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23.07.2014
CHANGE MANAGEMENT PROCESS DIAGRAM change management framework, Highly detailed diagram, the itil change management. John George is a reference architect on the NetApp Infrastructure and Cloud Engineering team and is focused on developing, validating, and supporting cloud infrastructure solutions that include NetApp products. Mike Mankovsky is a Cisco Unified Computing System architect, focusing on Microsoft solutions with extensive experience in Hyper-V, storage systems, and Microsoft Exchange Server. Chris O'Brien is currently focused on developing infrastructure best practices and solutions that are designed, tested, and documented to facilitate and improve customer deployments.
Chris Reno is a reference architect in the NetApp Infrastructure and Cloud Enablement group and is focused on creating, validating, supporting, and evangelizing solutions based on NetApp products. Glenn Sizemore is a private cloud reference architect in the Microsoft Solutions Group at NetApp, where he specializes in cloud and automation. Lindsey Street is a systems architect on the NetApp Infrastructure and Cloud Engineering team.
Adam Fazio is a Solution Architect in the Worldwide Datacenter and Private Cloud Center of Excellence organization with a passion for evolving customers' IT infrastructure from a cost-center to a key strategic asset. Joel Yoker is an Architect in the Americas Office of the Chief Technical Officer (OCTO) organization focusing on Private Cloud, Datacenter, Virtualization, Management & Operations, Storage, Networking, Security, Directory Services, Auditing and Compliance. Jeff Baker is an Architect in the Center of Excellence for Private Cloud at Microsoft Corporation.
The CVD program consists of systems and solutions designed, tested, and documented to facilitate faster, more reliable, and more predictable customer deployments. All other trademarks mentioned in this document or website are the property of their respective owners.
A Cisco Validated Design consist of systems and solutions that are designed, tested, and documented to facilitate and improve customer deployments. The Microsoft Private Cloud Fast Track program is a joint effort between Microsoft and its hardware partners. The private cloud model provides much of the efficiency and agility of cloud computing, along with the increased control and customization that are achieved through dedicated private resources. Private Cloud Fast Track uses the core capabilities of Windows Server, Hyper-V, and System Center to deliver a private cloud infrastructure as a service offering. The intended audience of this document includes sales engineers, field consultants, professional services, IT managers, partner engineering, and customers who want to take advantage of an infrastructure built to deliver IT efficiency and enable IT innovation. The implementation of this solution is documented in a separate document called FlexPod with Microsoft Private Cloud Fast Track 3.0 Enterprise Deployment Guide.
Industry trends indicate a vast data center transformation toward shared infrastructure and cloud computing.
The objective of the move toward virtualization, and eventually to cloud computing, is to increase agility and reduce costs.
Especially because companies must address resistance to change in both their organizational and technical IT models, achieving this transformation can seem daunting and complex. FlexPod is a predesigned, best practice data center architecture that is built on Cisco UCS, the Cisco Nexus family of switches, and NetApp fabric-attached storage (FAS) or V-Series systems (see Figure 1).
This document describes FlexPod for Microsoft Private Cloud Fast Track v3 from Cisco and NetApp and discusses design choices and deployment best practices using this shared infrastructure platform.
The FlexPod architecture is designed to help you answer these questions by providing proven guidance and measurable value. Cisco and NetApp have thoroughly tested and verified the FlexPod solution architecture and its many use cases while creating a portfolio of detailed documentation, information, and references to assist customers in transforming their data centers to this shared infrastructure model.
Cisco and NetApp have also built an experienced support team focused on FlexPod solutions, from customer account and technical sales representatives to professional services and technical support engineers. FlexPod supports tight integration with virtualized and cloud infrastructures, making it the logical choice for long-term investment. FlexPod is a prevalidated infrastructure that brings together computing, storage, and network to simplify and accelerate data center builds and application rollouts while reducing the risks. FlexPod is a highly available and scalable infrastructure that IT can evolve over time to support multiple physical and virtual application workloads.
Cisco Unified Fabric is a data center network that supports both traditional LAN traffic and all types of storage traffic, including the lossless requirements for block-level storage transport over Fibre Channel. FlexPod Gen-II uses Cisco Unified Fabric to offer a wire-once environment that accelerates application deployment. FlexPod delivers the capability to securely separate and connect virtual machines into the network. FlexPod provides a uniform approach to IT architecture, offering a well-characterized and documented shared pool of resources for application workloads. The Microsoft Private Cloud Fast Track program outlines the high-level architectural vision that is intended to help partners rapidly develop end-to-end, integrated, and tested virtualization or private cloud solutions for small and medium-size businesses, as well as for the enterprise and data center, that meet or exceed Microsoft validation standards. Each branch in the Fast Track program uses a reference architecture that defines the requirements that are necessary to design, build, and deliver virtualization and private cloud solutions for small-, medium-, and large-size enterprise implementations. Each reference architecture in the Fast Track program combines concise guidance with validated configurations for the computing, network, storage, and virtualization and management layers.
The Converged Infrastructure in this context of Microsoft Private Cloud is the sharing of network topology between network and storage network traffic. These components are connected and configured according to the best practices of both Cisco and NetApp to provide the ideal platform for running a variety of enterprise workloads with confidence. Typically, the more scalable and flexible a solution is, the more difficult it becomes to maintain a single unified architecture capable of offering the same features and functionality across each implementation. FlexPod addresses four primary design principles: scalability, elasticity, availability, and manageability.
Note Performance and security are key design criteria that were not directly addressed in this project but have been addressed in other collateral, benchmarking and solution testing efforts. Figure 5 represents the FlexPod Discrete Uplink Design with Data ONTAP operating in 7-Mode. The FlexPod Discrete Uplink Design is an end-to-end Ethernet transport solution supporting multiple LAN protocols and most notably FCoE. The Discrete Uplink Design does not employ a dedicated SAN switching environment and requires no dedicated Fibre Channel connectivity. As illustrated in Figure 5, link aggregation technology plays an important role, providing improved aggregate bandwidth and link resiliency across the solution stack. Note The Spanning Tree protocol does not actively block redundant physical links in a properly configured vPC-enabled environment, so all ports should forward on vPC member ports. The Cisco Unified Computing System is a next-generation solution for blade and rack server computing. The built-in standalone software, Cisco Integrated Management Controller, manages Cisco UCS C-Series Rack Servers. Cisco VM-FEX technology collapses virtual switching infrastructure and physical switching infrastructure into a single, easy-to-manage environment. VM-FEX is supported on Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V hypervisors and fully supports workload mobility through Quick Migration and Live Migration. VM-FEX eliminates the virtual switch within the hypervisor by providing individual virtual machines with virtual ports on the physical network switch.
Also note that the control path for the VF is through VMBus (back to the PF driver in the parent partition). Cisco Nexus 1000V Series Switches provide a comprehensive and extensible architectural platform for virtual machine and cloud networking. These capabilities help ensure that the virtual machine is a basic building block of the data center, with full switching capabilities and a variety of Layer 4 through 7 services in both dedicated and multitenant cloud environments. NetApp solutions are user friendly, easy to manage, and quick to deploy, offering increased availability while consuming fewer IT resources. A storage system running Data ONTAP has a main unit, also known as the chassis or controller, which is the hardware device that receives and sends data. NetApp storage solutions provide redundancy and fault tolerance through clustered storage controllers, hot-swappable redundant components (such as cooling fans, power supplies, disk drives, and shelves), and multiple network interfaces. The storage efficiency built into Data ONTAP provides substantial space savings, allowing more data to be stored at lower cost.


Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V provides significant increases in scalability and expands support for host processors and memory.
Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V includes an update to the virtual hard disk format called VHDX. Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V also includes virtual FC support, allowing virtual machines to have unmediated access to SAN LUNs. Windows Server 2012 introduces several networking enhancements, including support for SR-IOV, third-party extensions to the Hyper-V extensible switch, QoS minimum bandwidth, network virtualization, and data center bridging (DCB).
The virtualization layer is one of the primary enablers in environments with greater IT maturity.
Like the hardware layer, the automation, management, and orchestration layers must be able to manage the virtualization layer. Table 1 summarizes the scale improvements and feature enhancements in Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V compared to Windows Server 2008. ITIL CHANGE MANAGEMENT PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMAn integrated change control process flow diagram page management rm . Before his current role, he supported and administered Nortel's worldwide training network and VPN infrastructure. He has expert product knowledge of Microsoft Windows storage technologies and data protection technologies.
Previously, O'Brien was an application developer and has worked in the IT industry for more than 15 years. Before being employed in his current role, he worked with NetApp product engineers designing and developing innovative ways to perform Q and A for NetApp products, including enablement of a large grid infrastructure using physical and virtualized computing resources.
Since joining NetApp, Glenn has delivered a variety of Microsoft-based solutions, ranging from general best practices guidance to co-authoring the NetApp Hyper-V Cloud Fast Track with Cisco reference architecture. She focuses on the architecture, implementation, compatibility, and security of innovative vendor technologies to develop competitive and high-performance end-to-end cloud solutions for customers.
In his 14 years at Microsoft, Joel has successfully led strategic projects for Government, Education Sector, and Fortune 100 organizations. Jeff has worked with datacenter focused virtualization, management and operations technologies for almost a decade of his 14 plus years in IT. CISCO AND ITS SUPPLIERS DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THE WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT OR ARISING FROM A COURSE OF DEALING, USAGE, OR TRADE PRACTICE. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. These designs incorporate a wide range of technologies and products into a portfolio of solutions that have been developed to address the business needs of our customers. The goal of the program is to help organizations develop and quickly implement private clouds while reducing both complexity and risk.
With Private Cloud Fast Track, Microsoft and its hardware partners can help provide organizations both the control and the flexibility that are required to reap the potential benefits of the private cloud. All switching is performed by the external fabric interconnect, which can switch not only between physical ports, but also between virtual interfaces (VIFs) that correspond to the virtual network interface cards (vNICs) on the VMs. Customers can rely on the robust Cisco NX-OS Software command-line interface (CLI) and feature set and Cisco's innovative network services architecture for their virtual environments.
Enterprise customers are moving away from isolated centers of IT operation toward more cost-effective virtualized environments. To accelerate the process and simplify the evolution to a shared cloud infrastructure, Cisco and NetApp have developed a solution called FlexPod for Microsoft Private Cloud Fast Track v3. FlexPod is a suitable platform for running a variety of virtualization hypervisors as well as bare metal operating systems and enterprise workloads.
By introducing standardization, FlexPod helps customers mitigate the risk and uncertainty involved in planning, designing, and implementing a new data center infrastructure. The support alliance formed by NetApp and Cisco provides customers and channel services partners with direct access to technical experts who collaborate with multiple vendors and have access to shared lab resources to resolve potential issues. These integrated systems provide a standardized approach in the data center that supports staff expertise, application onboarding, and automation, as well as operational efficiencies that are important for compliance and certification.
FlexPod contains no single point of failure at any level, from the server through the network to the storage.
Cisco Unified Fabric creates high-performance, low-latency, and highly available networks serving a diverse set of data center needs. Using technologies such as VLANs, quality of service (QoS), Cisco Nexus 1000V Switch for Hyper-V, and VM-FEX, this solution allows network policies and services to be uniformly applied within the integrated computing stack. Each architecture presents multiple design patterns for using the architecture and describes the minimum requirements for validating each Fast Track solution. This typically implies Ethernet network devices and network controllers with particular features to provide segregation, QoS (performance), and scalability. FlexPod can scale up for greater performance and capacity (adding computing, network, or storage resources individually as needed), or it can scale out for environments that need multiple consistent deployments (rolling out additional FlexPod stacks). The solution provides a unified 10 Gigabit Ethernet enabled fabric defined by dedicated FCoE uplinks and dedicated Ethernet uplinks between the Cisco UCS fabric interconnects and the Cisco Nexus switches, as well as converged connectivity between the NetApp storage devices and the same multipurpose Cisco Nexus platforms. The Cisco Nexus 5500 Series Switches are configured in N port ID virtualization (NPIV) mode, providing storage services for the FCoE-based traffic traversing its fabric. The NetApp storage controllers, Cisco UCS, and Nexus 5500 platforms all support active port channeling using 802.3ad standard Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP). From a storage traffic perspective, both standard LACP and Cisco's vPC link aggregation technologies play an important role in FlexPod distinct uplink design.
It is an innovative data center platform that unites computing, network, storage access, and virtualization into a cohesive system designed to reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) and increase business agility. When a UCS C-Series rack server is integrated with Cisco UCS Manager via the Nexus 2232 platform, the management controller does not manage the server anymore. Consequently, software-based devices introduce latency, increase overall path length, and consume computing cycles. These switches are designed to accelerate server virtualization and multitenant cloud deployments in a secure and operationally transparent manner. With the introduction of VXLAN on the Nexus 1000V Series, network isolation among virtual machines can scale beyond traditional VLANs for cloud-scale networking.
This unit detects and gathers information about the hardware configuration, the storage system components, the operational status, hardware failures, and other error conditions. The disk shelves are the containers or device carriers that hold disks and associated hardware such as power supplies, connectivity interfaces, and cabling. For example, a logical unit number (LUN) can be changed from FC access to iSCSI access without moving or copying the data. This highly available and flexible architecture enables customers to manage all data under one common infrastructure while achieving mission requirements. Data protection provides replication services, making sure that valuable data is backed up and recoverable. They appear to be provisioned at their full capacity, but are actually created much smaller and use additional space only when it is actually needed. The Snapshot copies consume minimal storage space, since only changes to the active file system are written.
The clones are writable, but only changes to the original are stored, so they provide rapid, space-efficient creation of additional data copies ideally suited for test and development environments. Compression can be run whether or not deduplication is enabled and can provide additional space savings, whether run alone or together with deduplication.
New features include support for up to 64 processors and 1 TB of memory for Hyper V virtual machines, in many cases supporting 4 to 16 times the density of processors, memory, cluster nodes, and running virtual machines. VHDX provides a higher capacity (up to 64 terabytes of storage), helps provide additional protection from corruption due to power failures, and prevents performance degradation on large-sector physical disks by optimizing structure alignment. Virtual FC enables scenarios such as running the Windows Failover Cluster Management feature inside the guest operating system of a VM connected to shared FC storage. The decoupling of hardware, operating systems, data, applications, and user state opens a wide range of options for easier management and distribution of workloads across the physical infrastructure. Virtualization provides an abstraction of software from hardware that moves the majority of management and automation to software instead of requiring people to perform manual operations on physical hardware.


In these roles, Chris gained expertise in stateless computing, netboot architectures, and virtualization. Lindsey started her career in 2006 at Nortel as an interoperability test engineer, testing customer equipment interoperability for certification. In his 14 years in IT, Adam has successfully led strategic projects for Government, Education Sector, and Fortune 100 organizations. Joel is a lead architect for Microsoft's Datacenter Services Solution and the Microsoft Private Cloud Fast Track program and serves as course instructor, published writer and regular conference speaker on Microsoft Private Cloud, virtualization and infrastructure solutions.
Jeff has IT experience in a broad range of industries including Government, Education, Healthcare, Energy and Fortune 100 companies.
IN NO EVENT SHALL CISCO OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, LOST PROFITS OR LOSS OR DAMAGE TO DATA ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE DESIGNS, EVEN IF CISCO OR ITS SUPPLIERS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THE DESIGNS DO NOT CONSTITUTE THE TECHNICAL OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL ADVICE OF CISCO, ITS SUPPLIERS OR PARTNERS. The program provides a reference architecture that combines Microsoft software, consolidated guidance, and validated configurations with partner technology, such as computing, network, and storage architectures, in addition to value-added software components. FlexPod delivers not only a baseline configuration, but also the flexibility to be sized and optimized to accommodate many different use cases and requirements.
The result is a more predictive and adaptable architecture capable of meeting and exceeding customers' IT demands. The fabric is fully redundant and scalable, providing smooth traffic failover should any individual component fail at the physical or virtual layer. This capability enables the full utilization of FlexPod while maintaining consistent application and security policy enforcement across the stack, even with workload mobility. This document describes the Enterprise Medium configuration and the Converged Infrastructure design pattern.
The result is a network fabric with less physical complexity, greater agility, and lower costs than those associated with traditional fiber-based storage networks (Figure 4). FlexPod delivers not only a baseline configuration but also the flexibility to be sized and optimized to accommodate many different use cases. Each of the component families shown in Figure 1 (Cisco UCS, Cisco Nexus, and NetApp FAS) offers platform and resource options to scale the infrastructure up or down while supporting the same features and functionality that are required under the configuration and connectivity best practices of FlexPod. As depicted, the FAS devices are configured in a high-availability (HA) pair delivering five nines (99.999 percent) availability.
Port channeling is a link aggregation technique offering link fault tolerance and traffic distribution (load balancing) for improved aggregate bandwidth across member ports. Figure 5 shows the use of dedicated FCoE uplinks between the Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnects and Cisco Nexus 5500 Unified Switches. The system integrates a low-latency, lossless 10 Gigabit Ethernet unified network fabric with enterprise-class, x86-architecture servers. Instead, it is managed by the Cisco UCS Manager software, using the Cisco UCS Manager GUI or command-line interface (CLI).
This single architecture provides access to data by using industry-standard protocols, including NFS, CIFS, iSCSI, FCP, SCSI, FTP, and HTTP. Only a simple dismount of the FC LUN and a mount of the same LUN using iSCSI would be required. NetApp unified storage architecture allows data storage with higher availability and performance, easier dynamic expansion, and greater ease of management than any other solution.
Extra unused storage is shared across all volumes, and the volumes can grow and shrink on demand.
Individual files and directories can easily be recovered from any Snapshot copy, and the entire volume can be restored back to any Snapshot state in seconds. In addition, Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V supports innovative server features, including the ability to project a virtual nonuniform memory access (NUMA) topology onto a VM to provide optimal performance and workload scalability in large VM configurations.
The ability of the virtualization layer to migrate running virtual machines from one server to another without downtime, as well as many other features that are provided by hypervisor-based virtualization technologies, enable a rich set of solution capabilities.
Lindsey has a bachelor of science degree in computer networking and a master of science in information security from East Carolina University. Adam is a lead architect for Microsoft's Datacenter Services Solution and the Microsoft Private Cloud Fast Track program. Jeff has worked extensively with Microsoft's Datacenter Services Solution and the Microsoft Private Cloud Fast Track programs. Scalability is achieved through the addition of storage capacity (disk and shelves) as well as through additional controllers, whether they be FAS 2200, 3200, or 6200 series. The Cisco UCS Fabric Interconnects operate in the N-Port Virtualization (NPV) mode, meaning the servers' FC traffic is either manually or automatically pinned to a specific FCoE uplink, in this case either of the two FCoE port channels are pinned.
The system is an integrated, scalable, multichassis platform in which all resources participate in a unified management domain. The Nexus 2232 provides data and control traffic support for the integrated UCS C-Series server. VM-FEX collapses virtual and physical switching layers into one and reduces the number of network management points by an order of magnitude. For this reason, a vendor-specific driver needs to be loaded into the VM in order to use the VF network adapter (Figure 6). A NetApp solution consists of hardware in the form of controllers and disk storage and NetApp's Data ONTAP operating system, the number 1 storage OS.
In addition, a single copy of data can be shared between Windows and UNIX systems while allowing each environment to access the data through native protocols and applications. Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V also provides improvements to Dynamic Memory, including minimum memory and Hyper-V smart paging. These capabilities can be used by the automation, management, and orchestration layers to maintain desired states and proactively address decaying hardware or other issues that would otherwise cause faults or service disruptions.
Adam is a course instructor, published writer and regular conference speaker on Microsoft Cloud, Datacenter, and Infrastructure solutions. Jeff is a regular conference speaker on Microsoft Private Cloud, virtualization and infrastructure solutions. The controllers are deployed only in HA pairs, meaning more HA pairs can be added for scalability, but each pair is managed separately. Managed as a single system, whether it has one server or 160 servers with thousands of virtual machines, Cisco UCS decouples scale from complexity. In addition, all systems can be configured with high-performance solid state drives (SSDs) or serial ATA (SAS) disks for primary storage applications, low-cost SATA disks for secondary applications (backup, archive, and so on), or a mix of the different disk types. If a system was originally purchased with all SATA disks for backup applications, high-performance SAS disks could be added to support primary storage applications such as Oracle, Microsoft Exchange, or ClearCase. Minimum memory allows Hyper V to reclaim the unused memory from VMs to allow for higher VM consolidation numbers. It accelerates the delivery of new services simply, reliably, and securely through end-to-end provisioning and migration support for both virtualized and nonvirtualized systems. Although a VF could be used by the parent partition, in Windows Server 2012, VFs are used only by VMs. Smart paging is used to bridge the memory gap between minimum and startup memory by allowing VMs to start reliably when the minimum memory setting has indirectly led to an insufficient amount of available physical memory during restart. The Cisco UCS fabric interconnects and NetApp FAS controllers benefit from the Nexus vPC abstraction, gaining link and device resiliency, as well as full utilization of a nonblocking Ethernet fabric. A single PCI Express device can expose multiple PFs, each with its own set of VF resources. In addition to these memory enhancements, Windows Server 2012 Hyper-V allows for runtime configuration of memory settings, including increasing the maximum memory and decreasing the minimum memory of running virtual machines.
These updated features help ensure that your virtualization infrastructure can support the configuration of large, high-performance VMs to maintain demanding workloads.
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