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16.10.2015
PAINTING OF THE WEEK - Ruins of the Holyrood Chapel by Moonlight, oil on canvas, 1824, Louis Daguerre. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph.
Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea.
Adafruit: The oldest street scene photos of New York City - Check out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York.
The oldest street scene photos of New York CityCheck out these incredible (and incredibly old) photos of NYC, via Ephemeral New York.
I still remember reading about Louis Daguerre's invention, the daguerreotype, in high school. The Making of the American Museum of Natural Historya€™s Wildlife DioramasFossil shark-jaw restoration, 1909. Very old portrait of three men identified as (from left to right) Henry, George, and Stephen Childs, November 25, 1842. In 1840, Hippolyte Bayard, a pioneer of early photography, created an image called Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man.
10 Times History Was Captured in Living ColorColor photographs go back to before you might think. Like a shooting star he flashed out of obscurity and changed the character of a whole nation in a very short time.
Called of God from the rugged mountains of Gilead, he walked into the palace of King Ahab while apostasy was at its darkest point. But Elijah was well supplied, morning and evening, by the miraculous ministry of the ravens. He looked down upon the dry, brown stones of the brook-bed and could scarcely believe what he saw. Peter said to a€?think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto youa€? (1 Peter 4:12).
James indicates that they develop the very character traits that mark those who will be candidates for the kingdom.
Every experience of disappointment will raise fresh questions concerning Goda€™s justice and love. Every pastor has watched and prayed with his suffering people as they struggled with the a€?whya€? of their dried-up brook. But they can be prepared ahead of time so that their faith will not give way under the stress of loss. How can they submit that beloved child to the cutting of that knife and the throbbing pain that inevitably follows? Probably none of our children would ever choose to be operated on, no matter how serious the condition. Like a small child we may cry over the pain and blame our Father for allowing the cutting to be done. Only when we see Jesus face to face and reason on the plane of immortality will we be able to thank Him for allowing things to be just exactly as they were.
It is easy for me to see how any significant change in those disappointing events could have sent me in a totally opposite direction. Only One who accurately foresees the consequence of every act can safely be trusted to control the circumstances of life. Indeed, it would be impossible to trust Him if we had no other subjective evidences of His commitment to our happiness. Even though they cana€™t understand why God allows their condition, they know it would be totally contrary to Goda€™s nature to permit anything against their highest interests. Never should we blame God for utilizing the one device that will ultimately draw us to Him. After turning to diversified farming and eventually doubling their income from growing peanuts, the farmers of Coffee County erected a monument to the boll weevil. If God would not intervene to save His own Sona€™s life because He saw that great good would eventually result, then He must have seen some future good when He allowed my son to die also.
Through the exercise of a wide-awake conscience, the first approach of our cunning enemy can be recognized and repulsed. Because his fish were so lively and healthy, they invariably commanded the highest prices in the marketplace.
Even from a long distance the flags could be deciphered as they slowly spelled out words letter by letter.
Finally his goal was in sight and only the thin, red line of Highlanders stood in his way at Waterloo. Like the despairing Londoners, we are not able to see past the apparent tragedies of His interrupted message. The solution, my friend, is simply to trust the promise of One who has never failed us yet.
Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Half of the Limburg province of Belgium is added to the Netherlands, giving rise to a Belgian Limburg and Dutch Limburg (the latter being from September 5 joined to the German Confederation).June 3 a€“ Destruction of opium at Humen begins, casus belli for Britain to open the 3-year First Opium War against Qing dynasty China. Bayard had just perfected the process of printing on to paper, which would come to define photography in the following century, but the French government had decided to invest instead in the daguerrotype, a process invented by his rival, Louis Daguerre. Fired by a holy indignation, he confronted the wicked ruler of Israel with words of judgement. In addition to the bread and flesh brought by the birds, God provided plenty of refreshing water from the splashing brook that flowed nearby.
The prophet was walking in the center of Goda€™s will, and the promised blessings never failed. Paul assures us that a€?all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecutiona€? (2 Timothy 3:12). This clearly teaches us that suffering may indeed be a necessary molding process in our preparation for heaven.
Many Christians hold the childish view that because we have accepted Jesus and because He loves us, therefore, He will use His mighty power to preserve us from every pain and trial. We must keep on reminding ourselves that God will allow many situations which will seem to us like terrible tragedies.
We have a fabulous reservoir of experiences with God that prove His unfailing love and concern for us.
It is only because of our greater knowledge of their case that we submit them to the surgery.
And like a human parent, God must weep because He has no way to communicate His reason for subjecting us to the pain. I tremble to think what my life might now be had God not measured out to me those bitter experiences. Through all those eons of time, divine wisdom has been perfecting a detailed plan for your sanctification and ultimate salvation.
He scoffs at the idea that a loving, omnipotent Deity would not intervene to spare His followers from all trouble and pain. He could commission angels and the Holy Spirit to override the law of cause and effect in the lives of all Christians. Everyone would rush into the Christian camp in order to be protected from trouble in the flesh. God has to deal with each individual on the basis of that persona€™s faith and the kind of prayer he offers. But anyone who believes that Jesus was willing to die in his place would have to believe also that Jesus would always work for his best good. Their faith dares to believe that if they could see the future as God sees it, they themselves would choose no other way than He chooses.


Certain migratory birds must wait for strong, opposing winds before they can achieve the heights necessary for their long-distance flights.
We think of Moses spending forty years in the wilderness before God could use him for leading Israel out of bondage. It is almost impossible for human beings to recognize the limits of their physical endurance. Sickness, loss of job, or even tragedy may be necessary in order to provide time for physical and spiritual recuperation. Strange as it may seem, prosperity, good health, and smooth sailing do not attract the soul to God. It is only when we are hurt that we look up and begin to listen to the message God has been trying to communicate. In the memorial inscription, credit is given to the boll weevil for forcing the change of crops, creating unprecedented prosperity for that area.
But if the years bring no satisfactory explanation of tragic loss, then we should trust Him still.
And is that not the reason I could feel the sweet, personal touch of the Father upon my life during those dark hours of grief?
The knowledge that he is apt to attack at any moment or place develops a healthy spirit of alert defensiveness. Perhaps this provocation is exactly what we need to produce a necessary attitude of vigilance. It was by this method that the Battle of Waterloo was reported to the anxious citizens of London.
The banks of England had poured every available pound into government loans to defeat Napoleon. When the fog of unbelief is lifted and the veil is completely taken away, we will recognize for the first time that there was no defeat at all. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre.
As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt.
It didna€™t take long for others to seize the new technology and create daguerreotypes of New York City street scenes. Daguerreotypes are sharply defined, highly reflective, one-of-a-kind photographs on silver-coated copper plates, usually packaged behind glass and kept in protective cases. Everywhere else the people were suffering from the terror of the drought, but God would not let His obedient child lack for anything. We get by our comfortable brook, surrounded by peaceful plenty, and want to rest there the remainder of our days.
God delights in those who will take Him at His word and claim the promise of Romans 8:28 even while the heart is breaking with sorrow.
At this point, everything depends upon the personal relationship that has been developed prior to the crisis. They trust his skill and ability to operate successfully, and they have faith in his wisdom to do the right thing at the right time for the good of their child. In the same manner, we would never choose to experience the trials and afflictions that our heavenly Father often allows to come upon us. It is just as impossible for us to understand Goda€™s decision for our lives as it is for our children to comprehend our decisions for them. As you submit to Him, He will certainly perform only what has been determined as absolutely essential to carry out His plan for your life. Often the believer is hard-pressed to justify the apparent arbitrary manner in which some suffer and some are spared. Any difference that enters the picture must be based upon the individuala€™s response rather than any difference God makes between categories or classes.
If his greatest concern is for God to mold him and prepare him for heaven, his prayer will be for God to shape all the circumstances of his life to that end.
God would have to deny His own nature to do anything against the One He loved more than His own life. We marvel at the years John was isolated and imprisoned on Patmos before he could become the writer of Revelation. Our faith may have to hold us steady until God can explain to us, face to face, why it had to be. Only after the mana€™s death did his son reveal the formula, and it was as simple as it was effective. Raw militia rushed to the coast prepared to die in desperate hand-to-hand combat with the expected invasion force.
It had been victory from the very beginning, but we just didna€™t have the rest of the message. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. After delivering his inspired message, the courageous prophet was commanded by God to hide himself in the eastern wilderness by the brook Cherith. Without fail, the ravens flew in twice a day with their fare of food and the brook was always yielding its life-giving supply of water.
When we pray for God to eradicate sin from our life, we must be ready to accept His ordained method of accomplishing that work. Our human faculties may rebel at the very thought that any good could ever result from such circumstances.
Those who have understood and accepted the principle that Goda€™s love will not allow any trial that is not for our best gooda€”only they will be able to relate properly to the experience. They also know that after the temporary suffering is past that the child will be better off than it was before the pain.
He understands the case completely and knows that after the passing pain we will be better prepared for a happier future. If that plan allows for heartaches here and there, and even apparent disasters from time to time, God will never permit more than we can bear. How can we respond to the accusation that a just God would protect all His people from all trouble at all times?
This is another way of saying that no one in the world can prevent troubles coming into his life, but he can decide what those troubles do to his life after they happen. In order to answer such a prayer of faith, God may have to permit experiences of pain or affliction. And Paul experienced torture and imprisonment before he could write, a€?Godliness with contentment is great gaina€? (1 Timothy 6:6). In the thoughtful hours and days of slow recovery from surgery, many have found the secret of life in Christ. They could not hear his cries, so he began to drop gold coins from his pocket to attract their attention. In the meantime, we are sustained by the comfort of the One who fully understands our griefs and sorrows.
In the experience of Job we have a perfect picture of Satana€™s mischievous program to afflict Goda€™s faithful children. After securing his load of fish safely in the holding tank, the old fisherman would loose several pugnacious catfish into the tank.
The whole message will be understood only when Jesus Himself speaks to us beyond the mist of our limited human view. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. There God arranged providentially for ravens to deliver food to the isolated fugitive during the predicted years of famine. We can hear him moaning, a€?Joseph is gone, Simeon is gone, and now you want to take Benjamin away, too.
He will be there to measure and temper the furnace according to our strength and according to our need. But although they scrambled about to recover all the falling money, not one pedestrian looked up to see the plight of the prisoner.


Jesus became one of us so that He could experience every pain and be a faithful intercessor for us. Has not my own ability to provide healing comfort been greatly strengthened because I have shared a similar sorrow with those who have lost children? Up to certain limits God allowed Job to be tested by the great adversary, and the triumphant conclusion of the story reveals why God permitted things to go as far as they did.
The constant fear of attack kept all the commercial fish in agitated motion, preserving them from the normal lethargic state brought on by prolonged captivity. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. For over two weeks in the summer of 2002, scientists and conservators at this prestigious facility subjected the artifact, its frame, and support materials to extensive and rigorous non-destructive testing. In the dynamics of divine Providence, Elijah was scheduled to experience another miracle in another place.
I sit up during the long hours of the night, holding his hand and ministering to every possible need. Such a trusting faith cannot only bring power to bear the suffering with less trauma, but also, in some cases, to be healed of the affliction as well. Finally, he managed to break off a chunk of mortar from the crumbling wall and dropped it out the window.
I may have to wait until Jesus comes to understand why my little eight-year-old son suffered so long before dying of a brain tumor.
Only those who have passed through the same suffering can truly sympathize and communicate with our hearts. Job emerged from the devastating trials with a stronger faith and greater prosperity than he had before.
The result was a very complete scientific and technical analysis of the object, which in turn provided better criteria for its secure and permanent case design and presentation in the lobby of the newly-renovated Harry Ransom Center.The plate also received extensive attention from the photographic technicians at the Institute, who spent a day and a half with the original heliograph in their photographic studios in order to record photographically and digitally all aspects of the plate. This response of God to the faith of an individual has nothing to do with favoring a class of people. Finally, in utter exhaustion, the frantic bird crashed into a wall and fell to the floor seriously injured. The object was documented under all manner of scientific lights, including infrared and ultraviolet spectra. God is still operating within the framework of law, but this time spiritual law instead of natural. Only then did the scientist realize that the pigeon had inherited the instinct to fly but not to stop its flight. But he would have missed the widowa€™s cruse, the Carmel experience, and Elisha plowing in the field. Had it not been willing to risk the shock of a crash landing, the bird would have died of stress in midair. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
Nevertheless, the conditions are the same for all, and He delights to set the spiritual laws of asking, believing, and receiving into operation for anyone. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.
The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread.
At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning.
Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii.
Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector.
The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable.
Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.



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