Reflective Practice is a modern term, and an evolving framework, for an ancient method of self-improvement. Essentially Reflective Practice is a method of assessing our own thoughts and actions, for the purpose of personal learning and development. For example, Reflective Practice is highly relevant and helpful towards Continuous Professional Development (CPD). Reflective Practice is essentially a very old and flexible concept, so it might be called other things.
This alternative terminology, which includes some familiar words, can help us to understand and explain its principles and scope.
Increasingly these principles, terminology, and underpinning theory are defined and conveyed within the term 'Reflective Practice' and its supporting framework of terminology and application. As such, 'Reflective Practice' is a theory by which modern and traditional self-improvement ideas can be more clearly defined, refined, expanded, adapted, taught, adopted and applied, for the purposes of personal development, teaching and coaching, and wider organizational improvement. Reflective Practice is also helpful for personal fulfilment (US-English fulfillment) and happiness, in the sense that we can see and understand ourselves more objectively. Reflective Practice enables clearer thinking, and reduces our tendencies towards emotional bias. Incidentally, the term 'Reflective Practice' is generally shown here with capitalized initial letters. The capitalization also differentiates the term Reflective Practice from other general uses of the word 'practice' in referring to a person's work or practical things, which are clarified as such throughout this article.
The alternative spelling of 'practise' is not used here because traditionally this spelling refers to the verb form of the word, whereas Reflective Practice is a noun, (just as 'advice' is a noun and 'advise' is a verb). I am grateful to Linda Lawrence-Wilkes, an expert in Reflective Practice, for collaborating and contributing to the technical content of this free Reflective Practice reference guide, and related Reflective Practice self-assessment instruments.
As with any theoretical concept, definitions of Reflective Practice convey a basic technical description of the subject. Definitions alone do not fully explain how and why something operates, nor teach us how to use it. Definitions do however provide a useful basis for comprehension, and consistent terminology for discussion, especially for a subject open to quite different interpretations. Definitions also help establish firm meanings, for sharing ideas, adopting the methods, and understanding of how Reflective Practice can be used, alongside other developmental methodologies. The following various definitions convey their own distinct meanings, and also assist the reader in developing a quick general appreciation of Reflective Practice as a whole.
Reflection - Engagement in a deliberate mental process of thinking about, or contemplating, things that have happened, what was experienced and learned, from our own and from others' points of view. Reflexivity - Reflexivity is the process of 'stepping back' from a situation we are involved in, for a 'helicopter view' of ourselves. Critical Reflection - Critical Reflection is the adoption of a questioning stance to solve problems, challenge the 'status quo' and examine our own assumptions. Reflective Practice - Reflective Practice is the use of self-analysis to understand, evaluate and interpret events and experiences in which we are involved. Please note that the table above is an extremely concise summary, and is therefore very much open to debate. We have already seen that terms such as reflection and critical thinking can mean different things to different people, and this variable characteristic features in the founding ideas of Reflective Practice. It's long been observed that different learning methods produce different types of learning.
Rooted in Greek philosophy, critical thinking is based on a Socratic idea of a reasoned process of weighing up the evidence to decide whether something is believed to be true or false. Much later, the concept of reflection was taken up in the 18th Century enlightenment movement, a reaction against the turbulent and superstitious (and more oppressive) middle ages. Here are some of the important historical conceptual interpretations that have helped to shape modern definitions and development of Reflective Practice, and its related concepts.
Immanuel Kant - German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) is considered one of the founders of Western philosophy.
Bertrand Russell - Bertrand Russell (1872-1970, 3rd Earl Russell of Kingston Russell), an English philosopher, mathematician and supporter of Kant's scientific approach, considered that knowledge is 'a belief in agreement with facts'.
Crucially here, reflection is seen as more than impulsive thinking or day-dreaming with no purpose.
Thus, reflecting on things that have happened in our lives can open up more options and enable sound reasons for action. Jean Piaget - Jean Piaget (1896-1980), a Swiss psychologist, proposed the theory that children mature in their thinking through different stages of development. David Kolb - David Kolb (b.1939), an American educationalist, produced seminal works on experiential learning theory (see Kolb Learning Styles). Kolb proposed that if we become better at using all the stages of the learning cycle, notably including reflecting on experience, we will become better life-long learners. Kolb's concept is among many that advocates 'trial and error' (extending to reflection, conceptualization and experimentation) through our own direct personal experience, and asserts this ('trial and error' approach) as an important mechanism for successful learning. Note: While this assertion stands alone as a learning model for many self-contained tasks and activities, of course we need more than personal experience to learn about the wider world. Donald Schon - Donald Schon (1930-1997) was an American philosopher, author, and Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Barbara Larrivee - Professor Barbara Larrivee is an American expert in teaching and Reflective Practice at the Department of Learning, University of California. Reflecting on action gives us time to look back at what happened in a more measured and objective way. Carl Rogers - Carl Rogers (1902-87) was a prominent American psychotherapist and author. Michel Foucault - Michel Foucault (1926-1984) was a French philosopher and social theorist. Karen Kitchener - Dr Karen Strohm Kitchener (born c.1950), is an American Counselling Psychologist and author, and Professor Emeritus at the University of Denver, having directed its counselling program for almost 25 years. Jack Mezirow - Jack Mezirow (1923-14) was an American sociologist and Emeritus Professor of Adult and Continuing Education at Teachers College, Columbia University. Significantly in Goleman's work, the use of self-reflection should be regulated by the situation, which acknowledges the potential of reflective techniques to open deep personal issues, which may not be appropriate. Stephen Brookfield - Dr Stephen Brookfield (b.1949) is an English educationalist, at the School of Education, University of St Thomas, Minneapolis.
This is a sophisticated and multi-faceted perspective Reflective Practice, and illustrates the evolution of the concept from its simple 'reflection' origins. Critical reflection is viewed by many as the cognitive process linking theory and practical work, vital in critical thinking.
Systematically using reflection to consider what theory has to offer for our own learning and professional work can help us move from thought to action. Reflexivity and reflective learning together empower critically reflective learners for continuous improvement in performance, at individual and organizational levels. The nature of thought is obviously personal, being the product of our own brain, so our own thinking tends to be subjective to some degree. If reflective thinking is to be useful for our learning and development, and for improving our actions and decisions in an environment, then this reflective thinking must include some objectivity. We should consider what experts have said about this, and how we might best allow for natural human tendencies towards subjective thinking within Reflective Practice. However, Schon and others have noted that even 'objective' evidence-based problem-solving methods can be flawed, if a habitual routine approach fails to question and challenge the status quo.
For example, a reasonable evidence-based reflection made in the 1970s would have concluded that a lack of computer skills was unlikely ever to be a serious obstacle to professional development (other than for computer scientists and programmers), whereas by 2000 it had become virtually impossible to maintain a normal domestic existence, let alone develop a career, without a good command of IT and online technology.
Nudge theory, and the heuristics within it (especially the human tendency to place undue emphasis on 'evidence') are very useful in understanding why people can be misguided by apparent 'facts', and how this can have a huge effect on groups and society. Some types of subjective instinctive thinking is unhelpful, but other types can be tremendously effective in finding truth and solutions.
So we need to be more subtle in understanding what objectivity and subjectivity mean in relation to Reflective Practice. We can increase our objectivity by increasing our awareness of our assumptions and expectations. This approach is very much aligned with notions of metacognition, (awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes). We can also use objective evidence to support our reflections, and in this way reduce bias in interpreting events and experiences. So particularly when reflecting on human values and social relationships we can increase the validity of our reflections by using evidence. Nevertheless subjective reflections can be valuable, provided we are aware of the dangers of bias. Moreover, while isolated reflections are often unreliable and transient, a collection of subjective reflections can produce a meaningful picture. Lawrence-Wilkes and Ashmore - Linda Lawrence-Wilkes and Dr Lyn Ashmore, teachers of professional development in higher education in northern England, collaborated to publish their research on Reflective Practice for learning, 'The Reflective Practitioner in Professional Education' (2014). As we reflect on new ideas and knowledge, we can stand back to gain new insights as patterns emerge to create a more holistic picture. Like seeing stars in the night sky - it can be difficult to see them at first - we see just a black sky - but when our eyes become sensitive to the stars, we see more and more of them.
So, like star-gazing, in adopting a critical attitude - we must allow the whole picture to develop.
Judgements are based on what is most reasonable, using contextualized evaluation to determine the validity of data. Here 'contextualized' means that we consider data - subjective and objective - according to its context, so that facts and feelings are not seen in unreliable isolation. Building on these ideas, Lawrence-Wilkes and Ashmore propose an integrated model of critical reflection which acknowledges a social context. This requires a reflective approach that accepts and respects diverse perspectives, supported by evidence, and produces shared and inclusive knowledge. And at a personal level, someone who reflects on may progress to take action for change in wider society.
And at a personal level, someone who reflects on their personal and professional life may build on strengths and address development gaps to progress and take action for change in wider society. The Reflective Rational Enquiry diagram below supports critical reasoned reflection through an integrated reflective-rational approach. Knowledge and experience are interpreted and analysed through the filter of perception and context, using reflective activities to obtain new insights for independent thinking and action.
When we put Reflective Practice into effect we are actually seeking to make a change, by using subjective and objective data from experience, to plan and decide actions. This section seeks to convey some methods for using Reflective Practice - either for yourself, or to help others use the concept. It's helpful to revisit what reflection within Reflective Practice actually means, since reflection crucially assists us to make successful change. Jenny Moon - Jenny Moon is a Teaching Fellow and Associate Professor at Bournemouth University. Most of us reflect superficially all the time, about what we are doing during events or experiences in our daily lives.
This expression 'thinking on our feet' often refers to a lack of preparation or reacting to a suprising situation, although its deeper meaning is that we are reflecting about a situation 'in the moment', in a broad external sense, and also an internal personal sense. While reflecting 'in the moment' is valuable, and can produce effective immediate solutions, we might not develop these reflections beyond the event itself, and not retain these valuable pieces of reflective learning when we move on to other tasks. If however we think more proactively, more deliberate reflection can generate conclusions and actions for making future improvements, preventing repeated mistakes, and other positive change. Put very simply, thinking about a task as we are doing it can lead to making changes to improve the outcome of the task. For example, if I put a bundle of white clothes in the washing machine and see that the water has turned a blue, I am thinking I might have left a blue sock in the bundle, or a blue pen that was in my shirt pocket. We can probably all recall times in our lives when we have failed to reflect on a negative experience, consequently failed to consider options for change - and so a repeat of the mistake becomes inevitable. It is a nuisance if all our white clothes eventually become blue, but if we fail to reflect and take corrective action in more serious areas, results can be catastrophic - for example in a busy hospital, or manufacturing aircraft components. We can start using Reflective Practice by simply (and mindfully, intentionally) thinking about things that have happened in our lives, whether in a personal or professional situation.
We can reflect in lots of different ways on a range of different events or experiences that are important to us. For example, on our journey home from work or study, (especially on public transport when we don't need to concentrate on traffic) we can devote a little time to consider things that happened during the day. We can reflect while walking the dog, doing the washing-up or ironing, cutting the lawn, cleaning, and even when watching TV - you'll be surprised at how much time is spent sitting in front of a TV not actually engaged with what's on screen, just day-dreaming, in a trance.
We might think about one particular event or situation, or a series of events or experiences: what went well, what might not have gone quite so well, and what we could have done better or different to make our day more successful.
We usually reflect to a degree about an event when it happens or very quickly afterwards, however by reviewing it later usually we can see it differently, and discover different feelings about it.
Transactional Analysis, and its underpinning theory - offer very relevant details as to why and how our emotions can become heightened, so that our mood and attitudes distort from a more normal evenly balanced viewpoint. It's long been recognized that the quality of reviews in such situations can vary greatly, depending on how quickly the review follows the event. During 'hot' reviews, Reflective Practice among trainees is typically greatly influenced by their emotions and reactions to the event's pressures (as in the expression 'in the heat of the moment'). Note that 'hot' reviews can themselves be very valuable - provided people understand that they are 'hot', and that people focus on how emotions can affect the way we behave. Moreover, if you are teaching people about Reflective Practice, then it can be very helpful to demonstrate the difference between 'hot' and 'cold' reviews, rather than merely avoiding 'hot' reviews altogether. Accordingly take extra care in facilitating group reflections wherever emotions are likely to distort people's views of their own behaviour and its consequences.
In any situation, remember that emotions can significantly influence our perceptions about an experience, and timing (or reflection in relation to an event) can significantly influence our emotions.
So where appropriate, delaying our reflection usually enables us to see things more clearly, minimising distortions caused by emotions.
The excellent Fisher theory of personal transition is also a very useful aid to understanding how time alters our feelings about events, especially our reactions to a pressure for change. While written records are helpful and memorable, especially for personal individual reflection, reflections do not always have to be in writing. This is particularly so where a group (or more than one person) is involved in Reflective Practice, so that reflections can be shared through discussion. Reflect at the right time - Reflect at appropriate times in relation to any experiences which are stressful or intense (intense experiences need a cooling-off period before 'cold' reflection is possible). Balance subjective and objective reflection - Be aware of the difference between your subjective reflection and your objective reflection - both are useful and relevant, but you must understand what is subjective and what is objective, and you must strive to balance each in arriving at the most helpful and clear overall understanding.
Seek external clarifications - Refer to external references, advice, information, clarifications, facts, figures, etc., especially where you believe that your thinking is not factual enough, or you are not fully informed about situations. Activities such as walking, swimming, yoga, and exercising can also produce dramatic shifts in thought patterns.
Various experts have produced Reflective Practice models to help people use Reflective Practice more deliberately, proactively, and effectively. First, this very simple and memorable model offers a very flexible process for using Reflective Practice, and especially for getting started and experimenting with the concept.
The Gibbs' reflective cycle, inspired partly by Kolb's learning cycle, enables us to focus especially on our own and others' feelings, views and perceptions. This toolkit provides supports for developing core components of a community intervention and adapting them to fit the context.
Indicate how you will obtain clients' input, identifying and analyzing problems and goals to be addressed by the intervention.
Interviews - What questions will you ask of whom about the problem or goal and possible interventions?
Community forums - What public situations would present an opportunity for you to discuss the problem or goal, and how will you use the opportunity? Concerns surveys - What questions of whom will you ask about the problem or goal and potential solutions? The negative (positive) consequences for those directly affected and the broader community.
Identify and assess "best practices" or "evidence-based interventions" that could help address the problem or goal.
How strong is the evidence that each potential “best practice” caused the observed improvement? Burj El Barajneh is a Palestinian refugee camp (BBC) in Beirut, Lebanon, and the 6th largest of the 12 official campus established after 1948.
The population of Palestinian refugees in Burj El Barajneh refugee camp has been greatly expanding since its establishment in 1948.
The Burj el Barajneh camp, located in the southern suburbs of Beirut, is the 6th largest of the 12 official camps.
Though the survey was conducted with 13-19 year olds, a community coalition prioritized primary prevention. The Qaderoon intervention was based on data gathered about unmarried young people aged 13-19 years in the BBC but led to the implementation of an intervention for 11-13 year olds. The first was an exploratory phase, and the bulk of it was aimed at obtaining the input from the community. The exploratory phase also included conducting focus groups with mothers and teachers of youth in order to gain their perspective on youth health and social issues. Based on the acknowledgement that root social and political determinants were impossible to change in the short term, a decision was made to focus only on the proximal determinants (individual, interpersonal, and organizational).  Within this list, those perceived to be amenable to intervention were selected (see objectives below). Goals of the program included promoting mental health of refugee children and increase their attachment to school through social skill-building engaging sessions.
The outcome measure was related to mental health or positive youth development; the target age group was appropriate. Selected interventions were summarized based on the criteria described above, and placed on large sheets of paper and hung on the wall. Ten sessions were pilot-tested with youth of the same age group recruited from schools in another camp, and changes were made accordingly. The skills-building sessions for youth were interactive and conducted during out-of-school hours but within school premises. When the intervention was still being developed, cultural adaptation was required, because there were issues specific to Arab youth and refugee youth. When the intervention was being implemented, facilitators and mentors noted that the children would, at times, have short attention spans. Parents were often a barrier, and interviews with them quickly concluded that it was either because they (parents) were not aware of when the sessions were being held, and also that they did not see a lot of educational value to ‘Qaderoon’ and preferred to have their children study at home.
A thorough process evaluation was implemented during the intervention measuring reach, dose delivered and received, satisfaction and fidelity.
Each flip chart paper on the wall describes one of the evidence-based interventions found in the literature.  The CYC members rotated to read ten of these sheets and discussed relevance to the context. Contributed by Leah Soweid, American University of Beirut, Intern with the Community Tool Box.
The Take Charge Challenge is a 10-week physical activity program in which participants determine their individual readiness for physical activity, set goals, and pursue activities that interest and challenge them.
The Americans with Disabilities Act requires equal access to public facilities, systems, and recreation programs, but people with disabilities often face barriers that limit their ability to participate in recreational activities. People with disabilities themselves need to recognize the importance of physical activity and develop the motivation to lead active lives.
Needed environmental changes typically include increasing the accessibility of recreation facilities and outdoor spaces.
Physical inactivity among people with disabilities was observed directly and reported through data. Observation shows, too, that people with disabilities are often left out of health promotion programs and interventions.
To achieve this, people with disabilities were involved in the development and implementation of the intervention. The problem of physical inactivity can be attributed to these factors, many of which can be influenced by raising awareness and providing information. People with disabilities are not the only ones responsible for the problem of physical inactivity. Physical activity should be seen as important for and by people with disabilities, and they should have the same opportunities to be physically active as those without disabilities. Before designing an intervention from scratch, consider existing programs that can be adapted for use in a different situation or with a different population.
DETERMINE WHAT YOU CAN GENUINELY AFFORD TO DO FINANCIALLY, POLITICALLY, AND IN TERMS OF TIME AND RESOURCES. While funding is limited to implement the intervention, the intervention costs are limited to only the provision of incentives, which can be determined on a case-by-case basis depending on available funds.
Developed as a worksite intervention, the original Take Charge Challenge has benefits such as a captive audience and existing organizational structure provided by the work environment.
The Take Charge Challenge can be implemented in any group setting, either already existing or developed specifically for the intervention, involving people with and without disabilities.
When the program is implemented, participants receive information about the challenge, the importance of physical activity, and how they can increase their physical activity level. The program is implemented by a site coordinator, called a “champion,” and a team head, called “coach.” Champions help with marketing and recruitment and motivate the coaches, who, in turn, motivate the participants during the program.
The New Mexico Office of Disability and Health provides resources and support in the initial stages. Context: In 1992, when Rodrigo Guerrero was elected mayor of Cali, Colombia, his platform was built on the foundation that he would decrease the rising rates of violence during his term. The mayor and people shared a vision of a Cali community that was one of development, security, and peace. To provide a solid basis for an effective intervention, Rodrigo Guerrero, mayor of Cali, brought together experts with different knowledge and experience to map out patterns of violence.

The mayor and the community members of Cali carefully analyzed the problems that the community was facing in regards to violence.
Desepaz  was brought about to promote social development, provide education in pacifism values, and to foster democratic policing. SPECIFY THE CORE COMPONENTS AND ELEMENTS OF THE INTERNVENTION BASED ON THE ANALYSIS AND IDENTIFIED BEST PRACTICES. DESEPAZ was the name given to the multi-component intervention to prevent violence in Cali. From the evidence gathered, the group decided that it was not possible to find a single cause that could explain the complete picture of the violence in the city, so they decided that it was necessary to come up with a comprehensive intervention to have a significant impact. They also decided that the intervention had to be based on scientific research. In addition, a special training program on human rights was conducted for the police, based on the Colombian Constitution and specific skills related to their performance as police agents of peace and security. At the request of citizens and community and neighborhood leaders, special private meetings were organized with the local law enforcement agents to discuss specific safety-related issues and to plan local interventions.
The first "House of Peace" was inaugurated in the largest poverty-stricken area of the city.
Alcohol production is a monopoly and the main source of revenue for the states in Colombia. A wide array of educational commercials about peaceful coexistence, civic education, tolerance, and responsible behavior were broadcast through the local television channel.
The opening of seventeen youth houses proved to be an effective way of providing young people from the poorer areas with a safe place to use as their own for parties, meetings, dancing, aerobics, and cultural events.
INDICATE HOW YOU WILL ADAPT THE INTERVENTION OR BEST PRATICES TO FIT THE NEEDS AND CONTEXT OF YOUR COMUNITY. With input from community members, Desepaz created programs and policies that fit the beliefs, traditions, and values of the people of Cali. After months of research and planning the group assembled by the mayor submitted DESEPAZ for formal approval. The girls then met with an advisory board and with the assistance of Omaha Healthy Kids Coalition, they planned and produced a Lead Poisoning Health Awareness Fair, which occurred June 29, 2007 at Girls Inc.
Community participants included advisory board members representing the following community consumers: a parent, a Girls Inc.
Context: The child mortality rates in Kenya are as high as 126 males per 1000 and 120 females per 1000 live births.
Kenya is one of the 42 countries that account for 90% of all under-five deaths in the world. This intervention would be targeted towards mothers, infants, children, families, and the environments in which they live. This initiative, however, only addresses the improvement of health services but does not address other social determinants of health such as income and education of guardians, early childhood development programs, food insecurity, and housing. In order to identify and analyze this problem, data was first collected on the current status of the health care system. In addition to the lack of proper health service facilities and professionals to care for sick children, factors such as lack of proper nutrition, access to clean water and food, access to childhood immunizations, and poverty contribute to infant and child mortality. This intervention, however, also addresses the problem of lack of proper training of healthcare workers and lack of counseling of the caretakers of sick children. The aim of the UN Millennium Development Goal Number 4 is to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds (from 32 to 21 or less per 1000 childbirths) between 1990 and 2015.
IMCI is an evidence-based intervention that was developed by WHO and tested in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Nepal Tanzania. IMCI is an approach to taking care of sick children and thus reducing instances of child mortality and morbidity. This intervention also emphasizes enhancing support and services and also modifying access, barriers, and opportunities. According to experiences in IMCI introduction in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Nepal, this intervention is first introduced in pre-service education of doctors, nurses, other healthcare workers and the Ministry of Health in order to provide knowledge on how the intervention works so that it can be implemented successfully. In order for this intervention to be successful in Kenya, it requires coordination among existing health programs and services and also working closely with local governments and the Ministry of Health to plan and adapt the principles of the approach to the local context. IMCI was implemented in Tanzania beginning in 1997 in two pioneer districts (Morogoro Rural and Rufiji) with support from the Canadian-funded TEHIP (Tanzania Essential Health Interventions Project). English has the largest vocabulary of any language in the world.A Whether you are a beginner or an advanced speaker of English, you are always growing your vocabulary. The richer your vocabulary, the more fluently you can speak the language, so you should be learning new words every day. But when you dona€™t live in an English speaking country you dona€™t have nearly as many opportunities to expand your vocabulary in your everyday life. English has the largest vocabulary of any language, which makes it very rich and colorful.A  This is because it has large influence from Latin languages (especially French), Germanic languages (like Dutch, Danish, German and Frisian), and Celtic languages. The Internet and technology advances are also having huge influences on English, creating new words every year like YOLO (You Only Live Once), tweeting and meme. This three part series of articles will help you with tips on how you can improve you vocabulary daily, so you can start speaking more like a native.
When I was studying abroad, I was constantly bombardedA (hit) by words I didna€™t know, and I couldna€™t possibly remember them all. Even if you arena€™t living in a country where youa€™re surrounded by the target language, this is still a great idea.
If your English is at a more advanced level, I recommend that you dona€™t simply write down the translation of the new words in your language.
For example, if one of your new words is seagull, you could draw a picture of it, you could write a€?birda€?, you could write a€?beacha€?, or you could write a€?the seagull eats fish out of the oceana€?.A  By forcing yourself not to translate, you foster a more fluent mindset (attitude). Monday through Friday, we post interesting words or idioms on the Real Life English Facebook group and fan page.
We then talk about them in each week’s Real Life English ESL Podcast, released every tuesday. These are great because they are defined in English, with an example in English, and a picture that hopefully can help you remember the word or phrase better.
These are also aimed to be expressions and words that you wona€™t learn in a normal English class, so through their use you can sound more fluent (and like a native speaker).
How many words do you know in English?A Take this free test here, and let it inspire you to learn more!
I want conversition partner to improve my English landuage , and I can teach Arabic if you want . I want conversition partner to improve my English language , and I can teach Arabic if you want to learn Arabic . It is a set of ideas that can be used alongside many other concepts for training, learning, personal development, and self-improvement. This is for clarity and style - the term can be shown equally correctly as 'reflective practice', or 'Reflective practice'.
Over 2,500 years ago the ancient Greeks practised 'reflection' as a form of contemplation in search of truth, and this ancient meaning of reflection features in several modern definitions.
The earliest historical records demonstrate the great interest which humanity has had in itself. Metacognition can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving.
There is a broad correlation between metacognition (being aware of one's own thinking) and conscious competence (being aware of one's own capability) - because, for example, we can't go beyond our limits until we know what our limits are. Reflection here means looking beneath the surface to find the truth about something, to draw conclusions for building new knowledge. Here we examine ourselves to gauge our values, assumptions, behaviour and relationships, and thereby monitor our learning and develop our intra-personal and inter-personal skills (equating to self-management, and external relationships). This extends to consideration of wider socio-political perspectives and other relevant diverse contexts, theory and professional activity. This extends to being able to form a theoretical view or analysis, as would allow clear explanation to others, if required. You will see below the increasing sophistication of the ideas, from basic reflection, to critical thinking, to critically Reflective Practice. Kant wrote the 'Critique of Reason' in 1781, which supported ideas for a scientific logical and rational thinking approach, enabling reasoned thinking, being superior to dogma and other received opinion from authority. He asserted that to believe in something with no evidence is inadequate, and instead we should check if there are accurate and agreed supporting facts, and who agreed them (1926). He is seen as the founder of experiential education, linking reflection and action, so as to enable new experience and knowledge.
He asserted that experience, concept, reflection and action are the foundation by which adult thought is developed (1969).
In his 1984 book, 'Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development', Kolb extended the ideas of Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget and others, about adult learning, to produce an experiential learning concept - often represented by Kolb's Learning Process Diagram. In other words, if we learn better and have better outcomes, we will be more successful in life.
He produced a series of books on learning, Reflective Practice, and significantly, the development of reflective practitioners. This builds on Dewey's (1933) concept of a purposeful reasoned process, delaying impulsive action to allow reflective judgement for action (US-English judgment). Significantly his view was mainly of society, and saw personal reflection as an aspect of societal health. Dr Kitchener is internationally renowned for her work on adolescent development and reflective judgment, and ethics in psychology. For example, in the context of work-based management training, EQ-driven self-awareness should be explored safely within agreed professional boundaries, so as to avoid being too personal or introspective. In his book on 'Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher' (1995) he takes a wider view of critical reflection.
Theory, and especially research and evidence-based facts - help us to understand the world beyond our own experience. After all, theory based on solid research evidence is largely recycled 'best practice' from the relevant field of study.
These powerful implications for learning suggest that the reflective practitioner can transcend basic training and knowledge transfer, to instead facilitate real growth in people and in groups, and the fulfilment of human potential (US-English fulfillment). This has been suggested from the start of its modern appreciation, among others, notably in the work of Immanuel Kant and Bertrand Russell. Where our thinking is very subjective, for example when we feel very emotional about something, this subjectivity can become unhelpful, especially if we are stressed or angry, or upset, which can substantially distort interpretations.
This is an extreme example of how reliance on 'evidence' or 'facts' can produce an unreliable reflection, and also highlights how subjective reflections based on feelings can change according to mood, circumstances, time, etc. Or put another way, we will reliably increase our objectivity in Reflective Practice by recognising our assumptions and expectations, and being able to differentiate this data from objective facts and evidence. Our initial struggle to see a single star naturally resolves, as we absorb more detail, so that we can eventually discern increasingly complex patterns, and eventually vast constellations.
We must be open to an evolving picture - to adopt a questioning stance, and to look beyond the surface to find truth. She has written much on reflective learning and the use of learning journals to support professional development. Some call this 'thinking on our feet' (a metaphor based on thinking while acting, which contrasts with more deliberate concentrated thought). And then extending my reflective thinking, besides checking pockets properly, I may reflect on other methods to get an even whiter wash.
This emotional sensation, usually very subjective, naturally happens due to the production of stress and action hormones in our nervous systems. The discussion can then lead to collective agreement about future actions, changes and improvements. The Emergent Knowledge concept, in which a person's location can have a dramatic effect on thinking, and aid the stimulation of different attitudes or unlock feelings. For example, taking exercise is proven to reduce stress levels, especially in countryside or green spaces, and this is certainly beneficial for reflection. What behaviors of whom would need to change for the problem (or goal) to be eliminated (addressed).
According the data collected in 2008-2009, it is home to approximately 14,000-18,000 inhabitants over an area of 1.6 km squared, a number that has continued to increase significantly since then. After observing a high drop-out rate, and high levels of indicators of mental ill-ease among youth, an intervention called “Qaderoon” (Arabic for “We are capable”) was developed, implemented and evaluated in partnership with a community coalition. Palestinian refugees in Lebanon have the worst living circumstances of any of the Palestinian refugees in the Arab region (prior to the Syrian crisis that began in 2011), with state-imposed restrictions and very limited human rights. The prioritized groups to benefit were therefore children ages 11-14 years old who were attending UNRWA schools in 5th and 6th grade and living in the camp. It consisted of a needs assessment (conducted during the spring of 2003) with the objective of assessing youth social and health issues using several data collection methods.
Parents stated that youth have no guarantees due to their difficult socio-economic circumstances, lack of financial opportunities, and disengagement with the school system.
Subsequently, locally specific determinants identified from the survey, from the focus groups, or from the experience of NGOs working in the camp were added to the problem analysis. Objectives included improving communication skills, problem-solving skills, conflict-resolution skills, improving self-esteem, and building relationships. With respect to age group, mental health issues become especially relevant in this context at age 14, large numbers of Palestinian refugee children drop out of school.
The pilot involved the implementation of 20% of the intervention, and the results suggested that procedures needed to be tweaked in order to allow for child privacy when assessing.
The process was carried out by a graduate student studying psychology, who was a member of the CYC with background experience in education in the camp with youth. Each session began by identifying the session objective, followed by a detailed description of activities to meet the objectives and time allocated to each. It was concluded that, despite the conservative nature of the community, mixed gender groups were acceptable when the intent was educational and to serve the community.
This was met with the creation of English reading sessions to increase the perceived educational value of the program. The process evaluation indicated that session objectives were successful and that speci?c session activities were applied accordingly. Originally developed as a worksite health promotion program, the New Mexico Office of Disability and Health modified the Take Charge Challenge to meet the needs of people with disabilities and to be an inclusive program where people of all abilities can participate. Surgeon General’s Report states adults should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate physical activity five or more days a week to reduce the risk of chronic disease. To eliminate these barriers, communities should offer accessible environments that enable people with disabilities to engage in physical activity using public recreation facilities, transportation systems, parks, trails, and other outdoor spaces.
However, the environment in most communities presents barriers to their increased physical activity. These changes include increased physical access, such as accessible parking, ramps, smooth surfaces, Braille signage, and accessible bathrooms that accommodate people with disabilities. Population-based surveys document the disparity that exists between physical activity levels of people with and without disabilities. Though not purposeful, many program designs do not address the needs of people with disabilities or offer the flexibility that may be necessary to accommodate different abilities. Centers for independent living, which primarily serve people with disabilities, piloted the intervention and used feedback from participants to modify the program. Many physical activity programs are prescriptive (for example, walk three times a week) and do not take into account individual needs and abilities. However, environmental factors can be more difficult to change, often requiring systems change and involvement at different levels of community government.
Professionals in the medical and public health fields, family members, and others who fail to promote the health of people with disabilities also contribute to the problem. For example, the original Take Charge Challenge was a worksite physical activity program discovered by a staff member at the New Mexico Office of Disability and Health and was then adapted for people with disabilities. Incentive examples include tangible items such as tote bags, gift certificates, and T-shirts.
Lack of structure in some community groups, as well as recruitment difficulties, could be potential barriers to a community implementation of the program.  Other barriers might involve environmental factors such as inaccessible facilities that may limit where or how a participant can be physically active. The following table distinguishes the components or “strategies” from the elements or “tactics” of the intervention.
A physical activity readiness scale is administered at the beginning and end of the program. The intervention is designed to be replicated, and the Office of Disability and Health develops materials to support this process. For those changes to occur, new programs had to be developed for police, the judicial system, and the local human rights offices.
The mayor felt it was important to have a clearer idea of the actually rates of homicide in the city. The mayor of Cali worked to make educational information on tolerance available to the whole community.
This group included demobilized guerrillas, representatives of the labor unions, members of the Catholic Church, and leaders of the private sector.
The availability of guns and the lack of gun control laws were found to be major contributing factors. Success of this program would mean lower rates of homicide for the community, a more educated and involved community and police force, and a community that encourages development, security, and peace.
The income disparity would be addressed by the community as a whole, but specifically by the government. At that time, there was significant disagreement among the different authorities on the number of homicides, since police data did not coincide with data from other sources.
Television was used for messages about reducing violence since it was available to virtually all people, including many of the poor. This house offered the opportunity to enhance personal contact among staff members of different institutions and proved to be effective in enhancing cooperation, coordination, and effectiveness in their work. At the beginning of the mayor's tenure, there was a shortage of 25,000 primary school openings in the city. A mass media campaign was launched with collaboration of the private sector to educate Cali citizens on tolerance and respect. Two popular music orchestras, several theater groups, and sports teams grew from one of the youth houses.
Ongoing evaluations use the weekly reports to access improvements in mortality and injuries due to violence. Three of the four girls presented the findings from this project at the annual Public Health Association of Nebraska conference in Grand Island NE on September 23, 2007. The majority of children’s deaths are caused by diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, measles, malaria, dengue fever, and malnutrition. This involves addressing various factors associated with mortality rate including nutritional status, breastfeeding, maternal and child health status, environmental health factors, and socioeconomic factors (Rutstein, 2000), and developing appropriate interventions. Findings of the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) reveal that one in every nine children born dies before age five, mainly of acute respiratory infection, diarrhea, measles, malaria, and malnutrition.
An improvement in child health services, one of the components of reducing infant and child mortality, would benefit the whole community because it would provide both preventative and tertiary care. The World Health Organization (WHO) established the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) in 2005 to provide advice on how to reduce these inequities. An analysis of child health service provision was collected using facility inventory questionnaires, health worker interviews, observation of sick-child consultations, and an exit interview of the caretaker of a sick child.  The facility inventory questionnaire was intended to get information on departments, staff, and equipment at the healthcare facility. Although this intervention does not directly address these issues, there are other programs that have currently been implemented in Kenya that address these other issues. In Kenya, success of this intervention would be evident in an increased number of children receiving immunizations, improvement in maternal healthcare system, an increase in the number of women receiving prenatal care, and an increase in the knowledge of the caretakers as evidenced by the improved care given to the children. The strategy was then chosen to be implemented by the Kenyan government as a new approach to child survival efforts. It incorporates three major principles which include full assessment of a sick child, counseling of caretakers, and healthcare facility support. It does so by making upgraded care possible by ensuring that enough of the right low-cost medicines and simple equipment are available, strengthening care in hospitals for those children too sick to be treated in an outpatient clinic, and developing support mechanisms within communities for preventing disease, for helping families to care for sick children, and for getting children to clinics or hospitals when needed. This intervention was implemented in Tanzania and according to the Multi-Country Evaluation (MCE) undertaken by WHO it showed success. Partners assisted in the assessment of the problem, planning of implementation in the target districts, monitoring behavior change associated with the problem, and evaluating community-level outcomes. In 2002, IMCI was also implemented in two other districts (Kilombero and Ulanga) that served as comparison districts.
English is always growing in vocabulary, as it borrows from other languages as well (for example people sometimes substitute a€?pleasea€? for a€?por favora€? because of Spanish influence). I found that keeping a pocket-sized notebook on me at all times is a very useful technique to remember the new words that I would hear. Commit to writing down five new words every day, and then review the words every day until you find that they have been integrated into your vocabulary. Instead, try to draw a picture, write a synonym, note something that will remind you of the new word’s definition, or give an example sentence. For more advanced English speakers this is a great way for you to enrich your vocabulary and make your writing less repetitive. These are also a good resource because rather than translating the words into your native tongue you read a definition and synonyms in English.
If you havena€™t joined theA Real Life English International Learning Community, we encourage you to join thousands of members from 60+ countries! There are references also to the power of reflective learning in the writings attributed to ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius, around 460BC. Human self-reflection invariably leads to inquiry into the human condition and the essence of humankind as a whole. The process of Reflective Practice seeks to enable insights and aid learning for new personal understanding, knowledge, and action, to enhance our self-development and our professional performance. In 1910, he wrote a book for teachers titled 'How We Think', in which he described critical thinking as reflective thought, moving reflection beyond contemplation. This suggests that reflection is needed for learning, and connects reflection with action, to underpin critically reflective thinking for new understanding and knowledge.
Köhler expanded the notion of simple 'trial and error' to suggest a mental process which visualises a problem and considers a solution before taking action, triggering 'aha' or 'light-bulb' moments.
His seminal work 'The Reflective Practitioner' (1983) focused on professional Reflective Practice and the role of the reflective practitioner.

Professor Larrivee agrees that insightful experience can trigger changes in outlook, necessary for critical Reflective Practice. In his work 'The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality' (Vol 2, 1992 pp8-9, published posthumously), which built on his original 1976 'History of Sexuality' book, he discussed the value of using reflection to consider how to go beyond the limits of our existing knowledge, in order to work towards intellectual growth and freedom. Foucault's ideas prompt us to see very easily that Reflective Practice is ultimately a tool by which society and civilization can improve, far beyond notions of individual self-improvement and professional development.
He wrote the best-selling 1996 book 'Emotional Intelligence' and is jointly acknowledged as originating and defining the EQ concept. Emotional Intelligence is a good example of a highly complementary theory to use alongside Reflective Practice.
Reflecting on theory - combined with personal experience - offers a potent basis for inspiring new ideas to put into effect, to achieve continuous improvement and development. Organizational theory is mainly drawn from studies in the workplace, and specifically for example, the management theorist Meredith Belbin's research into management teams has created a body of knowledge and understanding about team dynamics and effectiveness.
He suggested that reflection does not sit easily within a modern Western culture based on scientific reasoning (1998).
This might be simply standing rather than sitting, or moving to a different part of the room, or relocating greater distances.
The dire social and environmental conditions faced by Palestinian refugees in Lebanon are recurrently stated to be the most severe in the region, especially due to limitations in economic resources, employment opportunities and basic health services.
The aim of the year-long social skills building intervention was to promote positive mental health of the refugee children and increase attachment to school. Although education is provided by the United Nations Works Agency, lack of access to work opportunities, as well as crowded classrooms due to underfunding and an expanding population results in many children dropping out of school around 14 years of age.
The implementation team consisted of a master trainer, 6 facilitators, and 23 youth mentors.
The choice was made to focus on positive mental health defined as “a person’s ability to cope with adversity, and avoid breakdown or diverse health problems when confronted with adverse experiences” (Korkeila 2000). These determinants spanned various ecologic level from individual, to interpersonal (peers, families) to organization (schools), and to those relevant to the larger environment (context of Lebanon and the camp).
Subsequently, a long discussion took place to assess the fit of each with the context based on the experience of the CYC members. The pilot session also provided strong feedback in regards to the session length and cognitive level of activities. Several issues related to the unique culture and context arose and had to be dealt with such as seating arrangements of girls and boys and speci?c topics for role plays.
Monthly schedules were also sent home with children so that the parents could know when the sessions were taking place. Presently, people with disabilities are less likely to engage in regular physical activity compared to people without disabilities.
And, then, people with disabilities could have the same opportunities to be physically active as those without disabilities. Therefore recreation providers and community leaders also need to recognize the rights and needs of people with disabilities for physical activity and do what they can to eliminate barriers for people with disabilities. It also includes access to programs such as recreation classes and access to adaptive equipment. Programs specifically for people with disabilities, though sometimes beneficial, are not always necessary and often do not allow people to be active with family and friends. In a less direct way, the intervention can benefit community members by setting an example of how simple adaptations can create a program that includes everyone. In addition, environmental barriers often result from decisions made by government leaders, developers, and planners.
Various organizations successfully have used this individualistic and non-prescriptive approach that also often works well for people with disabilities.
The intervention’s low cost contributed to its potential replication in a variety of settings, thus its practicality, simplicity and effectiveness. Using existing community groups can help, but efforts need to be made to reach those outside of structured groups.
An additional short health survey is administered at the beginning and end of the program and three months post-program for evaluation purposes. In the future, any person or group should be able to access these materials on-line and implement the program with minimal funding for incentives. Everyone seemed to know someone who had been a victim of some kind of violence.  An overview of the steps taken to develop an intervention to prevent violence follows.
Programs were also developed to improve the lives of community members, including programs to meet the basic needs of the poor. Epidemiological studies were conducted to identify the principal risk factors for violence and to shape the priorities for action. Television advertisements, scheduled to show at peak watching times, highlighted the importance of tolerance of others and self-control.
They all came together to design a policy and strategy to deal with the problem of violence. Educational and cultural programs would be in place to give people alternatives to occupy their time. There was no information about the simplest descriptive aspects of violence in the city, such as the profiles of the victims and perpetrators and the specific circumstances in which crimes took place. Led by an epidemiologist, a Committee was created that included representatives of the Police, Judiciary, Forensic Medicine, Health, and Human Rights sectors.
In these meetings, statistical information about the violent deaths of the past week was analyzed and plans were coordinated for law enforcement action.
To address alcohol abuse the city government established the "ley semi seca" (semi-dry law) that ordered bars and discotheques to close at 1 a.m.
40,000 new schools were opened so that 100% coverage for public primary education was insured for the next few years.
After a year of preparation, a six month long Olympic Event took place, including many different sports and involving more than 100,000 participants of all sexes and ages.
One girl wrote and choreographed a rap about lead poisoning, which was performed by six girls from Girls Inc. Future “Girls Take Charge” projects will focus on other child health issues in North Omaha.
Infants deaths, however, are mostly caused by congenital phenomenon exacerbated by low birth weight, poor sanitation and water supply, poverty, inadequate food supplies, lack of education and information to mothers on how to take care of their infants, and inadequate healthcare, including lack of proper pre-natal care for the mother. According to reports from the Central Bureau of Statistics and the National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development (NCAPD) in Kenya, the infant mortality rate increased from about 60 per 1,000 in 1990 to 74 in 1998 and 77 in 2003, while under-five mortality continued to increase from about 90 per 1,000 in 1990 to 112 in 1998 and 115 in 2003.
The government of Kenya’s Ministry of Health has developed and implemented new approaches to child survival efforts. They compiled and launched a report in August 2008 with three overarching recommendations that include improving daily living conditions, tackling the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources, and measuring and understanding the problem, and assessing the impact of action. The healthcare worker interviews surveyed training (pre and in-service) and supervision of the healthcare workers. For example, the Gender Equality Action Plan implemented by the Department for International Development (DFID) works in Kenya to reduce levels of morbidity and mortality in children by providing equipment and training in obstetrics care within health institutions and also social marketing of family planning. The IMCI strategy has been a promising strategy to reduce morbidity and infant and child mortality by implementing three main components: improving health workers' skills in case management, improving the health systems, and improving family and community childcare practices.
For the first principle, IMCI stresses thorough assessment of the major childhood symptoms and a complete physical examination of the child, checking of immunization and Vitamin A status of sick children, and monitoring growth. Another core component of this intervention is that it modifies the existing health system by adopting an integrated approach to child health and development in the national health policy that ensures the combined treatment of the major childhood illnesses, prevention of disease through immunization, and improved nutrition. Tanzania neighbors Kenya to the south and the cultures, traditions, societal and governmental systems in both countries are very similar.
Local partners included Ifakara Centre Demographic Surveillance system, AMMP (Adult Morbidity and Mortality Project), and TEHIP (Tanzania Essential Health Interventions Project).
Collaborating partners that assisted in morbidity and mortality data collection and continuous mortality surveillance included Ifakara Centre Demographic Surveillance system, AMMP (Adult Morbidity and Mortality Project), and TEHIP (Tanzania Essential Health Interventions Project). In a language like English, a rich vocabulary becomes an important resource, especially when writing.
When I didna€™t write them down, Ia€™d find myself asking how to say certain words over and over again.
Right here are another potential three words per day that you can add to your word journal! This higher-level cognition was given the label metacognition by American developmental psychologist John Flavell (1979).
In his model, learning to reflect in action (RIA) and look back on action (ROA) together form a reflective process for decision-making and professional growth. For example; seeing another person's point of view (colleagues, manager, customer) and reflecting through the lens of theory (books, internet, TV, training and development). The business world has used this wider knowledge to understand how to minimize errors in recruitment and team working, and to improve team effectiveness for improved productivity and growth. From this perspective, reflective activities may be seen as too subjective and not sufficiently rooted in evidence, which is considered to be a more valid effective way to find truth.
Mindful of these possible effects, it's very important to conduct a 'cold' review sufficiently later than the event when emotions have cooled (which may be in addition to, or instead of, the 'hot' review immediately after the event). The United Nations Refugee and Works Agency (UNRWA) is one of the organizations that provide health and educational services to the refugee population.
In order to reach these goals, practitioners developed an evidence-informed intervention that included activities for children, parents and teachers and focused on skills such as improving communication skills, problem-solving skills, and relationships.
A household survey conducted in 2003, among 13-19 year old unmarried youth living in the camp indicated that 45% were out of school, ands over a quarter (27%) were working. Teachers also discussed their own personal situations of being underpaid and having to work double-shifts, as they come from the same very difficult environments that the children come from. This interface of evidence with lived experience resulted in the selection of three evidence-based interventions as most appropriate to the context: Stress Inoculation Training, Improving Social Awareness and Social Problem Solving, and Positive Youth Development Programme. The use of qualitative methods during this phase was crucial to understanding the intricacies of implementation to achieve objectives and impact youth health. It began in the summer, with an intensive 2-week intervention (summer phase), and continued on during the academic year, taking place on Fridays and during school holidays until May 2009 (fall phase). Therefore, the issue needs to be addressed on multiple levels including the individual, family, professional, community state, and federal levels. Participants set individual goals for physical activity at the program start, and report on progress at a midpoint and at the end of 10 weeks. He also collaborated with nongovernmental agencies to organize a variety of cultural and educational projects for schools and families to promote discussions on violence and help to resolve interpersonal conflicts.
Economic instability and extreme poverty were recognized as contributors to violence as well.
The community as a whole would feel as though combating violence was a part of their job, not something just to be handled by the police and judicial system.
The contribution of drug traffic and organized crime to the city's violence was completely unknown. This group held weekly meetings to analyze and reach consensus on the occurrences of crime in the previous week and to prepare a report for the Municipal Security Council that met weekly as well.
There was improvement in the quality of education through the creation of six "Didactic Centers" in poor neighborhoods.
Following comprehensive implement action in 1992, desepaz was associated with a 30% reduction of homicides over a 5 year period. Based on resources from the Community Tool Box, the curriculum was adapted for adolescents. The fourth United Nations Millennium Development Goal (MDG) is to reduce the under-five child mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015. This is a reversal in trend after global initiatives to improve child health caused a decline in infant and child mortality in Kenya in the 1970s and 1980s. One of these strategies is Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), a program developed by WHO. For the sick-child consultations, the health provider’s interaction with the caretaker and sick child was observed. In order to improve maternal health and reduce infant mortality specifically, DFID has funded a motorbike ambulance to take women who are in labor to hospital, therefore cutting down on the number of expectant mothers who have to walk for several hours to receive medical attention. This strategy also encompasses a range of interventions that combines prevention and better management of childhood illness with nutrition, immunization, maternal health, and other health programs. International partners include the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). A Multi-Country Evaluation (MCE) of IMCI coordinated by World Health Organization in 1999-2002 found that in Tanzania IMCI improved quality of care for children under 5 years of age, reduced child mortality by 13% and was cost-effective.
The term metacognition literally means cognition about cognition, or more informally, thinking about thinking.
Experiencing surprise or uncertainty during reflection in action could be described as 'light bulb' moments, as in Köhler's earlier insight studies. He regarded critical reflection as vital for promoting learning and self-assessment, enabling us to identify and evaluate our skills and development needs.
Here Reflective Practice is potentially a highly complementary concept alongside Nudge Theory, and The Psychological Contract. EQ significantly alludes to and contrasts with IQ (Intelligence Quotient), because EQ theory tends to regard IQ as a highly limiting way to measure human intelligence, and especially to judge broader human capability.
Dewey supported the idea of theory drawn from practical experience and applied back to practical action - a loop of reflection and action, for learning and development. This 'cold' review process enables Reflective Practice that is clearer, more balanced, and objective. Despite the severe increase in the populace since its founding, the number of schools remains at a standstill, and the effects of this lack of educational support is evident, particularly among the youth. Indicators of mental ill-ease included the occurrence of stressful life events, such as a death in the family over the course of the past year (42%) having a family member in the hospital (67%) and having a parent who had to repay a loan (48%). In that sense, they were a very important part of the implementation team in that they acted as the liaison between the facilitators and the children while they assisted the former in all aspects of the intervention sessions and evaluation process.
Focus group discussions were also conducted with male and female younger and older youth to explore the survey results in greater depth and to help prioritize youth issues.
Training workshops that they attended were often not applicable to their classroom circumstances, and the relationships between them and the students were not strong.
The youth convened in classes set up either with round tables, or in semi circles or on the floor to create an atmosphere of trust, to facilitate sharing and to eliminate sense of hierarchy.
A reward system (stars) was created to make sure ground rules were followed by the children.
These discussions indicated great community support for the ‘Qaderoon’ intervention and perceived impact on social skills of participating children. As for ?delity (defined as sessions where all activities were implemented as planned), the results show that overall 78% of the activities were fully applied. Changes to improve access to public transportation, sidewalks, and other public systems and infrastructure also facilitate behavior changes.
Progress is tracked by the individual using a re-useable calendar provided at the beginning of the intervention. The rates of homicide had risen from 23 in 100,000 in 1983, to 85 per 100,000 in 1991.  The study also found that 30% of homicide victims were intoxicated. The approach recognized that effective violence prevention cannot be imposed from above, but must really be supported by the community.
There also was a lack of accurate information about homicides and violence since records reflected only bodies found, not people who later died from violence in hospitals. People also would have a greater knowledge of actual crime rates, an improved reporting system, and new ways to combat violence.
One of the first tasks of the group was to agree upon an operational definition for each of the different factors of crime.
In the project, the girls identified a community concern and chose a project to address that concern. An overview of the steps taken by a joint initiative of the World Health Organization and UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) to develop an intervention specific to Kenya and the African context in general is as follows.
IMCI is an integrated approach to child health that focuses on the well-being of the whole child. Information on the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of the sick child, as well as the counseling of the caretaker, was also collected. This is part of DFID’s Essential Health Services program that also provides care and support for women through pregnancy and childbirth, and immunization and treatment for their babies.
IMCI was implemented in Tanzania, a neighboring country of Kenya and evaluated by the WHO in the Multi-Country Evaluation (MCE) and it was found to be both cost-effective and efficient in affecting health outcomes. IMCI also stresses that caretakers of sick children should be counseled on the illness of the child and how to cope with it, how to administer drugs given, and how to maintain healthy nutrition and feeding practices for the sick child.
However, IMCI implementation in Tanzania was coupled with the Canadian-funded TEHIP (Tanzania Essential Health Interventions Project), a project which includes a strong research component in two of the target districts, covering a detailed description of changes in provision and utilization of health services and behavioural changes at population level. The terms are used commonly in academic or technical writing, when describing or reporting on reflective methods and activities. He presented this 'insight' as reflective thought, which equates to the 'reflective observation' stage in Kolb's learning cycle. This in turn leads to more proactive personal and professional development planning and continuing professional development (CPD). Among more recent influences, Goleman referenced and developed some very old ideas in developing EQ principles, notably those of Greek philosopher Socrates, dating from 400BC. 67% of youth worked more than 40 hours a week, and 90% earned less than 75,000 LL a week (1$=1500 LL). The master trainer was responsible for supporting the adaptation of the intervention to the context, conducting the pilot sessions, and training and selecting the youth mentors and facilitators, who were chosen based on their prior experience working with children of the similar age groups.
These focus groups led to youth creating and practicing short plays that showcased their prioritized issue, and subsequently presenting them to an audience of the CYC and other adults from the community. As these interventions collectively included activities addressing the identified determinants, the sessions in each were added to estimate the scope of our intervention.
Weekly discussions between facilitators were held, and changes in activities were made accordingly.
Incentives are given at the beginning, middle and end of the program to motivate and reward success.
Homicides tended to increase on the weekends, public pay days, public holidays, election days, and were concentrated in areas of nightlife.
For this reason, the municipal government created a Security Council to look at crime patterns across the city, neighborhood by neighborhood. People would also learn specific actions they can take to prevent themselves from acting violently or having violent crimes committed against them. Pre- and post-tests of knowledge showed that younger children improved in their knowledge from 79% to 87% (+ 8%) while adolescents and adults showed about the same knowledge (82% pre and 83% post). This program aims to reduce death, illness, and disability, and to promote improved growth and development among children under five years of age. In the exit interview, a questionnaire was given to the caretaker of the sick child and it aimed to find out the knowledge given to the caretaker by the health workers about how to continue with care. The program has also funded training for nurses and midwives and is helping to build better clinics to meet increased demand for maternal healthcare.
According to this report and a study done by Victoria and Schellenberg (2002), children seeking care at the health facilities in IMCI districts were more thoroughly assessed and received better quality care in comparison to districts where IMCI had not yet been implemented.
In regards to the healthcare facility, IMCI guidelines require that health workers be given IMCI training and that facilities have essential equipment, for example: thermometers, and a child scale, and medical orderlies. There was local planning and implementation support from the Ministry of Health in Kenya, local healthcare partners, and other international partners.
Self reflection helps us to develop problem solving skills and find solutions in planning action for behaviour change.
The Socratic 'know thyself' became a modern theory of self-awareness and emotional growth through the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and social relationships. Only 13% of youth surveyed felt their life would substantially improve in the future, and 68% stated they had fewer opportunities than others in their same age group in Lebanon. The master trainer also had the responsibility of implementing the sessions, completing the process evaluation forms and documenting the changes to the sessions and the reason behind the changes. Each week, the council held a two-hour meeting in one of the city's 20 districts, open to the public and attended by community and municipal leaders, to seek practical solutions to public security problems in that particular area.
People in the community would report that they now feel their community is a safer place to live in, and they are less concerned with becoming victims of violence.
It was decided that prevention should be prioritized even though it was accepted that traditional control measures were also needed.
The reduction in the number of injuries reported by hospital and traffic authorities was so obvious that the measure could be retained despite the initial opposition of the owners of liquor selling establishments.
IMCI includes both preventive and curative elements that are implemented by families and communities as well as by health facilities.
In reflecting on experiences, we can understand how we learn, start to observe our own progress in learning, limits of understanding, and develop more effective critical thinking skills by questioning and analysing our own and others' behaviour. A field coordinator from the CYC handled the logistics of the intervention, as well as upheld a close relationship with community, family members, and schools.
The extraordinarily high levels of violence in the city called for prevention as the main strategy since traditional methods, like increasing the number of police or increasing the number of incarcerated criminals, were not possible.
Permission was obtained from the Ministry of Defense to forbid the use of permits to carry firearms on holidays. IMCI has three main components that include improving case management skills of healthcare staff, improving overall health systems, and improving family and community health practices (WHO).  Other agencies that will aid in the intervention by providing financial support and resources include WHO, Doctors without Borders, United Nation Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and World Vision.
The mayor started an effort to encourage the involvement of all citizens and community organizations in the solution of the problem. Violence and crime were considered to be too important to be left in the hands of the police and military alone. A climate of tolerance and respect for others’ rights as a base for peaceful living were actively promoted by the administration.

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