. As with the other subjects, the more your children have in common, the more likely that they will choose to be friends in addition to being siblings. I thought it a better idea to teach mothers how to design devotionals according to the current needs of their family. Using the topical guide of the LDS standard works, Building Faith in Christ Through the Book of Mormon, True to the Faith, Learning Resources for Children Topics, and Come Follow Me youth curriculum, you and your children can discover doctrine behind the teachings of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
Although I've tried and abandoned several, I keep coming back to the following wonderful method that we discovered and used in our homeschool. If you then use these as dictation and copy work (spelling and penmanship), you further cement the words in the cranium.
You might ask your warda€™s Primary Chorister what the focus song is for that month so the Primary children will learn the songs very well and gain joy over being prepared.
Repeat this lesson a couple times a year, because these concepts are worth repeating over and over again. If you dona€™t play the piano or guitar to accompany the hymns, go to LDS.org to the hymns section and play the MP3 for this purpose. Look up the definitions asked for in some of the following questions in Webstera€™s 1828 dictionary. They ought to help me learn Goda€™s word, guide my schoolwork, and encourage me in both of these.
At the summons of King Nebuchadnezzar, he, with other chosen children of Israel, was brought to live in the kinga€™s palace for certain training. Daniel asked for a period of ten days in which they might eat pulse [vegetables, legumes, and grains], and drink water, and then be compared with the others who were eating and drinking the kinga€™s farea€”meat and wine.
At the end of three years, when they were brought before the king, we are told that among them all was found none like Daniel and his three friends, and in all matters of wisdom and understanding, the king found them ten times better than all the magicians and astrologers in his realm. I ought to help mother make pulse and grow vegetables, only ask for and eat good food, drink lots of water, and play outside instead of sitting around. Heavenly Fathera€¦Leta€™s read about Nephi and see what he and his father have to say about it. And it came to pass that he spake unto me, saying: Behold I have dreamed a dream, in the which the Lord hath commanded me that thou and thy brethren shall return to Jerusalem. Wherefore, the Lord hath commanded me that thou and thy brothers should go unto the house of Laban, and seek the records, and bring them down hither into the wilderness. Therefore go, my son, and thou shalt be favored of the Lord, because thou hast not murmured. Although we chose to do our family devotionals after dinner each evening, morning devotionals work best for other families. The Book of Mormon for LDS Families and others in the series contain all manner of resources that really help everyone understand the scriptures very well. True the little one can't read yet, but it gives them a sense of the importance of what you are doing. I think with a family meeting to discuss the problem and the addition of these resources, your problems should lessen. SMLa€™s role was to describe to the members the history of lasera€™s use by law enforcement, present a summary of legal cases from around the country on laser use by law enforcement, and a description of the scientific principles involved in laser assessment of speeds. Las Cruces recently passed a ban on all hand held cell phone use in the city of 100,000.A  El Paso, Tx, some 45 miles away passed a similar ban by a city council vote of 5-3. It further intends to use SMLa€™s research of compliance with the new law related to enforcement of the legislation. Such a listing is necessary to compile reliable data on cell phone use before and after causation. SML intends to expand the sample size to include New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona in the final analysis.
By attaching speed displays to patrol units via a standard 2a€? trailer hitch, many objections of speed displays are eliminated.A  The use of radar trailers is cumbersome and requires a spot to set them up.


The TruCam also features a built-in GPS module along with video capability.A  Other attempts have been made to mate a digital camera with laser guns. Officers will also be required to estimates speeds and distances of vehicles in the establishment of a valid visual tracking history. The spectrometer is shown configured in the perpendicular plane, the electron gun being placed in the vertical position with respect to the analysers which span the horizontal detection plane. The electron source is a heated tungsten hairpin filament heated by passing around 2A of DC current through the filament. The saturated gain of these devices yields around 1E8 electrons in the output current pulse for a single electron which enters the input cone.
This allows the analyser to roam over a complete 360 degrees of the detection plane when in this geometry (apart from the position where the analysers would clash wth each other). The analysers are then adjusted for maximum signal count and the procedure is iterated until a maximum is found. The dark noise count is also reduced when cooled, however since the reduced cathode PMT only produces dark counts of less than 20Hz at room temperature, this is not necessary during routine operations. The 1.82M resistor was chosen to optimise the single photon counting efficiency of the tube. It is not found that these solder connections significantly affect the ultimate vacuum pressure in the system. Isolated DC supplies to these amplifiers is obtained from a standard +15V supply, the circuit diagram being given in figure 8. The power supply to these TTL buffers is derived from the rate-meter supplies via 7805 5V regulators located internally. This supply boosts the current without changing the main supply, thus ensuring supply stability before and after the electron gun is tuned.
However there is a direct relation between your risk of catching a cold and the amount of time spent in contact with an infected person. Chicken contains a natural amino acid called cysteine.A  Cysteine can thin the mucus in the lungs and make it less sticky so you can expel it more easily. The benefits of a good nights sleep should never be under-rated, it's when your body gets a chance to repair and build up those components necessary for the next days onslaught! This step is helpful to decrease the extra mucous that dairy products can cause you to produce.A  Other normally wonderful foods like bananas and avocado can also aggravate the mucous condition. It has been suggested that zinc is ,directly toxic to the virus and stimulates your body to produce antibodies to destroy the virus.
Generally we all head straight for oranges, however other juices such as pineapple and grapefruit are very useful. However, it is advisable to seek professional advice before self-administering these as some may not be suitable for your particular condition or clash nastily with any existing medication you are taking.
Sunshine has been getting a raw deal over the last decade due to fear of melanomas and skin cancers (hey I've had few burnt off myself), however recent research has shown that Vitamin D can have a very positive affect on immunity and resistance. Patients can also be given this as part of a maintenance program to prevent sinus build-up, or as a preventative for colds during winter and changes of season. Bring to the boil with the lid on, then simmer for 30 minutes, occasionally mashing the garlic and lemon with a potato masher while simmering.
Drink another glass on rising and continue every hour or so, or until you feel more alive than zombie. If however, I have not seen you for a while and there are some gaps I need to know about, a short 30 minute consultation should be sufficient to get us up to speed.
Bookings can continue to be made by email, facebook or phone (as I will be checking my messages even when away). If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. Don't hesitate to bear your testimony and explain things from your personal revelation as the parent during this special time.
Doing so, parents help to instill in their children testimonies built on knowledge and wisdom instead of vague ideas or the desire to please parents. In fact, I got a new set of scriptures to begin this marking system all over again from my new perspective of a middle-aged woman. When the child reads, copies, and discusses the selections, visual, kinesthetic, and auditory aspects of learning are begun.
All that is required is the consistent reading and reciting the entire selection two or three times daily until the child can recite it by memory. When you begin singing together as a family, it may not be all roses and beautiful notes at first. Choices affect everyone in the persona€™s family, their friends, their future spouse and children, their ability to support their family someday, and their progression in the next life. They were to be carefully nourished for three years, at which time they would stand before the king.
Did you know that learning good manners and habits is one way to find favor with God and man? At first the children were enthusiastic (it was their idea, in fact!) but now they grumble and drag into the room. With this our scriptural discussions and enthusiasm at family devotional time increased, because youngsters could really understand. Ask the child to join in the recitation.A  Continuing the two or three daily recitations, you will begin to see the child confidently recite the selections. SML also presented to the members Illinois use and legislative approval of laser based photo systems used in Illinois work zones per the legislature approved law 625 ILCS 7-Automated Traffic Control Systems in Highway Construction and Maintenance Zones.
Radar Signals replaces the newsletter Radar Waves.A  Radar Waves is updated every three months. With laser guns, SML recommended to the court a Daily Laser Verification Log be kept by all officers using laser guns for speed enforcement.A  This log contains daily checks of the laser gun before it is put into speed enforcement use and includes a Known Distance Test and Vertical and Horizontal Sight Alignment test. However, these attempts have been bulky and heavy.A  The TruCam gives police agencies evidence of speeding inA  a compact package easily used by one officer.
The electron gun is a two stage non-energy selected gun that produces an incident electron beam current of up to 4 microamps at an incident energy from around 30eV to 300eV.
The 470k resistors bias the dynodes to achieve saturation of the current pulse at the output of the tube, hence biasing the tube for single photon counting applications. This was found to be necessary to eliminate problems associated with current loops from the 20A peak motor current feeding the common point of the logic circuitry. We have previously offered information on a€?Winters Blues and Depression and this is still available via the following link: Types of Depression . The time you are ill may be longer if you do not allow yourself to recuperate and recover completely. If you are caring for a child with a cold, PLEASE WASH YOUR HANDS every time you have to wipe their nose. Pineapple juice actually contains more Vitamin C than oranges and is considerably less acidic and breaks down mucous plugs faster, while grapefruit also helps to detoxify the liver.
The best way to get Vitamin D is to be outside for as little as 5 - 10 minutes without sun block, as this inhibits the body's ability to absorb this essential little vitamin.
Also if you have been down the antibiotic path recently we may need to consider a probiotic.
Each child should have their own copy of the standard works to use during devotional, even non-readers. Find a child appropriate drawing lesson of the animal on Youtube or in one of the Draw Write Now books. I had my last set for decades.a€?a€?With a two-fold purpose, it will help all who adopt it to learn the doctrines of the scriptures better and prepare you to speak on doctrine. These pencils can be found in packages very inexpensively.a€?a€?As you go through the topics and build devotionals, you will read specific scriptures that enhance the topic. The child never comes to realize that his parents are bound to a higher law than their own whims--he never learns that parents can't let him break his sister's toys, or stuff himself with cake, or make everyone around him miserable, because it isn't right.
Apparently they were to be fed with the choicest of food, including the kinga€™s meat and wine. I'm trying to think of things to help cheerfully wake them up and help them engage in the scriptures and our discussions. With a non-reader, Mom or Dad or another child who is a good reader sits next to the assigned non-reader and reads the non-readers verse a few words at a time pointing to each word. I had my last set for decades.With a two-fold purpose, it will help all who adopt it to learn the doctrines of the scriptures better and prepare you to speak on doctrine.
These pencils can be found in packages very inexpensively.As you go through the topics and build devotionals, you will read specific scriptures that enhance the topic. SML called for a standardized training program with strong recommendations on re-certification of tuning forks, radar and laser guns, and officers. Police laser guns are distance measuring devices first patented for police speed enforcement use by Laser Technologies Inc., LTI, in 1989.
All of these assessed work zones had different work zone speed limits ranging from 50 mph-60 mph. A unique feature of the TruCam is DBC or Distance Between Cars.A  This feature automatically monitors a lead vehicle and trailing vehicle to report if the trailing vehicle is traveling too close to the lead vehicle resulting in a citation. A third criteria will be the officers presenting to the class a thirty minute presentation for evaluation. The analysers are identical, and consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens focussing the interaction region onto the entrance of a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser. The Anode deflector pair corrects for any misalignment of the filament emission point with respect to the axis of the electron gun.
The most common route of infection is not from coughing or sneezing, or walking barefoot in the rain, but from hand-to-hand contact. If you exercise regularly, you should definitely cut back on the intensity until you feel better. The children should attempt the drawing lesson on their signs and rewards chart for their religion binder. On the blank pages in the back and front of the scriptures, each person will have dozens of topics outlined for instant talks. Building consistently accurate and complicated, beautiful language patterns, knowledge of the Constitution of the United States, great poetry, and a store of gospel doctrine, the child develops his intellect and character. The child needs to see that his parents are bound by the same codes of right and wrong that he is. Often, if you ask for their help and suggestions, they come up with better ideas and stick to them better than if you just mandate something.
The first police laser was sold in 1991.A  Laser for laser enforcement has been with us longer than the internet. Females were twice as likely to be on their phones in both groups compared to male drivers.
All work zones were on interstate highways with speed limits ranging from 70 mph to 60 mph before and after the work zone speed limit.
The Chamber is lined internally with 3mm thick mu-metal, and a mu-metal cylinder encloses the chamber externally as shown. The electrons selected in angle and energy are amplified using Mullard 919BL channel electron multipliers. The defining apertures limit the pencil and beam angles of the electron beam following focussing by lens 2 onto the interaction region.
The load is set by the 50W resistor across the anode to the HT feed, the pulse being decoupled to ground via the 1nF capacitor. The likelihood of you becoming a victim of the cold virus increases however, if you are overtired or physically exhausted. If the child doesna€™t develop a solid testimony and chooses rebellion, real trouble could result. Because they studied and understand the doctrines that go with the topics, these talks will be further possible and successful.
Using a blue colored pencil (I use prisma color ultramarine) circle and color in the reference number. We could do all kinds of things together while playing, but for one of us to try to sing a solo before the others was like asking ice cream to stay hard on the kitchen stove. Mom or Dad, whoever is leading the devotional each morning, should pause to discuss the sections in each of the additional resources as seems appropriate. The first working laser was introduced by Theodore Maiman in 1960 and was immediately put into use by NASA measuring the distance from the earth to the moon and determining the speed of rotation of both celestial bodies.A  As a result of SMLa€™s testimony, all defendants were found guilty and the court issued judicial notice on all laser and radar speed enforcement system used by the departments. SML reviewed research from various state DOTs and federal agencies all agreeing drivers drive the speed they feel a€?reasonable and prudenta€? regardless of the posted speed limit.
This reduces the magnetic field at the interaction region to less than 5mG, an acceptable level for the electron energies used in this experiment. The interaction region defined by the interaction of the gas target beam and the electron beam is focussed onto the photocathode of an EMI 9789QB photomultiplier tube via a lens, 450nmA±50nm optical filter and defining aperture. Placement of the apertures ensures that the beam angle is close to zero degrees at the interaction region over a wide range of energies, whereas the aperture opening reduces the pencil angle to around A±2 degrees over this energy range. Two old standards, Chamomile and Peppermint are very useful for clearing and warming the sinuses.
Antibiotics, including penicillin, DO NOT have any effect on viruses - which is why doctors prescribe them, to treat the secondary bacterial infections that can complicate a cold. With this topical journey through scripture, each will develop testimonial confidence not often found in someone young children or for that matter most adults.
Depending on the length of the selections, your family will usually have them down pretty well at the end of the week (scripture and quote,) or month (poems and songs).
We also found that doing scripture study around the dining room table compared to sprawled out on the living room floor was more conducive to paying attention.
SML is working with several manufacturers to have the display move showing approaching vehicle speeds under patent applied for provisions.
SML did notice in both El Paso and Las Cruces a greater number of drivers using hands free devices in making calls while driving.A  This research is to be nationally published and forwarded to Texas State University for review. A total sample size of 4,413 vehicles were assessed for their speed in work zones with a Kustom Signals Inc. The target gas effuses from a 0.6mm ID hypodermic needle constructed from platinum iridium alloy. The 10MW safety resistor prevents the output charging up to a high voltage if the feed is disconnected. The deflectors between the apertures correct for space and surface charge beam variations inside the field free region, whereas the final deflectors allow the beam to be steered onto the interaction region defined by focussing a 1mm aperture in front of the photomultiplier tube onto the gas target beam.
Don't stop at chicken soup, be creative with soups and casseroles that utilise a range of legumes and root vegetables, and don't forget to keep up your intake of raw fruit and vegetables to help your body build and maintain the necessary white blood cells. NB I know we don't associate dehydration with Winter but most us spend a great deal of time in doors, centrally heated and this can be very 'drying'! ProLaser III tied to a laptop containing Kustoma€™s LaserStat program which automatically accumulates individual work zone speed limit compliance percentages.
The electrons passing through the interaction region which are not scattered are collected in a Faraday cup opposite the electron gun. Most uncomplicated colds last between eight and nine days, but about 25% last two weeks, and 5-10% last three weeks.
As you read the scripture, use a prisma color red colored pencil to underline meaningful parts of the scripture. When they also read them aloud themselves and write them 5 times per week, they cannot help capturing them in their brains. Research conducted by the Texas Transportation Institute at Texas A & M University in their published article Effect Of The Work Zone Double Fine Law In Texas found such restrictions as doubling speeding fines and signs had no effect on the average speed of drivers.
The gun, photomultiplier tube, gas hypodermic and Faraday cup all rotate on a common yoke with an axis through the centre of the horizontal detection plane, allowing all geometries from the perpendicular plane to the coplanar geometry to be accessed. At the conclusion of the topic, write the first scripture in the chain next to the blue-circled scripture. This method will change the way you see the world, your goals, eternal life, relationships, your behavior, and build your testimony if you let it. Not only might this method be used with this sort of family devotional, it can be used with all sorts of books, lessons, and pamphlets that include scripture study at their core.
Out of those simple little meetings, held in the parlor of our old home, came something indescribable and wonderful. These wonderful things came about because our parents followed the counsel of the President of the Church.a€? Gordon B.



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