At left: Conference participants had a chance to greet one another at a breakfast before sessions began on Friday morning. At left: Tonya Miles '82, a member of the Maryland State Board of Education, made a point during Poor's welcoming remarks, during which he discussed the need to increase diversity in the student body and faculty in the engineering school.
Change is inevitable and must be guided carefully to improve individual lives and society, Kneeland Youngblood said April 27 at a Princeton conference on leadership and diversity in engineering, science and mathematics. The two-day conference, titled "Leading Change in Science and Technology: A Princeton Engineering Conference for Black Alumni," brings together black leaders in science and technology, as well as public policy and business.
Alumni in attendance were pleased with the opportunity to share their ideas and strategies to increase diversity and improve the Princeton experience for current and future black students. Many of the conference attendees, including Youngblood and conference organizer William Massey, a 1977 Princeton graduate and the Edwin S.
Jennings credits Youngblood with opening the door that could have prevented him from attending Princeton. The conference continued Friday with a panel discussion on the relation between student leadership on campus and leadership later in life. The conference, which attracted about 100 alumni, follows two other successful gatherings held this academic year focusing on alumni of color. 1-888-878-LEAD ~ 240 Woodland Ave ~ Columbus, OH 43203 ~ ©Copyright 1998 - 2011 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. The guidelines presented below envisage a team translation approach for survey instrument production.
Before discussing team translation procedures, the chapter briefly outlines other approaches sometimes followed to produce or check survey translations and indicates why these are not recommended here. Survey questions are a complex text type with multiple functions and components [3] [6] [11] [12]. One of the main goals of machine translation, however, is to greatly reduce human involvement in translation production.
It is a mistake to think that because someone can speak and write two languages he or she will also be a good translator for these languages. Another context in which survey translation is oral is when interpreters are used to mediate between an interviewer speaking language A and a respondent speaking language B. Even today, many projects rely on procedures variously called "back translation" to check that their survey translations are adequate.
Figure 1 below presents the TRAPD (Translation, Review, Adjudication, Pretesting, and Documentation) team translation model. Team approaches to survey translation and translation assessment have been found to be particularly useful in dealing with the fairly unique challenges of survey translation. Each stage of the team translation process builds on the foregoing steps and uses the documentation required for the previous step to inform the next. Whenever possible, translation efforts that follow a team approach work with more than one draft version of the translated text. Survey translations also often call for sensitivity for words people speak rather than words people write.
Goal: To create and follow optimal procedures to standardize, assess, and document the processes and outcomes of survey questionnaire translation. Survey translation efforts are part of the target language instrument development and should be treated accordingly. Identify any other team players who may be required, based upon the size of the project, the mode of data collection, etc.
Determine whether regional variance in a language or shared languages need to be accommodated; decide on strategies for this as needed (see Language Harmonization). Select, brief, and train personnel (see Finding, Selecting, and Briefing Translation Team Members). Create a time schedule and identify project phases and milestones for members of the team (see Translation Management and Budgeting). Decide on other communication channels and lines of communication (reporting delays, illness, completion, deadlines).
Decide whether each translator will prepare a full translation (double translation) or whether the material to be translated will be divided among the translators (split translation). In major efforts, the bigger picture must first be considered to confirm which routine or special tasks are vital and which are not. Having more than one translator work on the draft translation(s) and be part of the review team encourages more discussion of alternatives in the review procedure.
The project size and complexity and the organizational structure (whether centralized, for example) will determine whether translation coordinators or someone else actually delivers materials and how they are delivered. Determine the protocol and format for translators to use for note-taking and providing comments on source questions, on adaptations needed, and translation decisions.
Establish deadlines for deliveries, including partial translations (see below), and all materials for the review session. Either have translators produce a full draft of the questionnaire and other materials to be translated or require each to produce some portion of the material (double or full translation or split translation).
Since the aim of review is to improve the translation wherever necessary, discussion and evaluation are at the heart of the review process.
If translators are new to team translation or the whole team is new, full translation rather than a split procedure is recommended whenever possible to better foster discussion at the review and avoid fixation on "existing" text rather than "possible" text.
Translations that are fine from the translation point of view may not be strong enough from a measurement perspective.
It is important to inform team members that changes to draft translations are the rule rather than the exception. In addition, even in a team translation procedure, translation costs will make up a very small part of a survey budget and cannot reasonably be looked at as a place to cut costs. The burden of being the only person with language and translation expertise in a group of multiple other experts can be extreme. Relying on one person to provide a questionnaire translation is particularly problematic if the review is also undertaken by individuals rather than a team. Even if only one translator can be hired, one or more persons with strong bilingual skills could be involved in the review process. Translators usually enjoy not having to carry sole responsibility for a version once they have experienced team work. Divide the translation among translators in the alternating fashion used to deal cards in many card games. This ensures that translators get a spread of the topics and possibly different levels of difficulty present in the instrument text.
Whenever possible, divide the questionnaire up in a way that allows for some overlap in the material each translator receives (see the first two "lessons learned" for this guideline).
At the review meeting, have translators and the review team go through the entire questionnaire. Take steps to ensure that material or terms which recur across the questionnaire are translated consistently. It is often necessary to split the material to address issues of time, budget, or language variety. Budget and schedules permitting, it is useful to create some modest overlap in material translated.
Giving people time to prepare the materials for the review meeting and making sure that they prepare is important for the meeting's success. In checking for consistency, it is important to remember this procedure must not be only mechanical (for example, using a find function in software). Make all the translated draft materials available to team members in advance of the review meeting(s) to allow preparation. Provide clear instructions to members on expected preparation for the meeting and their roles and presence at the meeting. Arrange for a format for translations and documentation that allows easy comparison of versions. Have the senior reviewer specifically prepare to lead the discussion of the draft translations in advance.
Ask other team members to review all the draft materials and take notes in preparation for the meeting. Have the senior reviewer appoint two revision meeting note-takers (any careful and clear note-taker with the appropriate language skills, and often the senior reviewer).
Have the team go through each question, answer scale, instruction, and any other components, comparing draft suggestions, and considering other alternatives. If a version for adjudication cannot be produced, the review meeting documentation should note problems preventing resolution. After review, before adjudication, copyedit the reviewed version against the source questionnaire, checking for any omissions, incorrect filtering or instructions, reversed order items in a battery or answer scale labels, etc.
It is better to end a meeting when team members are tired and re-convene than to review later parts of the questionnaire with less concentration. Practice taking documentation notes on points not yet resolved or on compromised solutions.
Official approval may simply be part of the required procedure, but it also emphasizes the importance of this step and the significance of translation procedures in the project. If the adjudicator has all the skills needed (strong language ability in the source language and target language, knowledge of the study and also survey measurement and design issues), have him or her take part in the review session if this is possible. If the adjudicator does not have special relevant expertise, have him or her work with consultants to check that all the procedures have been followed, that appropriate people were involved, that documentation was kept, etc., according to procedural requirements. Ensure again that changes made in one section are also made, if necessary, in other places. If a translation mistake means a question is excluded from analysis in a national study, the costs and consequences are high; in a comparative survey, the costs and consequences are even higher. One purpose of pretesting is to test the viability of the translation and to inform its refinement, as necessary, in preparation for final fielding. Review the documentation from the pretest, considering comments for each question or element concerned. Copyedit the revised version in terms of its own accuracy (consistency, spelling, grammar, etc.).
Copyedit the revised version in its final form against the source questionnaire, checking for any omissions, incorrect filtering or instructions, reversed order items or answer scale labels, etc. Check in programmed applications that hidden instructions have also undergone this double copyediting (see Instrument Technical Design). Although copyediting is a learnable skill, good copyeditors must also have a talent for noticing small details.
If the people available to copyedit have helped produce the translations, allow time to elapse between their producing the translation and carrying out copyediting. Problems with incorrect instructions, numbering, filters, and omitted questions are quite common. Use a system of checking-off (ticking) material that has itself been tested for efficiency and usability. Defining the procedures used and the protocol followed in terms of how these can enhance the translation refinement process and the ultimate translation product is the most certain way to achieve the translation desired. Fitness for use in terms of producing comparable data (avoiding measurement error related to the translation).
Produce survey translations in a manner that adequately and efficiently documents the translation process and the products for any users of the documentation at any required stage in production (review, version production control, language harmonization, later questionnaire design). Once procedures become familiar and people gain practice in following protocols, the effort involved to produce documentation is reduced.
Template 1 is typical of templates used in the European Social Survey (ESS) in rounds 1-4 for draft translations. Template 2 illustrates possible headings for a template bringing together two draft translations for a review meeting based on Template 1.
Take notes on translation and source texts in preparation for the review session (documentation to inform the review).
Contribute their individual area of expertise to developing and refining the translated instrument. Substantive experts may be needed to provide advice on a variety of matters, such as the suitability of indicators or the formulation of questions with regard to measurement goals. Question design experts might be consulted about changes in format necessitated by translation. Visual design experts might, for example, be consulted about cross-cultural aspects of visual presentation. ComparabilityThe extent to which differences between survey statistics from different countries, regions, cultures, domains, time periods, etc., can be attributable to differences in population true values.
Consent (informed consent)A process by which a sample member voluntarily confirms his or her willingness to participate in a study, after having been informed of all aspects of the study that are relevant to the decision to participate. ConsistencyConsistency is achieved when the same term or phrase is used throughout a translation to refer to an object or an entity referred to with one term or phrase in the source text. Coordinating centerA research center that facilitates and organizes cross-cultural or multi-site research activities. CopyeditorThe person who reviews a text and marks up any changes required to correct style, punctuation, spelling, and grammar errors. Fitness for intended useThe degree to which products conform to essential requirements and meet the needs of users for which they are intended. QualityThe degree to which product characteristics conform to requirements as agreed upon by producers and clients.
The process of the systematic examination of the quality system of an organization by an internal or external quality auditor or team. ReviewerPerson who participates in the review of translations in order to produce a final version (see Appendix A of Translation). The original document from which other (target) documents are translated or adapted as necessary.
Source languageThe language in which a questionnaire is available from which a translation is made. Survey lifecycleThe lifecycle of a survey research study, from design to data dissemination. Target populationThe finite population for which the survey sponsor wants to make inferences using the sample statistics. Team translationTeam approaches to survey translation and translation assessment bring together a group of people with different talents and functions in the team so as to ensure the mix of skills and discipline expertise needed to produce an optimal translation version in the survey context.
Total Survey Error (TSE)Total survey error provides a conceptual framework for evaluating survey quality. VarianceA measure of how much a statistic varies around its mean over all conceptual trials. The Welsh housing sector is calling on the new Welsh Government to recognise the vital impact housing has on health, education and the economy in Wales by committing to an ambitious plan for housing in their new Programme for Government.
Following yesterday’s National Assembly for Wales election, Labour has secured 29 seats to remain the biggest party in the Assembly.
Sixteen years ago, Community Housing Cymru set up an Award scheme to recognise housing innovation in memory of a special person - Pat Chown. As a way of remembering Pat, her contribution to housing and her constant search for better ways of doing things, Community Housing Cymru is inviting entries for the Capturing Creativity Award. The Award judges will be looking for entries which demonstrate that the project has been ground-breaking. To find out more about the award, go to CHC's blog to read a post by John Chown, member of the judging panel.
Community Housing Cymru (CHC), the membership body for Welsh housing associations, has appointed its new Director of Policy. Clarissa, who is originally from Swansea, will head up CHC’s Policy and External Affairs team.
Some of Wales’ leading business figures have given their backing to the Homes for Wales campaign.
A variety of top Welsh business leaders, including Federation of Small Businesses Wales, CBI Cymru, Welsh ICE, Pro Steel Engineering and Learning and Work Institute Wales, have added their voice to the Homes for Wales campaign via social media to support the need for continued investment in housing. Backing from the business world for the Homes for Wales campaign comes in addition to the thousands who have supported in person at a rally in Cardiff earlier this month, online and via social media. At the Rural Regeneration Conference in March 2015, the Minister announced a two year funding commitment for Rural Housing Enablers in Wales. Hundreds of people are set to attend the Homes for Wales rally which takes place in Cardiff today (4 March).
Supporters will travel from all over Wales to highlight that housing needs to be a key political issue ahead of May’s National Assembly for Wales elections. This public-facing campaign aims to shine the spotlight on how the housing crisis is impacting people in Wales in different ways.
Over a thousand people have supported the campaign online and celebrity supporters include Hollywood actor Michael Sheen, Welsh legend Max Boyce, Welsh comedian Rhod Gilbert, Welsh film producer and actor Jonny Owen and BAFTA award-winning actress Vicky McClure. The Department for Work and Pensions has today announced a one year exception to the Local Housing Allowance cap for supported accommodation in the social housing sector. Further guidance will be issued by the DWP shortly, but the statement highlighted refuges for those fleeing domestic abuse, homeless provision, housing for ex-offenders and supported housing for older people and disabled people as examples of accommodation subject to the exception. Community Housing Cymru welcomes today’s announcement which follows several months of lobbying from the housing sector, along with continued dialogue with the DWP, but we remain concerned about the implications of the policy. The one year pause in applying the cap to supported accommodation gives DWP the opportunity to continue their strategic review of supported housing through Ipsos MORI, but it does not offer certainty to tenants or social housing providers over the future of supported housing.
Our recent survey of Welsh housing associations found that the rent for 57% of supported accommodation is over the current LHA rate, and we are clear that the UK Government’s offer of a slight increase in DHP is inadequate. The Local Housing Allowance cap will still apply to all other new tenancies signed from April 2016, with any cut to housing benefit applicable from April 2018, and CHC’s priority will now be to ascertain the exact details of this policy which are still unclear.
This investment will also provide a boost to employment in Wales supporting up to 800 jobs - including 300 in the design and build of new schools in our communities and 500 in providing affordable housing. Alongside the additional capital investment, the Minister has also published an update of the Wales Infrastructure Investment Plan project pipeline in line with our ambition of providing a comprehensive picture of infrastructure investment across Wales.
The Department for Work and Pensions has since clarified that the cap will also be applied to housing benefit for tenants in supported and sheltered housing. Supported Housing is accommodation designated for some of the most vulnerable people in our communities.

The provision of this additional support incurs a greater cost for landlords than the provision of general needs housing, and this is reflected through higher levels of rent. We are in the process of modelling the impact of these changes and gathering evidence to highlight the risk it presents to providers of supported and sheltered housing. To be clear, cuts of this scale will threaten the viability of supported and specified accommodation in the social rented sector in the future. Meanwhile, under 35s will see their rental income capped at the Shared Accommodation rate under LHA. The application of the under 35s Shared Accommodation Rate to social rented tenancies is of concern to us beyond the direct impact it would have on the funding of supported housing. As stated by our partners in Scotland and England, we are concerned about the Government’s proposal in the Spending Review which states that Discretionary Housing Payment will be the vehicle for dealing with some of the resulting shortfall for supported housing.
The Discretionary Housing Payments system is not designed or funded to meet all requests for assistance and to rely on it to help those in supported housing with a new benefit cap would leave local authorities to decide between individuals with varying levels of support needs. The impact of the LHA cap will be felt very soon as new tenants in supported housing from 1st April 2016 will face uncertainty about their future ability to pay their rent.
For further information on capping housing benefit to LHA rate, please read our in depth briefing. Welsh Government has today announced the members of the new independent Regulatory Board for Wales. Ground-breaking legislation to improve the lives of the one million people in Wales who rent their home, has today been granted Royal Assent by Her Majesty the Queen. The Renting Homes (Wales) Act 2016 will make renting a home simpler and easier, replacing various and complex pieces of existing legislation with one clear legal framework. A Bill receives Royal Assent when Letters Patent under the Welsh Seal signed with Her Majesty’s own hand signifying Her Assent are notified to the Clerk of the Assembly. The First Minister of Wales, as Keeper of the Welsh Seal, applied the Seal to the Letters Patent in a ceremony in Cardiff earlier today. Homes for Wales is a coalition led by Community Housing Cymru, Care & Repair Cymru, CIH Cymru, Shelter Cymru, Welsh Tenants, Home Builders Federation, Residential Landlords Association and RTPI Cymru. You can sign up to support the campaign on the website, as well as downloading campaign resources such as logos, posters, postcards and explainer documents. Our showcase event for the campaign will take place from 1pm on Friday 4th March, 2016 – the Homes for Wales rally.
While we welcome the increase in SHG, it is vital to emphasise the importance of a secure rental income stream.
Any further cuts to Supporting People could have had disastrous consequences for vulnerable people across Wales which is why today’s announcement is so welcome. Over the last year, we have worked in partnership with Cymorth Cymru to highlight the benefits of Supporting People and to call for its protection. The first ever Welsh Apprentice Challenge was launched at Community Housing Cymru's Annual Conference on 19th November.
Team A - Callum (Pembrokeshire Housing), Daniel (Tai Ceredigion), Deri (Bron Afon Community Housing), Joseph (Celtic Horizons) and Katie (Merthyr Valleys Homes). Team United - Daniel (Tai Ceredigion), Demi (Cadwyn Housing Association), Emma (Celtic Horizons), James (North Wales Housing) and Lloyd (Valleys to Coast).
Team C - Daniel (Taff), Emily (Cartrefi Conwy), Karolina (Monmouthshire Housing), Mathew (Coastal Housing Group), Oliver (Newport City Homes).
Although we welcome the Chancellor’s U-turn on tax credits, all this will do in the long term is delay cuts until the full introduction of Universal Credit. A new agreement between Community Housing Cymru and Public Health Wales has committed the organisations to working more closely together to improve the lives and health of people in the most deprived communities in Wales. The memorandum is a commitment to a joint focus on prevention and early intervention, to ensuring work is informed by the best national and international evidence and to taking action to empower communities to improve health and wellbeing. The commitment will also enable the establishment of a joint Health and Housing Public Health Task Group including key representatives from health, housing, community and social care. Tracey Cooper, Chief Executive of Public Health Wales, said: "This memorandum marks the start of an exciting and purposeful partnership between Public Health Wales and Community Housing Cymru.
The memorandum was signed by Chief Executive of Community Housing Cymru, Stuart Ropke, and Chief Executive of Public Health Wales, Dr Tracey Cooper at CHC’s Annual Conference on 19 November 2015. Community Housing Cymru (CHC) is today (19 November) launching its first Welsh Apprentice Challenge.
Conference delegates will vote for their favourite campaign idea and the overall Welsh Apprentice champions will be awarded a certificate for their efforts by Julie James AM, Welsh Government’s Deputy Minister for Skills and Technology. Demi Stephenson, fellow apprentice challenger, secured her job as an electrician with Cadwyn Housing Association after working full time voluntarily for several months. The Welsh Apprentice Challenge is being supported by TSW Training and The Prince’s Trust. Launched today (18th November), the findings are part of the latest Welsh Economy Research Unit (WERU) report, commissioned by Community Housing Cymru (CHC), which focuses on the wider economic impact of the social housing sector in Wales. In less than a decade, Welsh housing associations have spent around £3bn in the Welsh economy on building and maintaining properties.
We are working with colleagues from the devolved nations to ensure that the independence of the Welsh, Scottish and Northern Irish housing association sector is protected. Community Housing Cymru Group (CHC) has welcomed news that Welsh Government is set to exceed the 10,000 affordable homes target. This week (October 12th) Care & Repair Cymru is shining the spotlight on the scandal of excess winter deaths as it launches its Fighting Fuel Poverty campaign.
The Wales-wide campaign aims to highlight the huge problem of fuel poverty and save the lives of thousands of older people in Wales, who might otherwise die this winter due to the cold weather.
Care & Repair Cymru also say that older people not having bank accounts, or being digitally excluded from the internet, can prevent many pensioner households from accessing better energy prices and tariffs, and households in arrears often end up on more expensive pre-payment meters, therefore exacerbating the problem. During its Fighting Fuel Poverty campaign , the registered charity will be running fundraising initiatives to champion the rights of older people to stay independent, warm and well this winter by offering practical help on the ground at the homes of older people in need. The Fighting Fuel Poverty campaign begins with a plea for donations which will directly help older people with boiler repairs, home insulation, and other practical help that make their homes warmer and safer. Care & Repair Cymru is also running the #scarfie campaign (a scarf selfie) to raise awareness of excess winter deaths. If you are an older person who thinks they could benefit from some help and advice from Care & Repair Cymru and its Fighting Fuel Poverty campaign, please call 029 2067 4830.
David Taylor, a Board Member at Newport City Homes, sadly passed away on Friday 2nd October. Seek agreement with provincial stakeholders on their role in engaging in NESAP formulation and implementation. Through the discussions on Chapters 3 and 4, the NESAP team will aim to gain Task Force members' agreement on proposed policies, financing options, and priority programs and projects for implementing the NESAP. The meeting is being organized by the Ministry of Environment (MoE), Cambodia, with support from the ADB’s GMS Environment Operations Center.
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The ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this website and accepts no responsibility for any consequences of their use. Use of the term "country" does not imply any judgment by the authors or the ADB as to the legal status or other status of any territorial entity.
GMS countries recognize the need to shift toward planning systems that optimize natural resource allocation for better long-term outcomes. Since its 2006 beginning, the Core Environment Program has taken a lead role in supporting government efforts to improve strategic planning.
Integrate economic valuations of natural capital in development plans and investments decisions. Building the awareness of decision-makers about the importance of integrating economic valuations of natural capital into planning and decision-making processes.
Improving regulatory frameworks and institutional arrangements for cross-sector (tourism, energy, transport etc.) coordination and dialogue, SEA, and multistakeholder participation.
Strengthening the technical capacity of government staff to apply best practice and analytical tools for planning through action-learning and knowledge exchange.
Promoting the application of SEA and related tools to support sector- and area-based planning.
For more information about GMS-EOC activities, please complete the form below and one of our team will be happy to get back to you. Facilitated by the Asian Development Bank as an integral part of the GMS Economic Cooperation Program, CEP seeks to create a region where economic growth and environmental protection are approached in parallel, and in a way that benefits all who live there. In addition, latest analytical analysis inputs for the NESAP were presented: (i) an assessment of the quantitative and qualitative economic and social benefits in transiting toward a more environmentally sustainable growth path, and ii) identifying a the steps and policy options for moving from sustainable growth targets to specific implementation actions and projects. The afternoon session began with an overview of the government’s vision for adopting PES as a sustainable financing arrangement for natural resource conservation in Cambodia. Help at hand for countries desperately seeking climate cashSeveral big international funds, including the U.N. The GMS Core Environment Program provided technical feedback on the draft as well as presented on principles and recommendations to help the government shape an appropriate system to charge fees to industrial polluters. Despite legal provisions to minimize and manage pollution, there lacks an overarching law or effective legal and policy frameworks, and the roles and responsibilities of various ministries and agencies are neither clear nor sufficient.
In response, the GMS Core Environment Program is working with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment’s (MoNRE) Pollution Control Department (PCD) to develop a National Pollution Control Strategy for 2016-2025. This latest initiative builds on earlier CEP support to MONRE to identify capacity building needs for PCD as well as applying the Industrial Pollution Projection System. The overall aim of the 5-phase program is to strengthen SEA capacity in the participants’ organizations and is open to applicants from government agencies and ministries, non-government organizations, and private enterprises.
The first four phases will be held in Sweden and Viet Nam intermittently from September 2016 until March 2017. Myanmar, Japan-linked consortium reach agreement on new airport planThe Myanmar government and a consortium that includes Japanese engineering firm JGC Corp.
The two-day conference brought together black leaders in science and technology, as well as public policy and business to share ideas about leadership, entrepreneurship and "best practices" for increasing diversity in the scientific and engineering fields. He illustrated his point using examples from his wide-ranging career, including the careful calculations that went into his successful transition from an emergency room doctor to his current role as co-founder and managing director of Pharos Capital Group and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. The event, which was set to continue on Saturday, presents a forum for alumni to learn about research and education in Princeton's School of Engineering and Applied Science and to share ideas about leadership, entrepreneurship and "best practices" for increasing diversity in the scientific and engineering fields. Vincent Poor, who is a 1977 Princeton graduate alumnus, discussed gender and racial diversity with conference attendees. A doctoral candidate in biomedical engineering at Duke University, Ellerbee was recently awarded a Congressional Fellowship from the American Association of the Advancement of Science. Wilsey Professor of Operations Research and Financial Engineering, already have had a lasting impact by serving as mentors to generations of Princeton students. Then a senior in high school, Jennings could not afford a plane ticket to travel from Dallas to visit Princeton -- and Youngblood purchased a ticket for the young man, though they'd never met. On Saturday, the conference was scheduled to include a talk by Wesley Harris, head of the Department Aeronautics and Astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the first African American to earn a doctorate in engineering at Princeton.
In September, 500 participants attended the "Coming Back and Looking Forward" conference for black alumni. Although good translation products do not assure the success of a survey, badly translated questionnaires can ensure that an otherwise sound project fails because the poor quality of translation prevents researchers from collecting comparable data. Evidence is growing that such procedures are effective for survey translation [4] [5] [9] [18] [20]. As a result, any reduction of human involvement in the decision-making process of survey translation is ill-advised [12].
In other words, there is a written source questionnaire that the interviewers look at but there is never a written translation, only what they produce orally on the spot. The interviewer reads aloud the interview script in language A and the interpreter is expected translate this into language B for the respondent. In its simplest form, this means that the translation which has been produced for a target language population is re-(or back-) translated into the source language. Translators produce draft translation, reviewers review translations with the translators, one (or more) adjudicator decides whether the translation is ready to move to detailed pretesting and also decides when the translation can be considered to be finalized and ready for fielding. In TRAPD, translators provide the draft materials for the first discussion and review with an expanded team. The team can be thought of as a group with different talents and functions, bringing together the mix of skills and discipline expertise needed to produce an optimal version in the survey context where translation skill alone is not sufficient. In addition, each phase of translation engages the appropriate personnel for that particular activity and provides them with relevant tools for the work at hand. A sharing of these draft versions and discussion of their merits is a central part of the review process.
In this way, the additional cost of producing two draft translations would be offset by the considered contributions the translators can bring to review assessments. The lifecycle begins with establishing study structure (see Study, Organizational, and Operational Structure) and ends with data dissemination (see Dissemination of Survey and Statistical Data). In addition, when translations are produced in order to take part in a larger comparative project, forethought and a clear direction to planning and implementing translation will help produce translations across multiple locations which comply with project requirements. See Appendix B for specific tasks of each core team member and other team players identified below. Identify the in-house and external staff and consultant needs on the project and follow appropriate selection, briefing, and training procedures for each person or group.
In addition to the source questionnaire, these may include advertising material, interviewer manuals, programmer instructions, and any supporting materials such as "showcards," as well as statements of informed consent. It is easy to focus on procedures which are familiar and thus inadvertently miss other vital elements. The Afrobarometer Survey [21], the Asian Barometer Survey [22], and the European Social Survey Source [23] specify that every language group that is likely to constitute at least 5% of the sample should have a translated questionnaire. When planning the project or procedure, it is also time to plan the quality assurance and quality control steps. Coordinators should keep records of the delivery of materials and require receipt of delivery.
In line with this, people who do not respond well to criticism of their work are not likely to make good team players for a review.
For instance, a translator might be inclined to reduce the numerous adverbial references in the following: "Generally speaking, how much television do you usually watch all in all on an average weekday?" Translators might feel that any one of "generally speaking," "usually," or "all in all," or possibly the adjective "average" could usefully be omitted to make the sentence clearer. Notes collected in a common template can be displayed more readily for all to see at meetings.
Thus if the goal is to produce a questionnaire that is suitable for Spanish-speaking people from many different countries, it is wise to have translators with an understanding of each major regional variety of Spanish required.
This is especially true if a questionnaire is long or multiple regional variants of the target language need to be accommodated [5] [11] [19].
For example, if a template is agreed upon, then different versions and comments can be entered in the template to make comparison easier during review. When organizing materials for the review, depending on how material is shared for discussion, it may be useful to merge documents and notes (see Appendix A). For example, it is conceivable that two translators translate the same expression and come up with suitable but different translations.
Some part of this may be more easily made after the review meeting on the basis of notes taken. The senior reviewer should confirm the duration of the meeting at the start and pace progress throughout. Even in this case, whenever possible it is advisable to delay official signing-off to another day, thus leaving time for final checking of the decisions taken [12].
To assess the quality of review outputs, for example, the adjudicator can ask to have a list of all the perceived challenges and request to have concrete examples of these explained.
The best possible version achievable by the team development process should be targeted before pretesting (see Pretesting). They are often the result of poor copyediting, cut and paste errors, or inadvertent omissions, rather than "wrong" translation. When multiple versions are in circulation, teams can become unclear, for example, about which version is indeed intended to be the final version. Informed consent can be obtained with a written consent form or orally (or implied if the respondent returns a mail survey), depending on the study protocol. In many cases, consistency is most important with regard to technical terminology or to standard repeated components of a questionnaire. In survey research, translators might be asked to fulfill other tasks such as reviewing and copyediting. It’s vital that the new government recognises this and delivers on the ambitious housing targets we saw in party manifestos. They must now deliver on this promise with an ambitious plan for housing in the new Programme for Government.
Pat gave a big part of her life to helping others and spent much of her working life in helping to meet people's housing needs in Wales. In this role, Clarissa works with housing associations to influence government and other key stakeholders on housing policy issues including reclassification, the Right to Buy and welfare reform. I am looking forward to joining a team that is already leading the housing sector in Wales and achieving great things. CHC is focusing on several post-election priorities to ensure that housing remains a key issue in Wales when the new government is in place, and Clarissa will play an integral role in leading on these priorities.
The campaign calls on the next Welsh Government to publish an ambitious plan for housing as part of the new Programme for Government which sets out how they will end the housing crisis in Wales. This has led to rising prices, undermining our economic competitiveness and Wales’ reputation as a destination for investment.
Homes for Wales’ celebrity supporters include actor Michael Sheen, Welsh entertainer Max Boyce, comedian Rhod Gilbert, actor and producer Jonny Owen and Bafta-winning actress Vicky McClure.
Rural Housing Enablers play a significant role in ensuring the viability and sustainability of rural communities by overcoming many of the barriers in rural areas, such as identifying appropriate sites and assessing local needs. Despite getting on the housing ladder during the property boom, she could not progress further when the recession hit. A home is one of the most basic but most vital building blocks of life and there simply aren’t enough affordable homes in Wales for those that need them.
The announcement, made by the Minister for Disabled People, Justin Tomlinson MP means that the change will now apply to tenancies in supported accommodation signed from April 2017.

Community Land Trusts, housing co-operatives and alms houses will also be given a one year exception. CHC will continue to provide support to members involved in the review, and we will work with the DWP to ensure that it captures the full picture of what is offered by supported accommodation and that the needs of the devolved nations are captured in any UK-wide policy. We estimate that around 10,000 claimants will be affected in April 2018, and it is imperative that tenants and landlords entering into a tenancy from this April have clarity and certainty about these changes. Investment in housing boosts the local economy and local services, and this £20m will create 500 new jobs across Wales. It provides tenants with higher levels of support than in general needs housing, and helps tenants with the confidence and know-how to take control of their lives. Furthermore, these additional costs do not necessarily reflect the costs pressures associated with private sector rents, which are what ultimately dictate Local Housing Allowance levels. There are 36,908 supported housing units across the whole country; 22,110 owned and run by housing associations and a further 14,798 by local authorities.
The cap is economically counter-productive, with any reduction in spending on social security likely to be far outstripped in the long-term by presentations to health services and other support agencies. Another Welsh housing association has 48 bedsit units as part of their stock, predominantly housing tenants under the age of 35.
We are concerned about the likely effect it will have on the ability of single people in supported or temporary housing to move onto permanent accommodation at the appropriate time.
We have concerns that due to the discretionary and temporary nature of the DHP fund, this will put a significant element of funding for supported housing on an insecure footing and as a consequence could lead to a reduction in the provision of existing services and put new developments at risk at a time when pressure on services is increasing.
This will be a particular issue for those who need to live in supported housing on a longer term basis, for example, sheltered housing, retirement housing or adapted housing. A secure rental income stream alongside continued financial support from Welsh Government is vital for the future viability of Welsh housing associations, and this security means that the sector can continue to build more homes and deliver services in communities across Wales. The campaign brings together those who believe everyone has a right a decent affordable home to call their own and has been set up to ensure that housing is a key political issue in the National Assembly for Wales elections next May. We’ll meet at the Senedd in Cardiff Bay and will then march to the city centre for an event in the Hayes area of the city.
CHC has consistently made the case to Welsh Government to emphasise the importance of investing in the housing association sector. Investment in housing helps stimulate the economy and provides job and training opportunities for local people, as well as funding new affordable homes.
We now need Welsh Government to confirm the rental settlement in Wales that was previously agreed. Extra capital of £900m for Wales will be made available over the next 5 years, and we call on Welsh Government to invest a significant proportion of this capital in Welsh housing. It’s essential that Welsh Government supports the delivery of housing across all tenures, including social housing, to deliver an effective housing market.
We are especially concerned about the impact of aligning Housing Benefit with Local Housing Allowance for new social housing tenants. The Welsh Apprentice Challenge is a first for us and provides a real opportunity to showcase some of the amazing young talent working in the sector and the vast opportunities available. Since joining Cartrefi Conwy as a Modern Apprentice, she has had fantastic reviews from colleagues across the business. However, the report clearly illustrates that the economic impact of the sector goes beyond bricks and mortar. This decision applies from the enforcement date of the Housing Regeneration Act (HRA) 2008, with reclassification due to be implemented from early 2016. This decision should have no bearing on the independence of housing associations in the devolved administrations. Across the UK, we are the most successful partnership of public, private and third sectors. Figures out today (21 October) reveal that 89% of Welsh Government’s target to provide 10,000 additional affordable homes during this Assembly term have been delivered by Welsh housing associations with more than a year to go. We particularly welcome the recognition of the hard work and achievements of Welsh housing associations in their contribution to the 10,000 target, which comes after our sector made a Housing Supply Delivery pact with Welsh Government earlier this year. In order for the sector to continue to provide this substantial contribution to the economy, employment, training and the availability of homes, the sector needs the continued support of the Welsh Government through its investment in Social Housing Grant. Older people should not be forced to choose between eating or heating their homes during the winter. We’re asking people to support and donate to the cause by posting a #scarfie on social media and encouraging others to do so also. David also worked for Wales & West Housing for around 25 years and was CEO for over 20 years, retiring in 2006.
This 2nd consultation workshop will bring together government officials from the country's northeastern and northwestern provinces to inform them of the NESAP concept, process, and proposed policies and programs and seek their collaboration in its implementation. This 1st consultation workshop will bring together government , civil society, and development partners working in the country's southeastern and southwestern provinces to inform them of the NESAP concept, process, and proposed policies and programs and seek their collaboration in its implementation. Once agreed,  project identification notes (PINs) can be prepared, which are a key output of the NESAP process. They do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) or its Board of Directors or the governments they represent. In no event shall the ADB be liable to the recipient or any other party for damages of any type, including but not limited to incidental, consequential or exemplary damages arising out of the use or inability to use these materials.
In particular, CEP has introduced Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA) and piloted many SEA activities, helping mainstream the approach as a valuable planning tool. The guidelines will synthesize the shared knowledge and experience of the Roundtable partners in developing frameworks for, and implementing, VAAs in the Greater Mekong Subregion over the past decade, including project experience using watersheds as an organizing principle for VAA. Recommendations on delivering favorable legal, institutional and technical capacity conditions for PES will inform Cambodia’s National Environment Strategy and Action Plan (NESAP), and will become the basis for scaling up PES in the country. Through group exercises; participants identified legal, institutional, and technical capacity conditions for scaling PES up. Information about current and projected pollution sources, intensity, impacts, and geographic spread is mostly lacking, as are monitoring and compliance systems.
The fifth phase will see participants apply their learning to specific SEA projects relating to their organizations over a 6-month period through to September 2017. The course is being organized by NIRAS with the Centre for Environment and Sustainability (GMV) in Gothenburg, Sweden, as partner. While minority representation has improved in recent years, Poor was adamant in his conviction that much more remains to be done to increase diversity in the student body and faculty in the engineering school, as well as throughout academia and industry in general. A panel discussion on "Laboratory to Market: The Impact and Business of Science and Technology" was set to follow. In November, "Kaleidoscope: An Alumni Conference on Race and Community at Princeton University" also drew 500 attendees to reflect on changes that have occurred at Princeton in recent years, to identify today's challenges and opportunities, and to look ahead. The guidelines address, at a general level, the steps and protocols recommended for survey translation efforts conducted using a team approach. The interpreter is also expected to translate everything the respondent says in language B into language A for the interviewer. The two source language versions are compared to try to find out if there are problems in the target language text. Adjudication, often a separate step from review, can lead to further modifications of the translation before it is signed off for pretesting (see Pretesting). Other approaches include having a single translator deliver a translation to the researchers or survey organization or having a translation agency deliver a translation to researchers.
Either each translator produces a draft version of the source questionnaire (double or full translation) or each translator gets parts of the source questionnaire to translate (split translation) [5] [11] [19]. Two draft translations, for example, can dispel the idea of there only being one "good" or "right" translation. Since they are already familiar with the translation challenges in the texts, they make the review more effective. For example, if consistency in terminology across versions is not something a project leader has usually considered, procedures to check for this might be overlooked in planning. For example, in planning the translation of answer scales, steps to check that scales are not reversed or a response category omitted can be incorporated into a translation template. In addition, including the translators in the review process who produced the initial drafts not only improves the review but may speed it up as well.
This can be done in formal or less formal ways, as judged suitable for the project complexity and the nature of working relationships. Rightly or wrongly, the question designer presumably felt it important to include each of these phrases to "guide" the respondent in what to consider.
If, as a result, 4 or 5 translators are involved, full translation can become very costly and splitting the translation material is probably the more viable option. Source instrument references to a person's (paid) work might be rendered with "employment" by one translator, with "job" by another, and with "profession" by a third. If things are missed, it is best in any instance if no one is made to feel solely responsible. The German mistranslation in a 1985 ISSP question regarding participation in demonstrations meant both the German and the Austrian data on this question could not be compared with other countries [3].
Thus, for example, reversed presentation of answer scale categories is a matter of order rather than a matter of translation. At the same time, strong procedures and protocols do not resolve the question of what benchmarks should be applied for quality survey translation. Thus, in any translation effort there will be one or more signing-off steps ("ready to go to client," "ready to go to fielding agency," for example). Reference to "showcard" in a source questionnaire should be consistently translated, for example. Comparative overview of test adaptation and translation verification procedures in three international surveys. Welsh Liberal Democrat leader, Kirsty Williams, held her seat in Brecon and Radnorshire with a substantial majority.
Clarissa has previously worked for the Local Government Association and Hounslow and Birmingham Councils. From businesses to charities, and from Wales to Westminster, there is a clear consensus that we need to be building more homes to satisfy demand, yet we are still not building enough to meet our needs. Other supporting organisations include the Royal College of Nursing, the Church in Wales and Youth Cymru.
They work closely with those involved in the provision of other services and infrastructure within their communities. Homes for Wales speaks with one voice and calls on all politicians to commit to ending the housing crisis and building a stronger Wales. 152,000 20-34 years old still live at home, and 8,596 families have been on the housing waiting list since before the last election. It covers a huge range of housing schemes which help tenants who are experiencing a huge range of problems, including those who are fleeing domestic abuse, suffering from mental health problems, or those who have experienced homelessness. Typically, the LHA is lower in more deprived areas and higher in more affluent parts of the country, meaning that the viability of supported housing in less well-off areas is threatened by the use of LHA to cap financial support. The services are delivered by social landlords who have the specialist knowledge and expertise to support these tenants. We can point to evidence of the impact that the Shared Accommodation Rate in the private rented sector in England has already had on the time young people spend in supported housing. Supported housing would become unaffordable for those it is designed to assist and would cease to be an option. Continued investment alongside a secure income stream through rent will enable housing associations in Wales to deliver 12,500 homes in the next Assembly term, which is an increase of 25% on the current target. Capping the rent at shared accommodation rate for under 35s will have a significant impact on single young people without children who require access to supported or social housing. For every one person directly employed by the sector, almost two other jobs are supported in the Welsh economy. This contribution means that the sector is on target to meet the 10,000 affordable homes target for this term of Government set in the Housing Supply Pact between CHC and the Welsh Government. Our independence allows us to draw in billions of pounds of private finance to provide thousands of affordable homes in the UK, create jobs and stimulate the economy. Our members’ commitment to building and providing homes is clear and this work will continue up until we deliver the target, and beyond. This means older people often have greater need for heating to function properly and keep safe and healthy. Throughout the conference, each team will work on a challenge with the help of a mentor from the sector.
As a result, the country is unable to effectively manage pollution and has requested support to address this situation.
Students of the translation sciences learn an array of skills and procedures and become versed in translation approaches and theories which they employ in their work. Research directly on the process of oral translation in surveys and how this affects interpretation, understanding, and data is quite sparse. As argued elsewhere, instead of looking at two source language texts, it is much better in practical and theoretical terms to focus attention on first producing the best possible translation and then directly evaluating the translation produced in the target language, rather than indirectly through a back translation. Documentation of each step is used as a quality assurance and monitoring tool and each step of the translation effort includes assurance and monitoring elements [5] [6] [7] [12]. Pretesting may again result in modifications before the adjudicator signs off on the version for final fielding.
Such procedures are not specifically designed to bring together translators with other relevant experts in reviewing the translation in the way a team translation does.
For example, translators producing the draft translations are required to keep notes about any queries they have on their translations or the source text.
The double translations or the sections of the split translation are refined in the review stage and possibly again after subsequent steps, as just described. They also ensure that more than one translation is offered for consideration, thus enriching the review discussion. Split translation arrangements can still capitalize on the advantages of having more than one translator in the review discussion but avoid the cost of full or double translations. Translators asked to assess other translatorsa€™ work may, for example, be hesitant to criticize or, if not, may apply standards which work in other fields but are not appropriate for survey translation.
It can be picked up in checking, even if the reversal may have occurred during translation.
The translation of instructions which are repeated in the source text should also be repeated (and not varied) in the target text. Paper presented at the international conference on survey methods in multinational, multiregional, and multicultural contexts (3MC), Berlin, Germany. Plaid Cymru won 12 seats, including leader Leanne Wood who defeated Public Services Minister Leighton Andrews in her home constituency of Rhondda. Investing in housing creates jobs and training and apprenticeship opportunities, as well as regenerating communities and improving people’s lives. Today’s rally will hear from some of the people who are affected by the housing crisis, and their stories are a familiar theme throughout Wales. A survey of Community Housing Cymru members[1] estimates that 82% of specified accommodation, such as these projects, would be over the LHA cap.
Community Housing Cymru members currently provide homes, to 6,440 tenants in this age group, with a further 1,571 living in local authority accommodation. A recent report by Homeless Link highlights that the average length of stay amongst young homeless people has increased by 8.5 months to 16 months. Please commit to bringing staff members and tenants with you to the rally, and invite all your local contacts. At the same time, as explained in the description of team translation following here, survey translation calls for not only a good understanding of translation but also of the business of survey measurement and how to write good questions.
Evidence available from recent investigations suggests that these modes of translation must be avoided whenever possible and that extensive training and briefing should take place if they must be used [10] [15] [16]. Comparisons of an original source text and a backtranslated source text provide only limited and potentially misleading insight into the quality of the target language text [7] [11] [12] [13] [14]. Further consideration of advantages that team efforts have over other approaches can be found in [3] [4] [5] [9] and [11].
These notes are considered along with the translation output during the next review stage in which reviewers work together with the translators [5] [6] [7].
The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed under guidelines 3 and 4 (see too, [5] and [19]). The order in which survey production processes are shown in the lifecycle does not represent a strict order to their actual implementation, and some processes may be simultaneous and interlocked (e.g. In the worst instance, they may follow criteria required by people who do not understand survey translation.
Paper presented at the International Workshop on Comparative Survey Design and Implementation, Lausanne, Switzerland.
The Welsh Conservatives won 11 seats with leader Andrew RT Davies re-elected on the South Wales Central list.
Investment in housing creates a ripple effect in the local and national economy, and the housing sector provides a crucial economic stimulus to Wales. Home is central to all things that lead to great well-being and active participation in the community and society. Shelter Cymru figures have shown that 92% of these tenants would lose out if they signed their tenancy under the upcoming proposals. As these natural capital stocks decline, so to do the ecosystem services they provide, such as regulating the climate and providing productive soil and clean water. Under normal circumstances, a trained translator should not be expected to have a strong understanding of survey practices and needs, hence the need for a team of people with different skills [1] [5] [6] [7] [11] [12].
Contributions from more than one translator also make it easier to deal with regional variance, idiosyncratic interpretations, and translator oversight [5] [6] [11].
Quality and ethical considerations (see Ethical Considerations in Surveys) are relevant to all processes throughout the survey production lifecycle.
Smith (Eds.), Survey methods in multinational, multicultural and multiregional contexts (pp.

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