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It is important to remember, that this section presents an idealized version of a negotiation process. The voluntary participation of all key stakeholders is fundamental to a collaborative approach to managing conflict.
Mediators need to be aware that pursuing negotiations does not necessarily imply that a party sincerely wants to reach negotiated solutions. Those who are politically marginalized and highly dependent on the resource base may feel exposed and that they are taking a great risk.
Mediators must also remember that the people participating in negotiations are usually not the only ones involved in making the final decision. These constituencies must have sufficient opportunity to contribute to negotiations, and need to be kept informed about the changes or options developed during negotiations. Milestone C has been successfully completed when the negotiation parties have listened to and considered each other's concerns and interests, jointly developed agreements on how to manage the conflict, and agreed on how these will be implemented and monitored.
Mediators need to let stakeholders know what is likely to happen during the negotiation process. Informing participants of the range of options: The mediator has to make all the parties understand that the best solution may not yet have been found. The mediator needs to help people question the assumptions that underlie the way they frame the conflict. Building legitimacy: Some groups may be unwilling to enter negotiations because they do not accept that the other stakeholders have legitimate interests. Building trust: Negotiation requires that information be exchanged in order to meet the interests of all parties. People tend to disclose information about themselves only when they are sure that the recipient of that information is not going to use it against them.
The mediator may want to involve the conflict parties in decisions regarding where and when to meet.
A mediator who is an outsider might want to find out beforehand what would be the best seating arrangements to promote consensual negotiations among the particular parties involved. Are there any time limitations that may affect when the meetings are held (for example, farming or harvesting schedules, religious or other holidays, political or official deadlines)? What can be done to support people with lower literacy levels or people who are poor and disadvantaged? Distribution of tasks - who does what activities at which particular time (logistics, welcome etc.)? Role sharing in the mediation team - who is responsible for which tasks (lead mediator, note taker, observer, etc.)? Through the process of reframing, stakeholders have agreed on one or more shared interests on which to build collaboration.
At the beginning of negotiations the mediator needs first to address the participants' basic needs for comfort and safety. Refining the agenda: Later on in the introductions, the mediator should revisit the agenda to check whether it contains all the issues that the parties want to discuss.
Whatever style is adopted, the mediator has to make sure that everyone has a chance to speak from the beginning.
Building trust: It is essential that the mediator creates a supportive, open and respectful atmosphere for the disclosure of information, including - if culturally appropriate - the sharing of feelings.
Stakeholders can be asked to clarify their assumptions about how other stakeholders use or need the resource under question, how they perceive their own attitude towards the other parties, how they perceive the other parties' attitudes and motivations, and how they think the other parties perceive them. Discussing how the negotiation process can gradually build trusting relationships, through a series of promises followed by actions that meet those promises, helps to reinforce the belief that commitments will be carried out.
A series of checks can be established to assure that trust endures throughout the negotiation process.
Participants can be asked to describe what is meant by trustworthy behaviour, and to identify where there has been trust in the past, and what spoiled it. Agreements can be built steadily, with constant checking that stakeholders are confident that they or their group will be able to follow through with any changes. BOX 7.2 TRADITIONAL MEETINGS Cultures and communities differ in their ways of holding meetings or assemblies, including those aimed at negotiations. Opening paths of communication: Good communication means people are actively listening to each other, and everybody has a chance to speak. The mediator manages the ground rules and may interrupt proceedings if necessary to give feedback. After the introduction, the second phase in the negotiations starts with the mediator inviting the parties to state their cases by presenting their interests and views publicly. TRAINER'S NOTE: It may not be appropriate in all cultural settings for conflict stakeholders openly to address their cases in the presence of other stakeholders.
During this challenging stage of the process, a mediator may be asked to take on different roles.
In the next phase of the negotiation process, individual groups present their analyses of the issues.
After the groups have presented the issues and discussed their own underlying interests in each, the mediator requests the participants to produce a list of interests and combine them into a few common categories. It is important to remember that in almost every negotiation, stakeholders will have more than one interest. Following the common goals statement, the next step in negotiations is to identify and explore the widest range of possible options for achieving these goals.
Participants can imagine options either by focusing on one issue at a time or by combining several issues into groups of common themes. Creative thinking is sometimes promoted by changing the group dynamics: a mediator may consider bringing in secondary stakeholders or an outside resource person, or splitting the stakeholder groups into smaller subgroups. Vision building: Each party creates an ideal vision of what a workable solution or relationship might look like in the long term. Model agreements: This procedure identifies and uses experiences from other similar conflict situations as starting points or models for developing agreements. Single-text negotiating document: One person drafts a settlement document that satisfies the majority of interests and resolves the conflict. At this stage, the parties need to reassess how well their interests will be satisfied by any one of the options or combinations of options that have been generated collaboratively. Developing and using criteria may help the process of deciding which options are most likely to be satisfactory to all groups. Assessing options against criteria: A decision grid can help the analysis and comparison of alternative solutions through the help of indicators. BOX 7.4 AN EXAMPLE OF ESTABLISHING CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING OPTIONS A government requirement to conserve a number of rare and endangered animal species led to an area of forest being proclaimed a protected area. Through this decision-making process, the parties should be able to identify one option that they can all support.
The mediator may want to work towards the best possible agreement to resolve the factors that cause conflict.
Experimental or trial decisions: Parties are unable to reach a permanent decision and agree to a temporary settlement that will be tested and evaluated at a later date.
Procedural solutions to major issues: Parties agree on a process through which they can obtain a solution to a dispute.
Confirming the agreed option(s) with a larger constituency: The parties to the conflict need time to confirm the agreed options and obtain support from their constituents.
If negotiations are to be completed at one meeting, the mediator calls a break to allow the representatives to discuss the agreement with other group members who are not participating directly in the meeting. Mediators may therefore want to break up the negotiation process regularly, especially at important times. Mediators might sometimes need to help representatives work with their constituencies, or explain to each other the various constraints imposed on them by administrative or policy practice.
TRAINER'S NOTE: When negotiation parties agree on a conflict settlement option, they need time to reflect on the decision and seek the confirmation and support of their wider constituencies. TRAINER'S NOTE: Culture is always a significant factor when considering approaches for bringing a conflict to an end.
Mediators should support the design of an agreement only when the conflict parties have agreed about the options that they want to pursue collaboratively and have received approval for the negotiated solution from their own constituencies. Once there is agreement on the way forward, the parties must consider the details of implementing that agreement. Does the implementation of the agreement require the formal involvement of specialists or groups, such as administrators, leaders of resource user groups, and community political leaders?
The agreement should be checked for honesty, acceptability and workability according to the guidelines in Box 7.5. Mediators should know which points in the agreement determine how strong or weak it will be, as outlined in Table 7.4 (Moore, 2003).
Provisional: They may involve temporary or trial decisions that are subject to change in future. Contingent: They state that the conclusion of the dispute depends on additional information or the future performance of one or more parties.
Binding: They are formal contracts that fix the parties to certain actions (people often stick to the terms of a settlement if they understand the consequences of not doing so). Of course, the strength of an agreement will be shown when it is put into practice, and not in terms of how it appears on paper.


Making the agreement public: A final point of discussion in negotiations is the extent to which the stakeholders want to make their agreement public.
Negotiations need to be carefully prepared by the negotiation parties and their constituencies. Although paths within negotiations sometimes wander, the process can be described as going through five main stages.
Consider these mediation techniques that can lead to quick and fair conflict management and dispute resolution among employees. A number of factors can be responsible for such situations, but the role of the managers is to have an effective conflict management system in place to resolve such issues in the best possible manner.
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Congress that visited Egypt and held talks with government officials prior to arriving in Tel Aviv on Monday, opposes the deal struck by the members of the UN Security Council, including the United States, and Germany. 22, the Republic school district will host a ribbon cutting ceremony to unveil changes to Sweeny Elementary, according to a news release. This week, it is holding an open day ahead of an additional six apprentices joining the team Mr Duncan concludes: “You have to adapt and take a few knocks. The Tengiz oil field was discovered in 1979 and is one of the deepest and largest oil fields in the world. One group's decision to negotiate is only effective if the other parties also feel that it is in their best interest to do so. Parties often engage in superficial negotiations for their own hidden purposes, such as leading other parties to believe that something is happening, when actually it is not, or holding out for time.
The negotiations may show both their hopes and their fears in protecting their families, friends, livelihoods and culture.
Conflict parties usually represent and are responsible to wider groups of people (family, social group, community), which are their constituencies. They must also be informed about the possible solutions or agreements that come up in the negotiation process.
A good start is for the mediator to develop the negotiation agenda jointly with the stakeholders, or at least to make sure that it is accepted by all.
Parties often enter negotiations in the belief that they have already selected the best solution while they were brainstorming settlement options. Examining the conflict from many points of view, by looking at the perspectives and motivations of the other sides, helps the stakeholders to reframe it (change their perspectives). If the conflict involves only a single issue or two parties, solution may require only a few hours in a single meeting.
The environment chosen for negotiations may significantly affect the way in which conflict parties feel and communicate.
In traditional settings, it is important to consider cultural procedures and the appropriate protocol. The process and substance of negotiations must meet the needs and particular circumstances of the specific situation. Setting the stage: confirm and refine the agenda, clarify roles, develop trust and define ground rules.
Reframing the conflict: help the stakeholders to shift their own assumptions and priorities regarding the conflict, looking for common or mutual advantage. Assessing options and reaching agreement on acceptable options for managing critical issues. When entering negotiations, disputants are often emotionally stressed, and the mediators therefore have to set a positive tone. Even if the mediator's role has already been clarified with the individual parties, it is important for them to hear the mediator giving the same information in the presence of other parties.
Mediators need to remember that cultures differ in their styles of public speaking and negotiations. As many people will have similar concerns, this may give people their first idea of sharing interests and concerns with others.
Feelings may be indirectly revealed in the ways in which the different parties present information. At this point, any assumptions about trust in their past relationships can be usefully explored. Promises for future action can be restated in the agreement, and the consequences of not keeping these promises should be made clear. Such meetings may follow well-established norms, with which local people are very familiar.
These too are signalled by non-verbal communication, and mediators should note whether they are helping or getting in the way of negotiations, and should control them when necessary. It is important that the mediator helps the stakeholders to change their perceptions about a conflict situation, and about what solutions or ways forward may be possible. It may be better for the mediator to summarize the main perceptions learned during shuttle consultation prior to the negotiations, and to ask the different stakeholders to confirm these summaries. Ideally, this process leads people to narrow their differences, allowing the exploration of possible outcomes where all parties stand to gain. From each category, the participants may then begin working together to formulate a concise common goals statement that integrates all the central points (FAO, 2002). In this example, negotiations between two communities are being mediated in order to determine a mutually acceptable boundary. We will develop an agreement that determines a formal boundary between our two communities, given the changing nature of the river.
Both communities rely on access to a forest patch, one for grazing and the other for cultivating toxic plants used in religious ceremonies.
We agree that we must find a solution that allows both of our communities regular access to the forest patch, as it serves important functions in both.
An upstream community has been overcutting the timber resources, which has contributed to floods that change the way the river flows. We recognize that we must invite the upstream community to participate in some way, as their resource use practices are contributing to the problems that we are having today. Most groups have multiple interests from which the mediator has to identify common interests on which to build collaboration. Remind the participants that to be acceptable, the options for settling the dispute must satisfy the interests of all the parties.
Parties who are not involved in the present conflict are contacted and asked how they reached agreement and what their agreement looks like. Assessment aims to help the disputing stakeholders move from a potentially long list of options to realistic agreements that they will commit to. Fear of human disturbance to the forest then led the agency in charge of managing it to ban all use of the site by four neighbouring communities.
Each party needs to ask itself whether it is better off with or without the proposed agreement. This would be the ideal outcome to a conflict management process - reaching agreement through consensus.
They want to continue negotiations, sometimes by calling in a third party to help them reach a binding decision.
When negotiations continue for many days or months, such discussion with constituents may take place continuously or at critical points throughout the process. The final agreement should not be worked out until all the representatives have assured each other that they have the mandate and support of their constituencies. Mediators might also help decide who from the wider constituencies should be involved in the final agreement. Lack of effective procedures for constituent approval can cause the breakdown of negotiations.
Achieving agreement on issues is sometimes not sufficient to end a conflict and ensure that the agreement will be implemented. Different societies, groups, agencies and organizations have different ways of formally closing conflict. For example, a partial agreement that is met in practice may be stronger than a complete settlement that is never implemented. Depending on its nature, the final agreement may be enacted through a formal signing in front of witnesses or may require government approval.
It has outlined how to assist stakeholders in moving through the various stages of negotiations - from setting objectives and establishing shared goals, to finalizing agreements.
A group's decision to negotiate is only effective if the other parties also feel that it is in their best interests to do so. Mediators need to prepare people for the negotiations, familiarize the stakeholders with negotiation procedures, build participants' ownership, and help participants to have realistic expectations. One of the mediator's key roles is to help build trust among stakeholders throughout all stages of negotiation.
Negotiations need to shift the focus from individual positions towards underlying needs and interests.
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This is not an easy industry and you must be prepared to react quickly to changing customer needs. Its oil reserves are estimated at between 750 million and 1.1 billion tons (6-9 billion barrels) of recoverable oil. As a mediator, it is important to be prepared with the necessary knowledge and skills to assist the negotiating parties.
There can be many reasons why people are reluctant to negotiate, even when they are generally willing to find a joint solution. Tension, frustration and emotion will probably arise, no matter how carefully or early mediators prepare.


While some people may be genuinely willing and committed, others may be putting on an act, deceiving or testing relationships. More complex issues involving many stakeholders may require a series of meetings, and it may take many months to address all the issues.
Generally, it should be a neutral place where no party has strong emotional ties or control, and where everybody feels comfortable.
For example, seats should be the same size and design, no-one should be in stronger light or heat (or further from the door or window) than others, and disputants should not be seated opposite each other.
Scheduling is very important when different resource users are trying to make use of the same area, such as when fishers, pastoralists, foragers and farmers are contending use of a wetland.
When progressing through negotiations, mediators should try to follow a series of clear steps, while remaining sensitive to the dynamics of group interactions, the specific circumstances and issues of equality in participation. This includes, for instance, acknowledging the parties' willingness to cooperate and try negotiations to settle the conflict, or reassuring them of the mediator's impartiality towards the issues and neutrality towards the parties. People then know their roles and can predict how the meeting and its decisions are likely to go. To support good communication, the mediator may need to work out some ground rules with the participants.
This is especially challenging when the mediator comes from another cultural background, or simply does not understand local relationships. Participants should be encouraged to give feedback as soon as they feel that a rule has been violated.
The expression of emotion - when it does not become aggressive - may help to create understanding among the stakeholders about each other's needs and fears. The mediator has the power to move the process forward constructively by allowing weaker parties to present their views fully within the negotiation setting. The mediator may draw on any of the ideas or results gained from earlier conflict analysis to assist participants in discussing their issues and interests.
All the issues have been merged into three categories: boundary, access and resource use (lefthand side). Key question: Should the boundary be measured from the middle of the river or from the riverbank? Each party has the opportunity to change the text so that it better meets its own interests. All of these communities had traditionally used the forest area for collecting plant material and hunting. A conflict that has been settled differs from one that has been resolved because settlement is often only partial, and the conflict or its causal factors remain present. For example, government or public officers involved in conflict management may have to obtain agreement and authority to act from their superiors or agencies. In a community, this may mean ritual meals, symbolic speeches, blessings from priests, prayers or other reconciliation rituals.
Before final agreement, the full support and commitment of all stakeholders must be confirmed. Alternatively, if the agreement affects many people, they may consider holding a more public forum. There can be many situations in which people choose not to negotiate, such as when there are large power differences among stakeholders, fears, major difficulties in communication, or fixed positions in one or more of the parties. Mediators must also take into account that the primary stakeholders participate in negotiations, but may not be the people making final decisions. Clarifying interests, establishing a mutually defined system of accountability and checking to assure that trust remains throughout the negotiation process are important. The parties examine these interests further and then attempt to reach agreement in areas where interests are shared.
To assist this, stakeholders are encouraged initially to try to identify the widest range of possible agreements or actions, without assessing how workable they are, or how desirable they may be to their own or other parties.
Whatever the criteria are, they must be agreed to and be relevant to stakeholders' interests and the context. Parties can reach agreement in principle, and work out the specific details over time, issue by issue or within a larger package. The productivity of the business may be hampered if the conflicts prolong beyond a reasonable limit, or the frequency of conflicts is too high. The situation must not be ignored beyond a point where it may harm the interests of the company seriously.
These are complemented by all of the external accommodation suppliers who have to collect the students’ rent, maintain their buildings and receive their own supplies to do the same.
And we are definitely the only platform company in the world that has a vested interest in making its ecosystem cross-platform. Knowing this is my last time racing here at the Ridges, it's kind of sad, but I think it was a great way to end my high school Wisconsin cross country career.
The Ortegas now own their own farm, Natalie’s Garden and Greenhouse, just outside of Oregon, and grow many vegetables Ortega grew as a kid, such as carrots, zucchini, tomatillos, peppers and sweet corn. Les dirigeants travaillistes Itzhak Herzog, Tzipi Livni et Shelly Yachimovich poussent de hauts cris, rejoints par une foule de lib raux autoproclam s de la droite, dont le pr sident Rivlin et l ancien ministre de l Int rieur Guideon Saar. I then got up and went to work the following day and went to watch our reserves on the night. Like longtime series antagonist Albert, she was injected with a different (see, it's complicated) by Umbrella CEO Oswell E.
Cheap NFL Jerseys Lynyrd Skynyrd drew 6,137 people on Saturday night, compared with 7,400 people who attended the Train concert in 2014. In that context this literature review produced by the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC) is a useful stock take, citing both humanitarian policy documents as well as real-life examples of LRRD being applied.
Unlike the minister, whose every word could affect billions of dollars on the commodity markets, Muhanna can speak more freely. And even though everyone has been bundled up like Nanook of the North lately, no one pointed out the coatroom. When deciding tosupport UN Security Council Resolution 1970 andmaking no objection toResolution 1973 onLibya, we believed that these decisions would help limit theexcessive use offorce andpave theway fora political settlement.
Examples include outstanding fears, major difficulties in communication, and fixed perceptions about opposing parties. The mediator's task is to remind all parties to focus on their underlying interests rather than their positions.
If complex differences in values, relationships or underlying interests are involved, collecting the relevant information or reaching consensus may need more time and be less predictable. For example, an international conservation organization may be said to be too remote from the conflict site, or migrants may not have resided in an area long enough. Great care is needed, especially for external mediators who might be unaware of much local history, cultural reference points, proverbs, etc. If culturally appropriate, the mediator may also choose to ask the parties directly how they feel about being engaged in negotiations. In such places, there is no great concern about maintaining a recognized order as to who speaks next. Where there is conflict, people often do not trust each other at the beginning of negotiations. These rules can be brainstormed by asking the participants how they would like to be treated by others during the negotiations.
This requires paying attention to non-verbal communication, such as eye contact, sitting posture, facial expression and hand gestures.
However, such leverage power needs to be carefully handled so that stronger parties do not feel that the negotiation process is biased against them. Developing a common goals statement is an effective way of helping parties to focus on their interests, rather than their positions, and to explore similarities, rather than differences.
The participants have agreed that the common goals adequately address all of their common interests. Once a common vision has been agreed, the parties should identify the problems that are stopping them from reaching it. After five years, the agency found it impossible to enforce its ban on poaching and plant collection. However, there is a whole range of possible positive outcomes from negotiations (Moore, 2003). This is particularly likely in situations where change to policy and administrative practice is required. In cases of partial settlements, especially where the settlement of very contentious issues has been delayed for the future, the contending parties may still regard themselves as rivals or enemies. For an organization, it may mean a formal statement to a senior official, which is copied to others and kept on file. If subgroups that remain apart from the main group have emerged, the document needs to clarify who is, and who is not, party to the agreement. Some groups enter their agreements into the legal system in order to bind their decisions formally.
Section 8 is concerned with implementing and monitoring agreements and with what third parties need to consider when withdrawing from a conflict management process.
As well as the negotiating parties, the constituencies too must have adequate opportunity to contribute to negotiations and to be informed about changes or options developed in the process.
Building agreements slowly and ensuring that each person has confidence in the agreements being made are also crucial. To help this important creative process, groups should be reminded that they are not committing to any of the options put forward; evaluation will come at a later stage, following a mutually agreed set of criteria.
Whatever form an agreement takes, stakeholders need to confirm how they will implement and monitor it. Louis Vuitton Outlet Online Since the beginning of the year, the number of people who have crossed the threshold from food insecure to severely food insecure, also rose, jumping from 2.5 million in January, to 5 or 6 million now, as the lean season begins.
We have a highly accessible economy, so it makes sense that Chinese companies would be interested in investing in Australia and gaining greater access to what we are able to provide. Uggs Outlet When you choose an "all natural" chocolate syrup for your kids' ice cream, are you thinking it has less sugar? They realise just how protective shadows can be, with black animals and birds becoming invisible during the intense shades of high summer. Given that oil has always been a key element of Saudi policy, he is very knowledgeable about where the country is headed.
It’s an affordable and accessible way for beginners to learn the game of golf, and for hacks like me to get a little more serious and consistent. Unfortunately, theactions undertaken byNATO countries under these resolutions led totheir grave violation andsupport forone ofthe parties tothe civil war, with thegoal ofousting theexisting regime, damaging inthe process theauthority ofthe Security Council. I love this drop lamp hung in threes over a dining-room table or on its own in a cozy reading-nook corner. He understands his responsibility, and he understands what we re trying to do as a football team.
There may be uncertainty, distrust or anger towards other parties, and this may only become clear when groups meet face to face. This may change the whole process, causing some people to reconsider their commitment or react negatively. It may help to remind them gently to take each other's needs and interests into consideration. Some groups may accuse others of being too narrow in their interests, and of failing to consider broader nation-building needs or goals. Some political and administrative deadlines incur negative consequences if they are not met. External mediators may not grasp the cultural context of what is said, and cultural context can be of great relevance to local participants, for example, sometimes people need to discuss other grievances or opinions before they can deal with the heart of a conflict. An early acknowledgement that stakeholders are uncomfortable may reduce tensions and help them to relax and focus on the substance for negotiations.
This means that stakeholders question the truthfulness or accuracy of each other's statements and behaviour. Discussions may be limited to certain individuals, or everyone present may be entitled to have a say. Non-verbal communication plays a significant role in indicating the underlying feelings or emotions behind a speaker's words. Reaching agreement on how to achieve these common goals then becomes the focus of negotiations (FAO, 2002).
Not only were the enforcement guidelines ineffective, but conflict and bad relations had also developed between the communities and the agency. In addition to various closing procedures, the agreement should always be written down so that it can be revisited and referred to later on, if necessary.
Others choose to announce their agreements to the public at local council meetings or through the media. For all sides, the risks and opportunities attached to different outcomes are usually high. Constituencies must also be informed about realistic options throughout the negotiation process.
As these goals are agreed on, they will help to provide both direction and targets for negotiations. Additionally, stakeholders must determine how to manage any additional issues that they are not able to agree on at present.
Prior to the beginning of each session, the agents were informed that providing false testimony to the body was unlawful. And a few of Ortega’s twelve brothers and sisters live in the area and help out on the farm. Wholesale Jerseys "This report is relevant to persons who are seriously ill, their parents, children, extended families which essentially means every American," said VJ Periyakoil, director of Palliative Care Education and Training at Stanford University's School of Medicine, who was not involved in the report. He assigns her to the island to research immortality, and she suspects the key to realizing it lies in the pre-teen Natalia, another prisoner. Shapcott describes Golf Revolution as the “yoga model”—you join a club and drop in for as much or as little training as you want in a pay-as-you-go way. One of the mediator's major tasks is to help build trust among the parties and to promote mutual learning that helps overcome strong emotions. The outcomes for some groups are often significant, with high risks and potential benefits from the process. When trust is low, the mediator can encourage stakeholders to make moves that increase their trust in each other.
People may speak normally, or they may raise their voices, try to speak at the same time, or try to shout one another down.
The BND agents repeatedly insisted that the selectors provided by the US were precisely checked. It's also Natalia who greets Barry when he arrives on the island six months after Claire and Moira's escape attempt, searching for them. The name riffs on Matson's love of traditional folk textiles and patterns that inspire and become incorporated in her work. The information covered at the meeting may be limited to one issue, or it may be very wide-ranging. The insurgents want to carve out a separate state governed by their strict interpretation of Islamic law, and some have links to the Islamic State group. Mediators supporting the process must understand how sensitive and serious these negotiations are for the groups involved.
After discussing the interests of the different parties, the NGO decided that a common goal was to revise the management rules of the site.
For example, the meeting may not allow poor people and women to speak, or even to be present or represented. After brainstorming management approaches, a number of existing and possible new management guidelines were listed. Usually, whoever calls the meeting, decides where it will be held, sets the agenda and has the power to control the meeting itself.
But powerful individuals who try to dominate a meeting sometimes find that less powerful members gain strength and confidence.
They may start to voice questions or views that are in contrast to those of the powerful people controlling the meeting. In multicultural settings, selecting whose cultural rules prevail may become a major issue. If the mediators follow one rule, other parties may be upset and feel dominated by one particular group and its culture. For example, disadvantaged groups may challenge cultural rules that seem to keep them in subordinate positions in daily life.
In a negotiation, the mediator has to decide whether to follow the traditional, local way of addressing issues, or - as part of the participatory process - to adopt more equitable methods. The challenge for mediators is to help equalize power without appearing to be a threat that is aiming to change the whole culture of the community.



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