preload

04.12.2015
Glacier melting in the Himalayas is virtually certain to disrupt water supplies within the next 20 to 30 years.
Ongoing water shortages, notably in southern and eastern Australia, are likely to get worse by 2030.
Nearly all European regions are expected to be negatively affected by some future impacts of climate change. Increasing temperatures and decreases in soil water in the eastern Amazon region would lead to replacement of tropical forest by savannah. Warming in western mountains is very likely to reduce snowpack, bringing more floods in winter and reduced water supplies in summer. Reductions are likely in the thickness and extent of glaciers and ice sheets, and the extent of sea ice and permafrost. Sea level rise is likely to worsen floods, storm surges and coastal erosion, with impacts on the socio-economic wellbeing of island communities. The supply of water is very likely to increase at higher latitudes and in some wet tropics, including populous areas in east and southeast Asia. Many ecosystems are likely to be challenged beyond their capacity to adapt over the course of the century by an unprecedented combination of climate change, associated disturbances such as wildfires, and other aspects of modern-day global change.
Crop yields are likely to increase at higher latitudes for global average temperature increases of up to 1-3C (depending on the crop), and then decrease beyond that.
Coasts are very likely to be exposed to increasing risks due to climate change and sea level rise, and the effect will be exacerbated by increasing human-induced pressures on coastal areas. The benefits and costs of climate change for industry, settlement, and society will vary widely by location and scale.
Projected climate change is likely to affect millions of people, particularly those with low capacity to adapt, through increases in malnutrition and consequent disorders.
When people talk about the impact of rising sea levels, they often think of small island states that risk being submerged if global warming continues unchecked.But it's not only those on low-lying islands who are in danger. Much of Rotterdam - Europe's busiest port city - lies several metres below sea level, and this vulnerable position has led it to develop some of the best flood protection in the world. A rise in temperatures around the world due to carbon emissions since the industrial revolution means many icecaps and glaciers are steadily melting.
While scientists cannot give an exact figure of how much the sea has already risen in Mozambique, the effects are already obvious.
A major reassessment of 18 years of satellite observations has provided a new, more detailed view of sea-level change around the world. But that figure, according to the reassessment, hides some very big regional differences - up and down. This is evident if you look for some of the well-established mass movements of water - such as the Gulf Stream arching across the North Atlantic from the eastern US, or the Kuroshio Extension reaching out from Japan into the Pacific.
The research will help scientists to tease out the scale of the various contributions to long-term sea-level rise and understand better the annual and inter-annual changes that can occur. Currently, the most significant contributions are identified as being the expansion of the world's oceans due to their absorbing more heat, and the melt water coming from eroded glaciers and ice sheets. A key quest is to identify to what extent sea-level rise may be accelerating and to pull out any long-term oscillations in ocean behaviour that could confuse that signal. The study was completed as part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) agreed by European Space Agency (Esa) member states at their ministerial meeting in 2008. Routine observations began with Europe's ERS-1 spacecraft in 1991, and this has subsequently been followed up by a series of international missions. Now in its third incarnation, the Jason satellite circles the globe making a topographic map of 95% of the Earth's ice-free oceans every 10 days.
To do this, it uses a radar altimeter, which constantly bounces microwave pulses off the sea surface. By timing how long the signal takes to make the return trip, the instrument can determine sea-surface height. But to get a full picture, Jason's data needs to be tied into that from satellites which view parts of the world it cannot see, and also mapped on to tide gauge information.
Another important tool introduced recently is the gravity satellite - specifically, the two US Grace spacecraft. Esa recently lost its flagship Earth observation satellite, Envisat, after 10 years of unbroken data-gathering. The spacecraft and its altimeter stopped operating without warning in April, underlining the need for several instruments to be maintained in orbit at the same time. Researchers in the US copy bird and bat wings to build a drone that can rebound and recover from mid-air collisions. Scientists are debating whether it's possible to harness the power of gravity for interstellar space travel. The four-year-old boy who has become the centre of a controversy between India and Pakistan - and between his father and mother.
Why, almost 60 years after he first appeared in the Daily Mirror, is a layabout lout from north-east England still so loved around the world?
David Cameron warns peace could be put at risk by leaving the European Union - but Boris Johnson hits back calling the EU "a force for instability and alienation".
As the world's first global Census of Marine Life is published, Earthwatch's Crispin Zeeman reports on the impact humans are having on the world's oceans.
In the Toliara region of southwest Madagascar, sea fishing by the local Vezo people is mainly performed on foot, collecting fish at low tide. Negotiating a price at the Playon Chico airstrip, Kuna Yala for lobsters destined for Panama City's restaurants. A trawlerman unloads a tray of sardines from one of Essaouira's fishing fleet in Morocco, the 'sardine capital' of the world. Sea levels are likely to rise by about 1.4m (4ft 6in) globally by 2100 as polar ice melts, according to a major review of climate change in Antarctica.
Conducted by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), it says that warming seas are accelerating melting in the west of the continent. Rising temperatures in the Antarctic Peninsula are making life suitable for invasive species on land and sea. The report - Antarctic Climate Change and the Environment - was written using contributions from 100 leading scientists in various disciplines, and reviewed by a further 200. SCAR's executive director Dr Colin Summerhayes said it painted a picture of "the creeping global catastrophe that we face".


SCAR's report comes 50 years to the day after the Antarctic Treaty, the international agreement regulating use of the territory, was opened for signing, and a week before the opening of the potentially seminal UN climate summit in Copenhagen. Two years ago, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projected that the global average sea level would probably rise by 28-43 cm (11-16in) by the end of the century. But it acknowledged this figure was almost certainly too low, because it was impossible to model "ice dynamics" - the acceleration in ice melting projected to occur as air and water temperatures rise. Launching the SCAR report in London, lead editor John Turner from the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) suggested that observations on the ground had changed that picture, especially in parts of the West Antarctic ice sheet. By the end of the century, he said, the sheet will probably have lost enough ice alone to raise sea levels globally by "tens of centimetres". The remainder of the projected rise would come from melting of the Greenland cap, melting of mountain glaciers in the Himalayas and Andes, and the expansion of seawater as it warms. But this is the first time that an international body such as SCAR has endorsed the likelihood that sea levels will rise enough to threaten some of the world's biggest cities by the end of the century.
The Antarctic Peninsula - the strip of land that points towards the southern tip of South America - has warmed by about 3C over the last 50 years, the fastest rise seen anywhere in the southern hemisphere, according to the report. But the rest of the continent has remained largely immune from the global trend of rising temperatures. Indeed, the continent's largest portion, East Antarctica, appears to have cooled, bringing a 10% increase in the sea ice extent since 1980. On the basis of declines seen around the Antarctic Peninsula, it would also be expected to bring significant reductions in the abundance of krill, a key foodstuff for baleen whales and other animals. Coupled with increasing demand, this is likely to result in large increases in the number of people at risk of water scarcity.
Ecologically important regions such as the Great Barrier Reef and Kakadu National Park are likely to lose a significant part of their wildlife before then, by 2020. Central and Eastern European countries could face less summer rainfall, causing higher water stress. It is very likely to decrease over much of the mid-latitudes and dry tropics, which are presently water-stressed areas. In the second half of this century, ecosystems on land are likely to become a net source of carbon rather than a net absorber. It is likely that corals will experience a major decline due to increased bleaching and mortality due to rising seawater temperatures. Some of the effects in temperate and polar regions will be positive, and others elsewhere will be negative. Millions of people live by the sea - and are dependent on it for their livelihoods - and many of the world's largest cities are on the coast.
As the capital of Mozambique - one of the world's poorest countries, and one that is already feeling the effects of climate change - Maputo is struggling to provide cost-effective measures to mitigate the effects of the rising waters.
Rising temperatures have also caused ocean waters to expand - the main cause of sea level rise in the 20th Century.
But the country's national Delta Commission predicts they will increase by up to 1.3m by 2100 and by as much as 4m by 2200. Although these coastal stations cannot provide the same global view as space-borne instruments, they capture much longer trends. A continuity satellite for the present Jason is also expected to go up within months of the Sentinel. Rising sea levels as a result of climate change threaten semi-nomad Sea Gypsies off Semporna, Borneo. Increasing human populations will likely cause long-term degradation of such shallow reef habitats. Ocean acidification caused by higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide threaten urchins and crustaceans and the food chains that depend on them. As an endangered species (IUCN Red List) it is illegal to collect, harm or kill them, but conservation laws can be difficult to communicate or enforce with remote communities. Sardine populations in the Atlantic waters around Morocco appear to be healthy, and some stocks are recovering due to a better understanding of the problems and solutions. This report backs the theory that it has bucked the global trend largely because of ozone depletion - the chemical havoc wrought over 30 years by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other agents in the stratosphere above the polar region.
But now, about 30,000 tourists a year visit, some setting foot on outlying parts of the peninsula. It is likely to affect livelihoods, the report by the International Panel on Climate Change says. Heavily-populated coastal regions, including the deltas of rivers such as the Ganges and Mekong, are likely to be at risk of increased flooding. Some coastal communities are very likely to see an increased risk of coastal storms and flooding. Drier areas are likely to see salinisation and desertification of agricultural land, with falling crop yields and livestock productivity reducing food security.
Cities with a history of heat waves are likely to experience many more, with potential health impacts, especially for the elderly. Changes to natural ecosystems are likely to impact migrating birds, mammals and higher predators adversely.
There is strong evidence that water resources in small islands are likely to be seriously compromised.
At lower latitudes, especially the seasonally dry tropics, crop yield potential is likely to decrease for even small global temperature increases, which would increase risk of hunger.
By 2050 the number of people living in delta cities is set to increase by as much as 70%, experts suggest, vastly increasing the number of those at risk. Authorities in both cities know urgent action is needed to protect their populations, and both are trying to rise to the challenge. The weakening of the Gulf Stream coupled with the gravitational effects of being closer to the North Pole mean waters in the northern hemisphere are experiencing the biggest rise. This will carry a high frequency (Ka band) altimeter that should capture better the changes occurring very close to coastlines - detail which is beyond the reach of microwave observations.
Despite a call to action by conservationists, no internationally agreed catch limits are in place. Environmental organisations are calling for a ban on destructive and wasteful 'giant net' fishing practices. This increased human traffic, plus the warming on land and sea, are going to change the region's ecology, according to Julian Gutt, allowing organisms to enter and survive that were previously excluded through climate or simple geography.


Projected reductions in the area suitable for growing crops, and in the length of the growing season, are likely to produce an increased risk of hunger. Economic development is likely to be impacted by the combination of climatic change, urbanisation, and rapid economic and population growth. Temperature rises of 1C-2C are likely to bring benefits to cooler areas, such as New Zealand, in the form of longer growing seasons and reduced energy demand.
Rising sea levels, severe weather and storm surges, combined with population growth in coastal areas, are very likely to increase economic losses. Specific ecosystems and habitats are expected to be vulnerable, as climatic barriers to species invasions are lowered. Instances of extreme rainfall are likely to increase in frequency and intensity, raising the risk of floods.
Global agricultural production potential is likely to increase with increases in global average temperature up to about 3C, but above this it is very likely to decrease.
Many millions more people are expected to be flooded every year due to sea-level rise by the 2080s, especially in densely populated and low-lying settlements which already face other challenges such as tropical storms or local coastal subsidence. The most vulnerable industries, settlements and societies are those in coastal and river flood plains, those whose economies are closely linked with climate-sensitive resources, and those in areas prone to extreme weather events, especially where rapid urbanisation is occurring.
Climate change is likely to have some mixed effects, such as the expansion and contraction of the range of malaria in different regions.
But so far little has been done, and much of what the country would like to do is beyond its budget. That would be my best guess, with the melt water effect being the smaller of the two," he told the London Science Media Centre.The study in Nature Geoscience also asserts that the cool melt water layer may limit the amount of water sucked from the oceans that falls as snow on Antarctica. Forecast changes in temperature and rainfall are likely to reduce crop yields overall, increasing the risk of hunger. Greater warming is likely to bring a net negative impact - such as increased risk of drought and fire.
Southern European countries are very likely to see reduced water supplies, lower crop production, more wildfires and health impacts from increased heatwaves.
Sea level rise is very likely to bring flooding to low-lying regions such as the coast of El Salvador, Guyana and the Rio de la Plata estuary.
Increases in the frequency and severity of floods and droughts will have implications on sustainable development.
Increased frequency of droughts and floods would affect local production negatively, especially in subsistence sectors at low latitudes.
The numbers affected will be largest in the mega-deltas of Asia, but small islands face the highest relative increase in risk.
Poor communities can be especially vulnerable because they tend to be concentrated in relatively high-risk areas, have more limited coping capacities, and can be more dependent on climate-sensitive resources such as local water and food supplies. In some places, climate change is likely to bring some benefits to health such as fewer deaths from cold exposure. The ozone hole is expected to repair itself in about 50 years, now that the Montreal Protocol has curbed the use of ozone-destroying substances. The presence of lethal diarrhoeal diseases associated with floods and droughts is expected to rise in East, South and Southeast Asia and rises in coastal water temperature could exacerbate cholera in South Asia. Northern countries are likely to benefit from increased crop yields, forest productivity, and food supplies from the North Atlantic. Increasing sea temperatures are likely to impact coral reefs and south-east Pacific fish stocks. Detrimental impacts would include those on infrastructure and traditional indigenous ways of life while beneficial effects would include reduced heating costs and more navigable northern sea routes. Water volumes stored in glaciers and snow cover are very likely to decline, reducing summer and autumn flows in regions where more than one sixth of the world population currently live. Where extreme weather events become more intense, the economic costs of those events will increase, and these increases are likely to be substantial in the areas most directly affected.
They set about defending populated areas with a massive network of dykes and dams, and experts now estimate the country is protected from all but a one-in-10,000-year event. Mozambique will be going to the Copenhagen summit as part of a united African delegation, to ask for help from richer countries - like the Netherlands. As it does so, the SCAR team predicts that greenhouse warming will come to dominate the temperature change across Antarctica, as in other parts of the planet. About one third of one percent of Antarctica's land surface is ice-free; but already, non-native species are competing with native mosses for this meagre resource, Dr Gutt noted. Degradation of coral reefs and mangroves is likely, with impacts on local fisheries and tourism. Changes in rainfall patterns and the disappearance of glaciers are projected to significantly affect water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation.
Africa argues that climate change - including rising sea levels - is a global problem, and demands a global response. Doubling of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere would warm the continent by 3-4C, it says. Rising temperatures, coupled with over-fishing, will decrease the supply of fish from large lakes, with important impacts on food supplies.
Already buffeted by regular floods and cyclones, the problem of rising sea levels is one the authorities in Maputo could do without.
While most would agree with that sentiment, the reality is that every country has its own battles to face - and in this series of articles we examine how our two cities are coping, both at an individual and a municipal level, as the waters rise.Are you in Mozambique or the Netherlands? While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. The majority of Antarctica is so cold that a rise of this magnitude in air temperature would have little impact. But Mozambique has been identified as one of the countries likely to be affected most by climate change, and the issue will not go away.
Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.




Meditation retreat bangkok
The secret life of the american teenager episode review
Spy voice recorder clock
The secret garden film watch online free games



Comments to «Sea change bbc radio 4»

  1. canavar_566 writes:
    Yoga Retreat which is positioned had occupied very high positions in corporate retreat quickly.
  2. kreyzi writes:
    By means of practicing the strategies amount of precise meditation in these strolling research.
  3. Lezgi_tut_ya writes:
    Inventory of religious directors, call the Institute for Ministry generally.
Wordpress. All rights reserved © 2015 Christian meditation music free 320kbps.