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08.07.2014
Meditation: The First and Last Freedom shows that meditation is not a spiritual discipline separate from everyday life in the real world.
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Background: A number of benefits have been described for the long-term practice of meditation, yet little is known regarding the immediate neurological and cardiovascular responses to meditation.
Methods: Participants were 20 experienced and 20 novice meditators involved in a week-long wellness retreat. Results: Meditation produced variable but characteristic EEG changes, significantly different from baseline, even among novice meditators on the first day. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate neurological and cardiovascular responses during meditation in both novice and experienced meditators using novel, wearable, wireless devices. There is no doubt of a strong mind-heart connection, although it remains poorly understood. The recent availability of wireless mobile health (mHealth) devices for the continuous, non-obtrusive, passive monitoring, and transmission of numerous biometric parameters allows, for the first time, a more comprehensive and detailed evaluation of the acute neurological and cardiovascular responses to meditation. The protocol and informed consent document were reviewed and approved by the Scripps Health Institutional Review Board. A total of 20 meditators, 10 experienced and 10 novices, also had their EEG's and blood pressures monitored continuously during meditation sessions.
All wireless device data was transmitted in real time to a HuNet Base Station (Huneo, Inc.) via a digital interface.
Volunteers were fitted with their monitoring devices on the morning of the first full day of the meditation retreat and again on the last full day.
Meditation sessions occurred in a large ballroom with all retreat participants receiving the same instructions and guidance on silent mantra meditation. Over the ensuing 4 days between the first and last monitored sessions all participants received continued instruction and practice in meditation, yoga and other activities supporting inner calm in individual and group settings. The primary outcomes of interest were HRV as calculated from R-R intervals (the time between consecutive R waves on an ECG), continuously monitored mean arterial pressure, and EEG changes. Participants also recorded their level of distraction in relation to the number of devices worn during the meditation. Respiratory rate was directly measured with the HealthPatch and was successfully determined in all 40 individuals on the first day but only 29 individuals on the last day.
Spectral density analysis was performed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on the filtered RR interval data in 30 s segments beginning 15 min prior to the mediation session and ending 15 and 10 min after the conclusion of the meditation session on the first and second day of monitoring, respectively.
Data from the ViSi Mobile was either not recoverable or deemed not useful for analyses for 4 and 5 participants on the first and second monitoring day, leaving analyzable data for 16 and 15 individuals, respectively.
Data was time synchronized to match the recorded periods of relaxed preparation (Pre-meditation), Mantra Meditation, Post-Meditation relaxation, and Breathing Exercise. Spectral power distributions were plotted for selected sessions in each phase using EEGLab (Delorme and Makeig, 2004). All study participants wore their assigned monitoring devices during both sessions with the exception of two individuals who chose not to wear the EEG headset on the second day due to discomfort.
For the entire study population, over both days of monitoring, no significant changes were noted in either respiratory rate during meditation relative to the period of calm following meditation, although respiratory rate tended to be slower in both novice and experienced meditators during meditation (Table 2). No significant change in heart rate was noted during meditation in either cohort or on either day of monitoring. Based on Osho's extensive teaching the book explains what meditation is, describes possible obstacles and answers meditators' questions.
The enlightened Mystic Osho offers his extraordinary and practical insights into a vast array of meditations for the seeker to choose from. Many meditations from the Vigyan Bhairav Tantra, a 5000-year-old treatise delivered by Shiva to his consort Paravati are also included in this book. This item will be sent through the Global Shipping Programme and includes international tracking.
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The first upgrade to meditation since Buddha's timeIn this essential meditation handbook for the 21st century, Osho turns the traditional notion of meditation practice on its head. Introduction to REBT (Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy) REBT stand for Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy.
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Wireless sensor technology allows, for the first time, multi-parameter and quantitative monitoring of an individual's responses during meditation. Monitoring took place during meditation sessions on the first and last full days of the retreat. The critical nature of this connection is exemplified by stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takutsubo cardiomyopathy), the ECG and cardiac biomarker changes with acute brain injury, and the heightened cardiovascular risk associated with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems. In the current study we utilized these technologies to evaluate the acute cardiovascular and nervous system responses in both experienced and novice meditators during mantra meditation to better understand the acute relationship between CNS, ANS and blood pressure changes during meditation.
Participants in this study were a subset of 40 individuals from a total of ~200 who self-selected to participate in a week-long meditation and yoga retreat. This device is an adhesive patch worn on the chest that monitors and wirelessly transmits a single-lead ECG, heart rate and respiratory rate to an iOS device. There the data were compressed and sent to a secure, HIPAA-compliant cloud-based data storage. All devices were removed following the monitoring sessions with a total monitoring time of approximately 60–90 min for each of the two sessions. All were instructed to close their eyes, relax their muscles, take a deep breath and exhale right before meditation began. Meditation-associated changes in the measured biometrics were compared to the post meditation period due to the consistent period of relaxed listening during that time. Artifacts in RR interval data were filtered using an adaptive filter performed on the raw RR interval data from each study participant on both monitoring days (Dos Santos et al., 2013).
Due to discomfort or distraction several volunteers declined to complete the measurement, and due to contact difficulties in the fitment of headsets and the rapid evaporation of saline solvent 8 of 40 data files were incomplete and 4 were not usable. Each EEG file was band-pass filtered in the range 4–40 Hz using a 5 th order Butterworth filter, motion, and ocular artifacts were removed using automated and manual processing methods, and the remaining data divided into 2 s contiguous epochs at a 50% overlap factor.
Clear regions of the Pre-meditation period were selected to avoid strong motions artifacts as the subjects were entering the room and settling for the session, and also to select for periods of normal eyes-open relaxation indicated by the observation of occasional eye blink artifacts in the frontal channels. Co-investigators who are affiliated with the Chopra Center for Wellness helped design the study and recruit participants. Participants were asked after the second monitoring session to rank on a scale of 0–10 (0 = not at all distracted, 5 = somewhat distracted, 10 = very distracted) how distracting they found the devices. Measured biometrics during combined first and last days of meditation compared to non-meditation following it. Differences in changes in multiple measured biometrics during meditation between experienced and novice meditators and the first and last day of the meditation retreat. However, when using frequency domain measurements the changes were more heterogeneous, possibly influenced by variation in respiratory rates between individuals, as demonstrated by comparisons of different analysis methods in representative individuals (Figure 2).
Data from representative meditators showing differences in meditation and guided breathing-associated changes in heart rate variability as evaluated by, spectral density heat map, RR intervals, and spectral density plots.
Normalized High Frequency (NuHF) spectral power during meditation, after meditation and during guided breathing on the first and last day of monitoring. Meditation techniques range from the more traditional Buddhist, Taoist, Sufi, and Hindu methods to Osho's own systems, the Dynamic Meditation and the Mystic Rose Meditation-both developed specifically for the needs of people living in the 21st century.
His commentary brings this ancient text to new life and into a form understandable for contemporary man. For those interested in embarking on the journey of self-discovery there can be no better book companion than this one. Estimated delivery dates - opens in a new window or tab include seller's dispatch time, and will depend on postal service selected. Items which have been used (the regulations give you the same rights as you would have in a shop. Find out more about your rights as a buyer - opens in a new window or tab and exceptions - opens in a new window or tab. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or tab and request a postage method to your location. Delivery times may vary, especially during peak periods and will depend on when your payment clears - opens in a new window or tab.
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By redirecting your social media traffic to your website, Scoop.it will also help you generate more qualified traffic and leads from your curation work. Our suggestion engine uses more signals but entering a few keywords here will rapidly give you great content to curate. The present study examined inter-individual variations to meditation through continuous monitoring of EEG, blood pressure, heart rate and its variability (HRV) in novice and experienced meditators. All participants wore a patch that continuously streamed ECG data, while half of them also wore a wireless EEG headset plus a non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitor. The effect of meditation on HRV was less clear and influenced by calculation technique and respiration. These results support the need for further investigation of the short- and long-term cardiovascular effects of mental calm and individualized ways to achieve it. The EPOC uses a set of 14 sensors plus 2 references and connects wirelessly to Windows-based personal computers. The data from the EPOC and HealthPatch devices were time-synchronized to the Internet during data acquisition whereas ViSi data were collected and time stamped on a local server that was also synchronized when later aggregated with other sensor data. On the first day all participated in a mantra meditation session lasting 26 min, after which they remained in place, listening to speakers for another 20 min, followed by a 4 min guided deep breathing exercise (pranayama), after which monitoring was complete.


For the breathing exercise individuals were guided through cycles of inhalation for 4 s, hold for 4 s, and then exhale for 4 s via alternating nostrils. In brief, this procedure identifies proximal and global outliers in RR interval data, simulates a more likely measurement based on proximal data points, and replaces outliers with the simulated values in an iterative process.
As in the assessment of heart rate variability, mean arterial pressure was compared between the meditation session and following 15 min and 10 min non-meditation sessions on the first and second monitoring day, respectively. Data was bracketed into Pre-meditation, Mantra Meditation, Post Meditation relaxation, and Deep Breathing exercises. The data was windowed (Hanning filter) and passed into a FFT process using Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.
They played no role in data acquisition or analysis but did critically review the final manuscript. Normalized High Frequency (nuHF) spectral power was similar in both experienced and novice meditators on the first and last day of monitoring (Table 2 and Figure 3).
Bottom and top of box are the first and third quartiles with the band the median with individual outliers plotted. Osho's understanding is that modern man, so burdened with the outmoded traditions of the past and distracted by the tensions and anxieties of the present, must go through a cleansing process before he can begin to experience the silence and stillness of true meditation. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable.
To exercise this right please open a return request, making sure that you select the correct reason for return. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. No clear relationship between EEG changes, HRV alterations, or mean blood pressure during meditation was found. However, greater widespread acceptance of meditation as a potentially important tool for improving population health and wellness is hampered by the limited data available defining its benefits. There was no financial benefit offered to participants in either the cost of participating in the retreat or other compensation.
At the end of the meditation period a chime was rung and all were asked to release the repetition of the mantra and to then sit quietly for a few minutes before opening their eyes. Heart rate variability analysis was quantified on filtered RR interval data using both time-domain and frequency-domain approaches.
Therefore, mean arterial pressure was modeled as a function of meditation session using a mixed effect autoregressive model to account for the repeated, temporal dependency of the measurements. The final data set consisted of 15 complete files on the first day (9 experienced and 6 novices), with 2 cases that did not capture EEG data during the Breathing Exercise. The Meditation Score was developed by Emotiv based on characteristic EEG signatures obtained in meditating individuals derived of the best spectral features and distribution patterns. For those assigned to just the HealthPatch the mean score was 0.72, with 50% of the participants reporting no distraction from the single device. So, in addition to classical techniques, Osho guides the initiate through to modern technique.This truly instructional and inspirational text encourages the subject to celebrate with music and dance, and to carry his or her aliveness in all activities. During this time you are only required to cancel the order and are not obliged to return the goods within the 14 working days. The extent to which a customer can handle the goods is the same as it would be if you were assessing them in a shop).
It is a multi-parameter vital signs monitoring system capable of continuous measurement and wireless transmission of core vital signs that utilizes pulse transition time to track blood pressure in a non-obtrusive manner. The final monitoring session was similar to the first with the meditation session lasting 24 min, followed by 10 min of quietly sitting and listening to speakers and then 4 min of guided breathing.
The root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) between adjacent RR intervals was calculated for each study participant separately for periods during the meditation session and up to 10 min immediately following meditation on both days. Similarly, a spectral density analysis was performed during the 4 min guided breathing sessions. Analyses were conducted collectively among all study participants, and also stratified by meditation experience on each monitoring day. The data set from the final day consisted of 11 complete files (4 experienced and 7 novices), with a further 3 cases missing Breathing Exercises and 3 cases missing both Post Meditation relaxation and Breathing Exercises. Individual channel data was censored according to the measured contact quality for each sensor (yellow or green indicators, corresponding to contact impedance less than approximately 80 k Ohm, significantly lower than the 1M Ohm input impedance of the EPOC amplifiers) and residual artifacts not captured by the automated processing were removed statistically using outlier analysis or by manual filtering. Sometimes you may find that booking the return through eBay you are presented with return delivery costs which may seem excessive (particularly for low cost items) as eBay only use signed-for services. Recognizing that it's almost impossible for most people these days just to stop and sit silently, these meditations - including the Osho Dynamic Meditation and Osho Kundalini Meditation - begin with one or more stages of vigorous physical activity.
This brings our physical and mental energies to a peak, so that the following silence is easy — leaving us alert, refreshed, and newly energized. The final study cohort consisted of the first 20 volunteers meeting the criteria for inclusion in the experienced meditator group and the first 20 meeting criteria as a novice meditator. In this analysis, RR interval data from the first and last minute of the meditation session, and the first minute after the meditation session concluded were omitted from the analysis to eliminate the possibility of artifacts induced by study participants transitioning from the non-meditation session to meditation session, and again to a non-meditation session.
In total there were 10 subjects for whom complete datasets were collected over both sessions. It is derived from the ratio of the gamma band power to the sum of the alpha and theta band powers. If you can't see a way to opt out of eBay's postage or shipping please contact eBay customer service and ask them how you can arrange your own postage.
This brings our physical and mental energies to a peak, so that the following silence is easy -- leaving us alert, refreshed, and newly energized.Newly revised and resized into a handy portable format, Meditation is the perfect text to begin or continue exploring the joys of meditation. Identification of experience and novice meditators was for study purposes only and had no influence on their activities during the week. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare heart rate variability (RMSSD) between meditation and non-meditation sessions collectively, and also stratified by meditation experience on each monitoring day.
Experienced meditators self-identified to having a regular meditation practice for over 3 months of = 70 min per week, whereas novice meditators self-identified as either having never seriously tried meditation, or having not meditated more than once a week during the prior 3 months. Exclusion criteria were; (1) Chronic requirement for the daily use of chronotropically active medications, (2) having an implantable pacemaker, or (3) known allergy to adhesives.



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Comments to «Meditation first last freedom»

  1. SKINXED writes:
    He's the actual thing i think this ebook.
  2. L_500 writes:
    Like mindfulness could be the next best long-distance runners.
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