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16.09.2015
Many years later, early in my career in Washington while I was still young and unencumbered, Peter Ashman proposed that we take the last great passenger train in America, Southern Railwaya€™s Southern Crescent, all the way to New Orleans for a long jazzy weekend of eating, drinking and wenching in the French Quarter. But on the 27th of last month Susan and I flew to London and took the Chunnel train (the Eurostar) to Paris, where we stayed overnight at a Left Bank hotel; and on Friday the 29th, at the Gare de la€™Est, we boarded the Orient Express for Constantinople a€” arriving there on September 3rd a€” over a period of six days with three nights on the train and two more in hotels in Buda-Pest and Bucharest.
Soon after nine oa€™clock on the morning of the day on which the police received his note, he left his hotel for the Gare de la€™Est and the Orient Express. I must start with the Orient Expressa€™s reputation for intrigue, for my still-present if recently dormant counter-intelligence antennae were reactivated by something even before boarding the train. The great trains are going out all over Europe, one by one, but still the Orient Express thunders superbly over 1400 miles of glittering steel track between Paris and Istanbul.
The Passengers: about one hundred, and while I may miss a nationality or two, I noticed American, British, Canadian, Australian, French, Spanish, German, Swedish, and even a Korean couple.
Also aboard was the current president of the Orient Express Company, a French-man, and his wife.
The Route: Paris a€” Strasbourg a€” Baden-Baden a€” Munich a€” Salzburg a€” Vienna a€” Buda-Pest a€” Sinaia a€” Bucharest a€” Varna a€” Constantinople, for a total of 3,469 kilometers (2,155 and a half miles, a good deal more than James Bonda€™s 1400) through seven countries. Marco had made up our sleeping berths while we were at dinner, the lamp on the folding table beneath the window shining upon the compartmenta€™s polished wood and brass. One is to say that Susan and I got quite used to be met and sent off at each station by a brass band, beginning with the traina€™s arrival in Buda-Pest a€” nor did it seem more than right for us to use, Orient Express passengers only sa€™il vouz plaA®t, the stationa€™s special entrance and sumptuous waiting-lounge built a hundred and fifty years ago for Emperor Franz Josef. The folkways grew still stranger as we moved eastward, perhaps never more so than when leaving Bucharest, where we were seen off by not only a band, but by folk dancers, including a dancing bear, a dancing troll, and what I can only think must have been a dancing werewolf. This was my fourth visit to Buda-Pest, whose uprising against the Soviet puppet regime in 1956, crushed by the Red Army and secret police, was the event that launched me at age ten on my education in international relations and my career. Not only does the prospect of the food allure us, but the fact that we shall be devouring it in a fantastic chariot of steel and glass, hurtling through a foreign country.
While we had a dinner and a lunch in Buda-Pest and a dinner in Bucharest, we had three dinners and four lunches aboard the Orient Express, along with continental breakfast served in our compartment each morning we were on the train.
The experience reminded me of something I once read about the cooking aboard the 20th Century Limited in the 1930s and a€™40s, that each passenger on the runs between Chicago and New York, with just one dinner and a breakfast, consumed a pound of butter. Bucharesta€™s traffic is terrible, but in Roumaniaa€™s countryside horse-drawn wagons are common, and speckled bands of gypsy encampments could be seen from the train as we traveled. Nonetheless, Vlad Tepes, Vlad the Impaler, Draculaa€™s fifteenth-century original, is a national hero, she said, because he fought the Turks.
I thought of the Undead again the next day as we entered Bulgaria and headed for the port of Varna, for it was to the a€?pearl of the Black Seaa€? that Dracula, aboard the ship Czarina Catherine, fled from the brave party vowed to destroy him. A taste of the casbah, a whiff of Asia, a pause at the cross-roads of two continents, is surely the promise which has brought so many travelers on the long and tedious railway journey from Paris.
Southern Roumania, eastern Bulgaria and Thracian Turkey resemble Americaa€™s badlands, with towns full of old crumbling houses a€” so much so that I was unprepared for Constantinople, a fascinating city, the stuff of dreams in a gorgeous setting of green hills rising above the deep-blue Sea of Marmara, Golden Horn, and Bosphorus.
I am not one hundred percent sure I found the precise chamber in question when we visited Topkapi Palace, for there were more than a few candidates.
I also report with some pride and a little surprise at the accomplishment that we did not buy any rugs. No one likes to leave Venice in a hurry but the Orient Express departs at 19.28, and the cocktails we downed in Harrya€™s Bar an hour or so earlier are proving just the thing to make locating the right platform that bit more exciting.
An hour or two later, during the final lunch aboard the Orient Express, he entered our dining-car with two Twentieth Centurys on a silver tray, and served them to Susan and me with his compliments. Yet once again an east wind is being felt by central and eastern Europeans along the storied route. A A A  Many years later, early in my career in Washington while I was still young and unencumbered, Peter Ashman proposed that we take the last great passenger train in America, Southern Railwaya€™s Southern Crescent, all the way to New Orleans for a long jazzy weekend of eating, drinking and wenching in the French Quarter.
A A A  The Passengers: about one hundred, and while I may miss a nationality or two, I noticed American, British, Canadian, Australian, French, Spanish, German, Swedish, and even a Korean couple. A A A  Also aboard was the current president of the Orient Express Company, a French-man, and his wife. A A A  The Route: Paris a€” Strasbourg a€” Baden-Baden a€” Munich a€” Salzburg a€” Vienna a€” Buda-Pest a€” Sinaia a€” Bucharest a€” Varna a€” Constantinople, for a total of 3,469 kilometers (2,155 and a half miles, a good deal more than James Bonda€™s 1400) through seven countries. We dined that night in the second dining-car, CA?te da€™Azur, gleaming ebony wood with striking Lalique glass panels lit softly by the Orient Expressa€™s trademark rose-shaded lamps on the tables.
A A A  The folkways grew still stranger as we moved eastward, perhaps never more so than when leaving Bucharest, where we were seen off by not only a band, but by folk dancers, including a dancing bear, a dancing troll, and what I can only think must have been a dancing werewolf.
A A A  The experience reminded me of something I once read about the cooking aboard the 20th Century Limited in the 1930s and a€™40s, that each passenger on the runs between Chicago and New York, with just one dinner and a breakfast, consumed a pound of butter. We entered Transylvania in darkness, close (but not too close) to Borgo Pass, and stopped in its legendary Roumanian mountains at a town called Sinaia to visit Peles Castle, the summer residence of King Carol I. A A A  Bucharesta€™s traffic is terrible, but in Roumaniaa€™s countryside horse-drawn wagons are common, and speckled bands of gypsy encampments could be seen from the train as we traveled.
A A A  Nonetheless, Vlad Tepes, Vlad the Impaler, Draculaa€™s fifteenth-century original, is a national hero, she said, because he fought the Turks. The Orient Expressa€™s club car has an able bartender, Attilio, but like so many bars it lacked the blonde Lillet to make my favorite cocktail, the Twen-tieth Century, named after the American train I mentioned before. A A A  An hour or two later, during the final lunch aboard the Orient Express, he entered our dining-car with two Twentieth Centurys on a silver tray, and served them to Susan and me with his compliments.
A A A  Yet once again an east wind is being felt by central and eastern Europeans along the storied route.
A A A  And in Bulgaria, we were taken at the end of our afternoon in Varna to its Eastern Orthodox cathedral.
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Directed bya€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦.Quinn D.
Directed by a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦K.O.
Before the Falla€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦by Quinn D. There will now be a 21.5 hour intermission, have another drink, talk, go home, and come back!
Directed bya€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦a€¦V.F. Writersa€?Chris Davis, Jennifer Hutten, Fred Andersen, Frank Bruckner, Julia Frey, Bryan R. The nights begin at 8pm and each night will feature a different set of plays so you can come both nights and have a totally different experience.
Performances will be at The Shubin Theatre, is a great spot for intimate theater and is located at 407 Bainbridge St, in S. Writersa€?George Tietze, Walt Vail, Tom Tirney, Robin Rodriguez, Tom Tunnington, Samuel Toll, V.F.
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Description: This highly significant map of the world eluded examination by modern scholars for nearly four hundred years until its re-discovery in 1901 by the Jesuit historian, Joseph Fisher, in the library of Prince von Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsee at the Castle of Wolfegg, WA?rttemberg Germany. It had long been suspected that Martin WaldseemA?ller, a professor of cosmography at the school in St.
The purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map, which we have designed both as a globe and as a projection [tam in solido quam plano]. Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s Universalis Cosmographia secundum Ptholomei Traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum Lustrationes [A Map of the World According to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci] was designed on a single cordiform projection and engraved on twelve wooden blocks (21 x 30 inches each; 54 x 96 inches overall) at Strasburg and printed at St. In Plate IX of the map, numbering the plates from left to right, the top row first, WaldseemA?ller re-asserts that he is particularly delineating the lands discovered by Vespucci. A general delineation of the various lands and islands, including some of which the ancients make no mention, discovered lately between 1497 and 1504 in four voyages over the seas, two by Fernando of Castile, and two by Manuel of Portugal, most serene monarchs, with Amerigo Vespucci as one of the navigators and officers of the fleet; and especially a delineation of many places hitherto unknown. Vespucci claimed that on his first voyage he made discoveries along the coasts of Honduras and the Gulf of Mexico.
In describing the general appearance of the world, it has seemed best to put down the discoveries of the ancients, and to add what has since been discovered by the moderns, for instance, the land of Cathay, so that those who are interested in such matters and wish to find out various things, may gain their wishes and be grateful to us for our labor, when they see nearly everything that has been discovered here and there, or recently explored, carefully and clearly brought together, so as to be seen at a glance. This mapa€™s greatest claim to immortality, however, is contained in the simple word of seven letters, America, the earliest known use of that name to describe the newly found fourth part of the world, placed on the southern continent (present-day South America) of the world map only by WaldseemA?ller. More than four years had elapsed since Amerigo Vespucci announced what he claimed to be the discovery of an entirely new continent, and as yet that new continent had no satisfactory name.
In the first years of the new century, a group of scholars decided to produce a revised edition of the Cosmography of Ptolemy (#119) to meet the urgent need for new maps, according to the new discoveries. Martin WaldseemA?ller, a native of Freiburg in the Breisgau and appointed Professor of Geography at St. Toward the South Pole are situated the southern part of Africa, recently discovered, and the islands of Zanzibar, Java Minor, and Seula. The name appeared in Halmal, a semi-divine mythical forefather or ancestor of the Amelungen, or royal tribe of the Ostrogoths, which was called A–mlunger.
Returning to the map, it is curious to note that while the name America appeared on the new continent (South America) of the new hemisphere on the world map, WaldseemA?ller did not choose to use it on the small inset map of the western hemisphere, where South America is labeled Terra Incognita. By selecting the name America for a major portion of the new discoveries, WaldseemA?ller was not unaware of the contributions of Columbus and intended no denial of the credit properly due him. Plate I, in the upper left-hand corner, contains an inscription that explains WaldseemA?llera€™s ideas as to the location of the lands discovered by Vespucci and Columbus. Many have regarded as an invention the words of a famous poet [Virgil] that a€?beyond the stars lies a land, beyond the path of the year and the sun, where Atlas, who supports the heavens, revolves on his shoulders the axis of the world, set with gleaming starsa€?, but now finally it proves clearly to be true. Instead of a€?19 degreesa€? he should have written a€?29 degreesa€? which, when added to the 23 degrees of the tropic, would have made the a€?52 degreesa€? given in the a€?thirda€? voyage as Amerigo Vespuccia€™s farthest south.
The remarkable geographical features of the WaldseemA?ller map are, however, more important than the giving of a name to one of them. These close approximations to geographical actualities were natural corollaries of Amerigoa€™s great a€?discoverya€™ of a a€?fourth part of the worlda€?.
WaldseemA?ller places a land to the west of Isabella Insula [Cuba], as do many of the other mapmakers of his time, La Cosa, Cantino, Ruysch and Caveri (#305, #308, #313, #307).
To the south, the long attenuated form given to both Terra Ulteria€? Incognita and to America, the west coasts of which are, as it were, rolled back to indicate WaldseemA?llera€™s lack of knowledge of these areas. Leaving the New World discoveries, one cannot help but notice the striking resemblance between WaldseemA?llera€™s a€?Old Worlda€? outline and that presented by Henricus Martellus Germanus in his map of 1490 (#256). Although many of the ancients were interested in marking out the circle of the land, things remained unknown to them in no slight degree; for instance, in the west, America, named after its discoverer, which is to be reckoned a fourth part of the world.
In addition to Caveri, Martellus and Ptolemy, other sources synthesized by WaldseemA?ller include the narratives of Marco Polo, whose data concerning the geography of eastern China and the adjacent islands, though already known to the world in the map of Fra Mauro (#249), the Catalan Atlas (#235) and in globes such as those of Behaim (#258), are now for the first time embodied in a popular printed sheet map; and the Northmen, whose explorations in Mare Glaciale and in the neighborhood of Greenland were known from the maps of Claudius Clavus and those of Donnus Nickolaus Germanus. Thus, derived chiefly from Caveria€™s map (#307), itself based in many particulars upon the Cantino world map of 1502 (#308), the WaldseemA?ller production of 1507 transmitted the features of both to an impressive list of succeeding maps, globes and globe gores reaching to 1520 and well beyond.
Of the same year as the map itself, and displaying its features, was the previously alluded to printed globe issued by WaldseemA?ller, known today only by two sets of globe gores on uncut sheets. WaldseemA?ller, himself, continued his cartographic production beginning with a revised edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (eventually published by others), which included a Supplement composed of 20 maps claimed by some scholars to be a€?the first modern atlas of the worlda€™.
The regression of WaldseemA?ller to the Columbian conception of Cuba as a part of the continent of Asia was without question confusing to those who saw the map of 1516 with its specific legend.
One can hardly overemphasize the significance in cartographic history, therefore, of the printed WaldseemA?ller productions of 1507 - world map, insets, and globe gores. The name America (applied to present-day Brazil) appeared for what is believed the first time on Martin WaldseemA?ller's 1507 world map a€” the so-called Baptismal Certificate of the New World.
AMERICA, we learn as schoolchildren, was named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci a€” for his discovery of the mainland of the New World.
Traditional history lessons about the discovery of America also raise questions about the meaning of discovery itself. And yet, despite the issue of who discovered America, we are still confronted with the awesome fact that it was the voyages of Columbus, and not earlier ones, that changed the course of world history.
Carew is resurrecting the ideas of Jules Marcou, a prominent French geologist who while studying North America argued, as did other 19th-century writers, that the name America was brought back to Europe from the New World; and that Vespucci had changed his name to reflect the name of his discovery.
Like Marcou, Carew wants us to believe that America was not named after Vespucci, but vice versa; that Vespucci had, so to speak, re-named himself after his discovery, gilding his given name by modifying it to reflect the significance of his discovery. Some scholars believe Vespucci was named after Saint Emeric, son of the first king of Hungary. As was the custom of the Florentine nobility, Vespucci received an education that featured special instruction in the sciences connected with navigation a€” natural philosophy, astronomy, and cosmography a€” in which he excelled. During the first half of the 20th century, scholars discovered further evidence that clears away the cloud of misunderstanding and ignorance by which Vespucci has long been obscured. The voyage completed by Vespucci between May 1499 and June 1500 as navigator of an expedition of four ships sent from Spain under the command of Alonso de Hojeda is certainly authentic.
Under Portuguese auspices he completed a second expedition, which set sail from Lisbon on May 31, 1501.
Vespucci not only explored unknown regions but also invented a system of computing exact longitude and arrived at a figure computing the earth's equational circumference only fifty miles short of the correct measurement.
The new geography included in its appendix WaldseemA?ller's large, stunning map of the world, on which the New World is boldly labeled AMERICA a€” in the middle of present-day Brazil. The baptismal passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio has commonly been read as argument, in which the authors said that they were naming the newly discovered continent in honor of Vespucci and saw no reason for objections.
Even though the Latinization of Americus fits a pattern, why did the cosmographers not employ Albericus (hence the assumption that "Alberigo" was Vespucci's authentic Christian name), the Latinization that had already been used for Amerigo's name as the author of the Mundus Novus? Did America get its name through oral tradition when those who had sailed with Columbus or Vespucci circulated stories that gold was to be found in the Amerrique Mountains of Nicaragua? The coast at the foot of the Amerrique Mountains that faces the Caribbean Sea is called the Mosquito Coast, named for the Mosquito Indians, who live there still.
The Caribs, traveling far from their Carib or Cariay coast, could see the Amerriques in the distance, and these mountains for them could have signified the mainland. Rodney Broomea€™s recent book, Terra Incognita: The True Story of How America Got Its Name (2001), in which he argues for the Amerike theory, is a very good read, but ultimately lacks the hard evidence to support the authora€™s claim.
An early version of this essay appeared in The American Voice (1988) and a section in Encounters (1991). In late May 2003, the Library of Congress completed the purchase of the only surviving copy of the first image of the outline of the continents of the world as we know them todaya€” Martin Waldseemullera€™s monumental 1507 world map. Martin Waldseemuller, the primary cartographer of the map, was a sixteenth-century scholar, humanist, cleric, and cartographer who had joined the small intellectual circle, the Gymnasium Vosagense, organized in Saint-DieI?, France. Thus, in northeast France was born the famous 1507 world map, entitled Universalis cosmographia secunda Ptholemei traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum que lustrationes (A drawing of the whole earth following the tradition of Ptolemy and the travels of Amerigo Vespucci and others). While it has been suggested that Waldseemuller incorrectly dismissed Christopher Columbusa€™s great achievement in history by the selection of the name America for the Western Hemisphere, it is evident that the information that Waldseemuller and his colleagues had at their disposal recognized Columbus's previous voyages of exploration and discovery. By 1513, when Waldseemuller and the Saint-DieI? scholars published the new edition of Ptolemy's Geographiae, and by 1516, when his famous Carta Marina was printed, Waldseemuller had removed the name America from his maps, perhaps suggesting that even he had second thoughts in honoring Vespucci exclusively for his understanding of the New World. A reported one thousand copies of the 1507 map were printed, which was a sizeable print run in those days. The Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division acquired in 1903 the facsimiles made of the 1507 and 1516 maps.
Library of Congress and specialists in the Library were encouraged to investigate the opportunity. The 1507 world map is now the centerpiece of the outstanding cartographic collections of the Library of Congress, as it would be for any world class cartographic collection. The Librarya€™s acquisition of the Waldseemuller map represents an important moment to renew serious research into this exceptional map, to determine the sources which made possible its creation, and to investigate its contemporary impact and acceptance. Through agreement with Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the government of Germany, the 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller is to be placed on permanent display in the Library of Congressa€™s Great Hall area in the Thomas Jefferson Building.
DESCRIPTION: The existence of sets of gores for making into a globe had been surmised for some time from the discussion in WaldseemA?llera€™s CosmographiA¦ Introductio.
That which adds special significance to this young Germana€™s representations of the new lands, so far as a study of globes is concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his particular outlines or contours in the globe maps of the first quarter of the century, produced by such cartographers as Johann SchA¶ner of NA?rnberg (#328), and by those of his school. In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, there appears to be a reference to a globe which may be that constructed by WaldseemA?ller. The twelve such gores, measuring 18 x 34.5 cm, corresponding very closely to those described by WaldseemA?ller were for a long time in the Hauslab-Leichtenstein collection and are now in the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
The world outline is a simplified reduction of WaldseemA?llera€™s large map of 1507 (#310) with relatively few names but (when mounted) sufficient for illustrative purposes.
Martin WaldseemA?ller, theologian and cosmographer, and Matthias Ringmann, a humanist poet, were brought to the monastery of St. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?Marquettea€? of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely.
Considerable speculation, misinformation and some misunderstanding has surrounded these globe gores and the large world map.
NFL ending its lockout, NBA lockout just getting underway, ESPY Awards, Medal of Honor- Sgt.
Every month, I will continue to do the best job that I can to make your reading experience enjoyable.A  Check back each and every month, to find out the lowdown on everything in the magazine. 11.DC Universe Presents #1 is from the creative team of Paul Jenkins, Bernard Chang, and Ryan Sook. 14.Superboy is from the creative team of Scott Lobdell, RB Silva, Rob Lean and Eric Canete. 21.Batwoman is finally going to be an ongoing series (after three false starts beginning in November.
22.Batgirl #1 is from the creative team of Gail Simone, Adrian Syaf and Vincente Cifuentas. 26.The Hood and the Outlaws #1 is from the creative team of Scott Lobdell and Kenneth Rocafort. All this was playing out while Brendaa€™s team was working a new case of seven killed in what was a rappers death (drugs, money, gangs were all included in this initial case). Mickey Haller was a Los Angeles criminal defense attorney who operated out of the back of his Lincoln sedan.
This trifle about a everyday-loser who became a costumed superhero, even though he had no special powers might have seemed like a darker oddball cousin of last yeara€™s smash-comic book based R-rated movie, Kick-Ass (this film was not based on an actual comic book). Ashley Tisdale starred as the unique character Sharpay in this sequel-ish spin-off film based on the High School Musical franchise. Left in a near-catatonic state following the events in Buffy Season 8, Angel will need a seriously rude awakening if he is to make amends for his ill-conceived deeds. Marvela€™s Big Shots logo theme continued with the launch of the second title in its three-tier format (Moon Knight and upcoming The Punisher). After plenty of controversy for the players that did not show up to this yeara€™s MLB All-Star game held at Chase Field, in Arizona there also was an actual game. During the 125th Wimbledon tournament, it crowned a new Womena€™s Singles Champion on Saturday, July 2nd. Owners decided in 2008 to opt out of the leaguea€™s old labor contract, which expired March 11th 2011. Japan beats the USA in the 2011 Womena€™s World Cup Finals during a penalty kick situation which only occurs after the 90-minutes of regular playing time is not enough and the additional 30-minutes of Extra time continues to have an equalizer effect. Starting out this entry on a high note, the 2011 San Diego Comic-Con event took place between July 20th-24th. Switching from a tragic case to a happy story, America was united this past month with a passion for the hardworking athletes that made up the 2011 USA team that beat two amazing games on their way to an overtime loss in the 2011 Womena€™s World Cup match in soccer.
Britain is in an uproar over the scandal, which has cast its shadow not just across British journalism, but also Scotland Yard and the prime ministera€™s office.
It has led to the resignations of the commissioner and assistant commissioner of Londona€™s Metropolitan Police, known as Scotland Yard, forced the closure of one of the countrya€™s best-selling newspapers and resulted in 10 arrests.
Cameron stated that he would request a special session of Parliament on to address the scandal, even flying back early from South Africa. The allegations are part of a widening scandal that began with revelations that journalists working for the News of the World newspaper had eavesdropped on the phone of a missing girl, Milly Dowler, and deleted some of her messages to make room for more. Stephenson stressed that he had behaved ethically, but decided to resign because increased scrutiny may burden his department and detract from its accomplishments. The complaints against Yates included his role in failing to pursue a 2009 investigation into allegations of phone hacking, as well as claims he was inappropriately involved in getting a job for a frienda€™s daughter, the commission said.
May told Parliament that, in addition to the inspectoratea€™s inquiry, she also would consider additional resources and powers for the Independent Police Complaints Commission.
News Corporation itself got hacked, when the hacker group LulzSec claimed credit for targeting The Sun, one of the British papers under the conglomeratea€™s media umbrella.
The FBI was also investigating News Corporation after a report that employees or associates may have tried to hack into phone conversations and voice mail of September 11 survivors, victims and their families.
In a month filled with real life terror and the fantasy world of comic books and superheroes, SD:CC was all the buzz. The bittersweet taste of Harry Potter And The Deathly Hallows, Part 2 was released on July 17th. The last note from this month was amidst the current NBA lock-out, the NBA announced and released its 2011-2012 Regular Season schedule of games.
My mother had wanted us to fly, but my father said No, the kinds of passenger trains we know wona€™t be around much longer, and I want Jon to know what they were like. But before we could, the Crescent derailed a bit south of Charlottesville, Va., killing several passengers.
But this was so exceptional an experience that I want to write about it for you, and while it is fresh in my mind.
After checking in at the Gare de la€™Est and seeing our luggage whisked away, an Orient Express demoiselle led us across the way to an Alsatian brasserie to wait embarkation time at the Orient Expressa€™s expense, with other travelers for Constantinople.
While the chef was French, most of the crew were Italian out of Venice, including our sleeping-car steward Marco, and couldna€™t have been better. He was clearly along to be sucked up to (and was, by the chef especially), without ever descending from Olympus to speak to another passenger as far as I noticed, let alone ask whether the rest of us were enjoying the ride. We had not finish-ed tea before the MaA®tre da€™ and an assistant came to take our reservation for dinner; we took the second seating in order to relax and enjoy while the daylight lasted the view of the French countryside through which we were passing.
But I didna€™t go back to sleep until the train finally moved again a€” on through the night to cross the border into post-Anschluss Austria, heading for Buda-Pest.
I only want to mention a few things for the record, hoping that they will be of interest to you. So after Hungary had ejected the communists in its first free election in 1990, it was my first destination behind the crumbling Iron Curtain just two weeks later as we started developing defense and intelligence relationships with the new emerging democratic Eastern European governments. The meals were splendid, more often than not more than we could manage a€” something the chef found distressing, as he made his way through the dining-cars each time to see if wea€™d been good boys and girls. Meal for meal, those aboard the Orient Express may not be quite that rich, but its chef got more of a crack at us over our six days aboard. And in the moments when the racing wheels quieten, one can hear cartridge-clips being fed into well-oiled automatics, ready for the final shoot-up amid the snows of the frontier. Built principally between 1873 and 1883, ita€™s a knock-out inside and out, and I will never again think of The Prisoner of Zenda without visualizing Peles.
Bucharest itself has a long way to go before it matches Buda-Pest or other Eastern European capitals, even though theya€™re also recovering from fifty years of communism.
After a tumultuous welcome at Sirkeci station, Susan and I stayed for three additional days at the Seven Hills Hotel in the Sultanahmet a€?old citya€? district, with a staggering view from our balcony of Hagia Sophia rising a block up the hill. Yeats-Brown, the old Bengal Lancer, we are all indebted for some knowledge of how, in April five-and-thirty years ago, Abdul-Hamid the Damned spent his last night as Caliph of Islam. But I certainly looked for it, and I took away, if not a precise identification, then at any rate an enviable ticket of admission to the Harem. Anyone who has been to Constantinople or similar points in The Levant will know how hard that can be.
The Orient Express was historically a train of international intrigue, running originally from the heart of the Entente Cordiale at its western terminus through Wilhelmine Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire to the seat of the Ottoman Empire at its eastern end.
Our voyage aboard the Orient Express took place as Russia was invading Georgia in the Caucasus Mountains on Turkeya€™s eastern border, and it was on the minds of both the passengers and the peoples through whose lands we were passing.
It looks ancient but is actually not, having been built only in the beginning of the twentieth century after the Turks were finally expelled. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount.
Primary Stages is a staged-reading series of 10 minute plays that blurs the lines between a script-in-hand reading and a fully produced night of theater. Eraslan, directed by Darin Dunston, and featuring Andrew Tardif, Rory Donovan, and David Stanger. Zilacita, Frederick Andersen, Frank Bruckner, Lise Raven, Ilana Vine, Dan Ruppel, Charles Tyson, Peter Danzig, Ray King Reese, and Bryan R.
Caine, Libby Spangler, Michael McElroy, Mark Robson, Megan Slater, Lyndsay Hart, Nick Fragale, Peter Camp, Simone Lindenbaum-Grosbard, Chelsea Barr, Nathan Vogel, Charles Tyson Jr., and others!
Fisher found the only known remaining copy of this map securely bound up in an old book bearing the bookplate of the 16th century German mathematician and geographer Johannes SchA¶ner. Die, located in the Vosges Mountains of France, had made a map of the world in the year 1507. Die in a an original issue of about 1,000 copies (a thousand copies represented a large edition for this time, immediately preceding post-Columbian world maps, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s, Cantinoa€™s and Caveria€™s (#305 thru #309 - were all manuscript maps). All this we have carefully drawn on the map, to furnish true and precise geographical knowledge.
A Florentine cosmographer, he sailed in 1497 with a commission appointed by Ferdinand and Isabella to investigate reports that Columbusa€™ administration of Hispaniola was inept. He also credited himself with three other voyages by 1503, when he made his last, an investigation of the coast of Brazil for Portugal.
Taken together, these inset hemispheres form the most comprehensive and most nearly correct representation of the world displayed on any map known to have been constructed up to the year of 1507.
Besides this world map, WaldseemA?ller also introduced the name America in two other media, in the previously mentioned Cosmographia Introductio and on his globe (thought by some scholars to be the so-called Hausslab-Linchoten globe (#311), both also produced in the year 1507).
It happened that in the Vosges Mountains in the little town of Saint-Die, there was a college under the patronage of the studious Duke Renaud (Rene) II of Vaudemon, of Lorraine, the titular a€?King of Jerusalem and Sicilya€?, who was there resident. On Plate V (the Caribbean area) of his map, WaldseemA?ller wrote: These islands were discovered by Columbus, an admiral of Genoa, at the command of the King of Spain. For there is a land, discovered by Columbus, a captain of the King of Castile, and by Americus Vespucius, both men of very great ability, which, though in great part lies beneath a€?the path of the year and of the suna€? and between the tropics, nevertheless extends about 19 degrees beyond the Tropic of Capricorn toward the Antarctic Pole, a€?beyond the path of the year and the suna€?. Since Columbus never explored as far south as the equator, the words a€?it proves clearly to be truea€? are clothed with meaning only in the light of Amerigoa€™s voyages into the southern hemisphere, not at all in the light of the a€?firsta€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?, from which the dispute ultimately arose as to which could claim priority upon the shore of the new continent, Columbus or Amerigo Vespucci; for that a€?firsta€? voyage, like all the voyages of Columbus, was entirely north of the equator. In addition to the previously mentioned accuracy and a€?noveltya€™ of the hemispheric insets, and the picturing of the new southern continent, with its surprisingly correct general contour, the inset map presents a portion of the northern continent as well, and the two are correctly joined together by a narrow isthmus. One is tempted to loose sight of this revolutionary advance over the previously dominating world conception of Ptolemy in focusing all the attention to the single feature that has made WaldseemA?llera€™s map so famous, the first appearance thereon of the name America.
This area may represent the coast of China copied from Marco Polo, and placed here in the belief that the new discoveries were in and near Asia. In extending the South American coast to 50 degrees South (high-lighted by the implantation of a Portuguese flag), WaldseemA?ller avoids committing himself as to the possibility of a passage by sea around this new continent by continuing its land to the edge of, and actually into, the map frame (compare this abrupt treatment with his depiction of Africa, where he is willing to go outside of the preset form of his map frame in order to accommodate the full extension of the continent and thus substantiate the Portuguese proof of a passage to the Far East). As can be seen on the accompanying comparison illustration, except for the southern half of Africa, in both projection and general geographical contours the Old World of WaldseemA?llera€™s 1507 map seems to have been virtually copied from Martellus.
Another is, to the south, a part of Africa, which begins about seven degrees this side of Capricornus and stretches in a broad expanse to the south, beyond the torrid zone and the Tropic of Egocerus (Capricornus).
At least twice Henricus Glareanus copied WaldseemA?llera€™s world map and insets in manuscript.
Two maps in this Supplement show the New World discoveries, Tabula Terre Nove and Orbis Typus Universalis.
In his great and very important world map of 1516, WaldseemA?ller showed the landmass abutting upon the western border of the map, as in the two above mentioned maps, but here gives it the name Terra de Cuba Asie Partis. The representation in these of the American continents separated from Asia by a broad ocean in the midst of which lay the island of Japan was a splendid synthesis based upon such known particulars as the narrative of Marco Polo, the voyages of the Portuguese to North America by way of the Atlantic and to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the discoveries of South America by Vespucci and Cabral, the Spanish discoveries in the West Indies and the Caribbean, and above all, perhaps, the notable manuscript maps of La Cosa, Cantino, and Caveri.
The only known surviving copy was purchased, in 2003, by the Library of Congress for $10 million.
Further, other discoveries of America have been credited to the Irish who had sailed to a land they called Iargalon, the land beyond the sunset, and to the Phoenicians who purportedly came here before the Norse.
Specifically, Marcou introduced the name of an Indian tribe and of a district in Nicaragua called Amerrique, and asserted that this district a€” rich in gold a€” had been visited by both Columbus and Vespucci, who then made this name known in Europe.
To define it Carew echoes Marcou, who quotes from his correspondence with Augustus Le Plongeon.
He has been wrongfully portrayed as a crafty opportunist ever since the mid-16th century when Bartholomew de Las Casas accused him of being a liar and a thief who stole the glory that belonged to Columbus.
Around 1490 he was sent to Spain by his employers, the famous Italian family of Medici, to join their business in fitting out ships.
At the beginning of 1505 he was summoned to the court of Spain for a private consultation, and, as a man of experience, was engaged to work for the famous Casa de Contratacion de las Indias (Commercial House for the West Indies), which had been founded two years before in Seville.
The first or traditional series consists of the widely published letters, dated 1504, purportedly written by him. After a halt at the Cape Verde Islands, the expedition traveled southwestward, reached the coast of Brazil, and certainly sailed as far south as the RA­o de la Plata, which Vespucci was the first European to discover.


It was, however, not his many solid accomplishments but an apparent error made by a group of scholars living in St. This map is the first known map, printed or manuscript, to use the name America, and also the first to depict clearly a separate western hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean.
But, as etymologist Joy Rea has suggested, it could also be read as explanation, in which they indicate that they have heard the New World was called America, and the only explanation lay in Vespucci's name. Their substitution of Americus for the well-known Latinization Albericus might mean that they wanted a Latinization that would fit and explain the name America which they had already heard applied to the New World. The Indians in the Caribbean did have a word for the mainland, given in the LexicografA­a Antillana (Antillean Dictionary, 1931) as babeque and defined as the name that Columbus understood the Indians to say when they were pointing to a land beyond Haiti and Cuba.
It constitutes an incredible Anglicization of the New World a€” and would, for obvious reasons, infuriate Carew. He purportedly gave one of the islands he explored to a friend, another to his barber, and also promised some Italian friars that they could be bishops. However, even if the name America were known in Bristol in 1497, Hudd has taken a majestic leap to suggest Ameryk's name as its origin. That map has been referred to in various circles as America's birth certificate, and for good reasona€”it is the first document on which the name America appears. He was born near Freiburg, Germany, sometime in the 1470s, and died in the canon house at Saint-DieI? in 1522. That map, printed on twelve separate sheets from wood block plates, when assembled would measure more than 4 1a?„2 feet by 8 feet in dimension. However, the group also had acquired a recent French translation of the important work Insuper aquattor Amerigo Vespuccii navigationes, Amerigo Vespucci's letter detailing his purported four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to America between 1497 and 1504. Instead, in the 1513 atlas the name America does not appear anyplace in the volume, and the place of America is referred to as Terra Incognita (Unknown land). This single surviving copy of the map exists because it was kept in a portfolio by Johannes SchoI?ner (1477-1547), a German globe maker, who probably had acquired a copy of the map for his own cartographic work. Throughout the twentieth century the Library continued to express interest in and a desire to acquire the 1507 map, when, if ever, it was made available for sale. Through the combined efforts of several Library of Congress specialists, and many other members of the Library's staff over an 11 year period, the map has made its way to the Library of Congress. The map serves as a departure point in the development of the American cartographic collection in addition to its revered position in early modern cartographic history. The mapa€™s well announced acquisition provides us an extraordinary opportunity to appreciate the earliest of early depictions of our modern world. The Library of Congress is proud to have obtained this unique treasure and is anxious to have this great cartographic document receive the public acclaim and the critical scholarly inspection that it so rightly merits. This call for further scholarship on the map, its impact, and the sources used to produce it is not meant to suggest that previous scholarship is lacking. Both the globe and the large world map were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely distributed. It is this reference that the Prince of Liechtenstein, as noted above, has taken as a reference to the gore map, a copy of which is in his collection. Although a text on WaldseemA?llera€™s later wallmap, the Carta Marina (1516), says that 1,000 copies of the 1507 wall-map were made, it is unlikely that this number were issued, given the survival rate of the one bound copy now in the Library of Congress.a€? The globe map and book had an enormous influence on other geographers, notably Appian, SchA¶ner and Fries, and advanced the science of globe-making and map making particularly in Germany and the Low Countries. The Kraus-Bavarian State Library copy -- in 1960 at Sothebya€™s in London, a set of the gores was offered bound into a Ptolemy atlas of 1486.
The Offenburg copy -- following the publicity regarding the acquisition of the copy above by the Bavarian State library in 1992, in 1993 two researchers, Dr. The present example was discovered in February 2003 when the owner, on reading an article in the Frankfurter Algemeinen Zeitung on the Munich copy, realized he owned a similar map amongst his large collection of books and ephemera. To present the various strands of information relating to the genesis, execution and influences of the WaldseemA?ller gores, the following timeline brings together the principal events in the lives of WaldseemA?ller, Ringmann, Vespucci and their circles. The New 52 DCU titles, Wolverine and the X-Men, Uncanny X-Men, details of all 52 titles and the creative team behind them, The Avenging Spider-Man, Frank Millera€™s Holy Terror, The Amazing Spider-Man pictures and trailers from 2012a€™s summer film, The Avengers film, The Dark Knight Rises trailer, Burn Noticea€™s comic book online adventures. This is home to news that broke during the pop culture central debate on movies, TV, comic books, and more.
You never know what new stuff will be added.A  If there is anything that I can do to make your magazine reading experience more fulfilling, please share. The duo will work together and appear in various number of episodes starting in the fall, 2011. The comic book was from the creative force of Brian Michael Bendis and Michael Avon Oeming. That race will be between Andy (Ed Helms), Darryl (Craig Robinson) and Jim (John Krasinski). The cast includes: Jesse Metcalfe, Jordana Brewster, Josh Henderson, Julie Gonzalo, Larry Hagman, Charlene Tilton, Steve Kanaly and Patrick Duffy. Wolverine & The X-Men is from the creative team of writer Jason Aaron with artwork by Chris Bachalo. The new book, The Avenging Spider-Man is from the creative team of writer, Zeb Wells and art by Joe Madureira. Doug Mahnke and Joe Prado are the artists on this project.A  Ivan Reis is the cover artist. Oa€™Neal, who retired last month, will join TNTa€™s studio show with Charles Barkley, Kenny Smith and Ernie Johnson. She may lend the vocal to the book, but she is also the author of this unique take on her life experience.
The new season would see Brenda face some of consequences from previous behavior when Brenda goes to court and she is not the victim.
One of the principle suspects of the crime was the head of that rappers record label; a certain real life infamous record label executive seemed to be the influence of this part of the tale.
Haller had spent most of his career defending garden-variety criminals, until he landed the case of his career. Yet this movie was written and directed by James Gunn, the creator behind another independent film, the horror fest, Slither with a certain whimsical black-comic flair. Daniel Radcliffe, Emma Watson, Rupert Grint, Ralph Fiennes, Michael Gambon, Alan Rickman, Tom Felton, Bill Nighy, Bonnie Wright, Jason Isaacs, John Hurt, and Helena Bonham Carter round out this ensemble cast. After an incredible finale in Chapter 10 of the crossover (Green Lantern #60), this issue followed directly up from those moments but felt a bit off.
Waid worked in elements of the last few years of Daredevil lore while starting a new chapter in this heroa€™s life. In the wake of the Siege of Asgard and the dawn of a new Heroic Age, the world finally knows what his father was, a psychotic monster. This trade collected Amazing Spider-Man Presents: American Son #1-4 (the miniseries) and material from Age of Heroes #2, which was from the creative team of Reed and Joe Caramagna. The controversy was a number of high profile All-Stars did not go to Arizona in order to stand up for the 2010 law that implanted the immigration law.
Going into the Mena€™s Singles Finals match, Rafael Nadal was (still) seeded #1, and Novak Djokovic was seeded #2.
Owners overwhelmingly approved a proposal the week before, but some unresolved issues still needed to be reviewed to satisfy players at the time.
That was when the owners locked out the players, creating the NFLa€™s first work stoppage since 1987. Casey Anthony was found a€?Not Guiltya€? of murdering her daughter in 2008, Caylee Anthony.
The match took place in Germany on July 17th, with the final outcome not what these great soccer players wanted, they showed a nation that united we stand. Some of those scandals were: the 2011 MLB All-Star Game was played in Arizona but a handful of players did not attend in protest to last yeara€™s Arizona immigration law. British Prime Minister David Cameron cut short his trip to South Africa to deal with the nationa€™s phone-hacking scandal. It began with the phone-hacking allegations involving reporters from News of the World which led its parent company, Rupert Murdocha€™s News Corporation, to shut it down and quickly broadened into claims that journalists had paid police for confidential information. Among those arrested is Rebekah Brooks, the former News of the World editor and News International executive who resigned after the scandal broke. Cameron was referring to a broader corruption probe announced in Parliament by Home Secretary Theresa May amid allegations that police accepted payments from journalists in exchange for confidential information. He denied he had done anything wrong, saying in a prepared statement that he feared the scandal and allegations against him would be a distraction as London prepares to host the 2012 summer Olympics. He also denied Wallis, who was arrested in the probe, was involved in phone hacking when he was brought on as a consultant. The commission said it would look into Stephensona€™s overall role in the initial investigation into phone hacking, as well as that of two other unnamed officers.
She also has asked Elizabeth Filkin, former parliamentary commissioner for standards, to evaluate ethical considerations that should guide police relationships with the media. It redirected those on the papera€™s website to a false story claiming Murdoch had been found dead in his garden.
An FBI spokesperson added the investigative agency was a€?aware of the media reportsa€? that actor Jude Law was hacked in the United States and that News Corporation had settled several lawsuits with American businesses, but said there would be no official comment a€?since these matters are under review.a€? Murdocha€™s News Corp. Unfortunately this story was one of scandal and tragic ending for innocent lies in England and across the pond. By the end of the month, a positive on this story w the light of day as the two sides worked out a new deal. While it was a good day for The Good Wife (CBS), The Big Bang Theory (CBS) and Justified (FX), it was not so good for Treme (HBO), Walking Dead (AMC), and The Closer (TNT). Adele preformed as part of the iTunes Live Festival in London and the month-long event was a superb time for some of the worlda€™s greatest musical acts. According to the AP, a€?Three coordinated bombings tore through the heart of India's busy financial capital during rush hour Wednesday, July 13th killing 21 people in the worst terror attack in the country since the 2008 Mumbai siege. The terrorist was a local born citizen who used a manifesto to be his basis for carrying out this attack. Prior to the big announcements from this pop culture convention, DC Entertainment made some bold and brave news with the announcement and soon after the release of solicitations for its September-launching The New 52 DCU. Perhaps the best moment in America was on Friday, July 22nd; same-Sex marriages ceremonies took place on the first official day in New York State.
The film directed by John Singleton stars: Taylor Lautner, Alfred Molina, Sigourney Weaver and Maria Bello. Swank will play a former Solar Alliance Marine, who helps lead an uprising on Venus against the tyrannical solar government in the year 2250.
So we drove to Chicago, stayed overnight at my aunta€™s, and then took the Pennsylvania Railroada€™s Broadway Limited to New York. We found ourselves at a table, as if the other two seats had been kept open just for us, with an affable man in his fifties and his younger blonde wife. When it began to grow dark, we unpacked and changed into black tie (no mean feat, to do that simultaneously in a Pullman compartment), and set forth for the club car where the champagne was flowing generously on the house that evening.
To me those games of CIAa€™s are little more than the Mad Magazine spy vs spy hijinks I enjoyed as a kid, but I was reading it for a reason a€” to be able to discuss it in London later with someone whoa€™s turning it into a screenplay.
Peering out past the edge of the window shade, I saw we were sitting in Municha€™s Hauptbahnhof a€” with people milling about on the platform at that beastly hour? In the afternoon I had wondered how well Ia€™d sleep with the motion and sounds of the moving train; but it was only when it occasionally stopped in the middle of the night that I would awake, with a start, alert and tense. Buda-Pest in 1990 was threadbare, soiled and wary, since the Red Army had not yet pulled out. Susan once provoked close to the reaction of Aunt Dahliaa€™s temperamental chef Anatole when Bertie Wooster organized a hunger strike amongst some star-crossed lovers in P. The final one took place in Turkey en route to Constantinople, after a Turkish chef and groceries came aboard at the frontier to prepare and serve our final lunch aboard.
But poor King Carol did not put the finishing touches on it until 1914, the year he died; and by then the World War had already begun to destroy the civilization Peles represented. Thanks to Ceausescu tearing down beautiful old neighborhoods to build pyramids to himself, prior to Christmas 1989 when the Roumanian Army shot it out with the secret police (shooting Mr. The next night, back on the train for dinner, we were served shot-glasses of really scorching Romanian grappa.
Our guide, a woman who was probably an Intourist guide in the bad old days, was full of facts and figures about Varna, none conveying anything of its character. Lord, as he liked to put it, of Two Continents and Two Oceans, he whom Gladstone had dubbed the Great Assassin knew on that night that already the obstreperous Young Turks, twenty thousand strong, were starting toward him from Salonika. He speculated as to what among his bottles might make a decent substitute for Lillet until he was back in Venice at the end of the return voyage, with full resources for comprehensive testing.
Instead of Lillet, he had used a lesser amount of Galliano, he said, so the chocolate of the crA?me de cacao stood out a shade more than it would otherwise. World Wars interrupted service, and then the Cold War brought the Orient Express to a halt, for too many years. As we rolled through Strasbourg, how best to respond to Russiaa€™s reviving imperial ambitions was being debated in the European Parliament there. There half a dozen priests chanted prayers for us, and the bishop spoke to us, one of our guides providing a running translation. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. We rehearse a few times, including the writer, director, and actors in a collaborative process that begins the process of refining the play even prior to the staged reading. This volume contained twelve sheets, each 21 x 30 inches, which when laid together disclosed a large map of the world 4 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, which was designated by one of its own inscriptions a carta marina, dated on its own face 1516, and bore the name of Martin WaldseemA?ller as author. Henry Harrisse had made this conjecture in his Discovery of North America, which he published when the world was celebrating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America. As farmers usually mark off and divide their farms by boundary lines, so it has been our endeavor to mark the chief countries of the world by the emblems of their rulers. While certainly not the only large world map produced during this dynamic era of exploration, the Universalis Cosmographia was one of the first large engraved and printed maps to depict the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries of the Mundus Novus. Much of what Vespucci claimed to have seen on this and other voyages was later called into question by both his contemporaries and, later, by historians. He wrote a letter describing his third voyage that was circulated throughout Europe as a tract called Mundus Novus [The New World], and later was included by WaldseemA?ller in his Cosmographia Introductio (the Solderini letter, see illustration below). To avoid confusion hereafter the main portion of the map will be referred to as the a€?world mapa€?, designating the two small representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, placed above the world map, as the a€?insetsa€?.
The term used by some of the map-makers, Land of Brasil, was confusing, for Brasil was the name of an imaginary island located somewhere in the Atlantic, according to popular belief, when there had been no thought of a continent. Walter Lud, Secretary to the Duke, and a wealthy man, had established a printing press at St. And at the mouth of the Orinoco River is the following: All this is sweet water, a statement based upon the well-known story of Columbusa€™ discovery of the fresh water of the Orinoco River (there is the same reference found on the Bartholomew Columbus map (#304) which has Mar de aqua dolce along the northeastern shores of South America). In other words, on his 1507 map, WaldseemA?ller unmistakably showed that in his own mind he ascribed proof of the existence of the new continent to the Portuguese voyage of Amerigo (the a€?thirda€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?), and that Columbus never detoured from his conviction that he had actually reached the shores of Asia (accepting the longitudinally shortened world of Ptolemy, et al), and that it was the acceptance of Amerigoa€™s proof of its existence more so than Amerigoa€™s supposed priority which caused him to name the new continent America. However, as can be seen above on Plate I of the world map, the two continents are inexplicably separated by a hypothetical strait, connecting the two great oceans.
Contarini (#308) and Ruysch (#313) distinctly record their belief on their maps that the contemporary explorers had reached China, as does the Columbus map and the letter of Columbus explanatory of his fourth voyage record the same view (#303, #304). Curiously enough, though, while accepting the Portuguese delineation of the New World and South Africa, WaldseemA?ller reverts to the Ptolemaic conception of North Africa and Asia as refined and expressed by Martellus, rejecting the more accurate rendering of contemporaries such as Caveri.
A third instance, in the east, is the land of Cathay, and all of southern India beyond 180 degrees of longitude. The transmission of the Cantino-Caveri concept through the members of this notable group created one of the mainstreams of interest in the history of cartography.
Thus this ingenious geographer not only preserved the geographical concepts of WaldseemA?ller, but also carried the representation of hemispheres a step further by the experimental construction in 1510 of the first known maps of the northern and southern hemispheres on a circumpolar projection.
The world picture in the maps and globe of 1507 - the representation, that is, of an American landmass widely separated from the Asian coast with Japan lying between the two - had become the accepted canon in geographic theory and cartographic expression. The new picture compiled from these varied elements and presented to the literate world in printed form became a factor of the highest importance in developing a new concept of the earth and its divisions, rendering obsolete the Ptolemaic geography that had been accepted and revered since the second century of the Christian era. In 2005, this treasured map was inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, and is the first document in the United States to be so honored. By the time we are adults it lingers vaguely in most of us, along with images of wave-tossed caravels and forests peopled with naked cannibals. They were of course preceded by the pre-historic Asian forebears of Native Americans, who migrated across some ice-bridge in the Bering Straits or over the stepping stones of the Aleutian Islands.
The 1497 voyage by John Cabot to the Labrador coast of Newfoundland constitutes yet another discovery of the American mainland, which led to an early 20th-century account of the naming of America, recently revived, that claims the New World was named after an Englishman (Welshman, actually) called Richard Amerike. To rob people or countries of their names is to set in motion a psychic disturbance which can in turn create a permanent crisis of identity.
Vespucci was probably in Seville in 1492 when Columbus was preparing for his first historic voyage, as well as in 1493 when Columbus returned.
In 1508 the house appointed him piloto mayor (pilot major, or chief navigator), a post of great responsibility, which included the examination of the pilots' and ships' masters' licenses for voyages. Pohl's biography, Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major (1944), and GermA?n Arciniegas's Amerigo and the New World (1955; tr.
Addressed to his patron, Lorenzo de' Medici, the Mundus Novus (New World) a€” the title alone revolutionizing the European conception of the cosmos a€” was translated from the Italian into Latin, and originally printed in Vienna; the other letter, addressed to the gonfaloniere (chief magistrate) of Florence, Piero Soderini, was a more elaborate work.
Since Vespucci took part as navigator, he certainly cannot have been inexperienced; however, it seems unlikely that he had made a previous voyage, though this matter remains unresolved.
In all likelihood the ships took a quick run still farther south, along the coast of Patagonia to the Golfo de San JuliA n or beyond. The entire New World portion of the map roughly represents South America, and when later mapmakers added North America, they retained the original name; in 1538, the great geographer Gerard Mercator gave the name America to all of the western hemisphere on his mappamundi. In ignoring the possible intention of these words as explanation, most scholars have ignored the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word. Why did they ignore the common law in the naming of new lands: the use of the last names of explorers and the first names of royalty? It is almost certain that Columbus first heard the name of the mountains pronounced by a Carib.
Las Casas believed for a while that this must be Jamaica, but later decided it was the name for the mainland. No proof exists to substantiate his claim that Cabot actually honored the Welshman by naming America after him. It is also the first map to depict a separate and full Western Hemisphere and the first map to represent the Pacific Ocean as a separate body of water. The large map is an early sixteenth-century masterpiece, containing a full map of the world, two inset maps showing separately the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, illustrations of Ptolemy and Vespucci, images of the various winds, and extensive explanatory notes about selected regions of the world. In that work, Vespucci concluded that the lands reached by Columbus in 1492, and explored by Columbus and others over the ensuing two decades, was indeed a segment of the world, a new continent, unknown to Europe.
In the1516 Carta Marina, South America is called Terra Nova (New World), and North America is named Cuba, and is shown to be part of Asia. That portfolio contained not only the unique copy of the 1507 world map, but also a unique copy of WaldseemuI?ller's 1516 large wall map (the Carta Marina) and copies of SchoI?ner's terrestrial (1515) and celestial (1517) globe gores.
In 1999, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg notified the Library that the German national government and the Baden-WuI?rttemberg state government had granted permission for a limited export license. The map provides a meaningful link between our treasured late medieval-early Renaissance cartographic collection (which includes one of the richest holdings of Ptolemy atlases in the world) and the modem cartographic age unfolding as a result of the explorations of Columbus and other discoverers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Major segments of this world map have not received the concentrated scrutiny that the American segments have received. WaldseemA?ller states in a legend on his marine chart of 1516 (#328.1) that he had printed his map of 1507 in one thousand copies, but only one of which is now known to exist. WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann started work on a new edition of Ptolemy's Geographia that was to combine Ptolemaic maps with a new set of modern maps. By 1890, it had been acquired by the Prince of Liechtenstein and studies by Gallois dated it to 1507 following the realization that it was the lost globe described in the St. References to accurate factual information are principally taken from 19th century sources, much of the 20th century work on the subject being a reiteration of earlier work by Humboldt, Da€™Avezac-Macaya, Fischer, Varnhagen and Harisse. This is a magazine that highlights key movements from pop culture, politics and summer goodness.
Petry, Senator Dave Hansen, the story behind the Emmy Awards nominations, MTV VMA nominations announcement, Katy Perry leading the pact, Eisner Award winners, Betty Ford, Dan Savage, 3 coordinated bombings in Mumbai, Norway shooting spree massacre, The New 52, the DC Entertainment announcement of Day & Digital downloads available for downloads on iTunes starting in September, Flashpoint #5-August 31st, the seven sub groups- Justice League, Superman, Batman, Green Lantern, Young Justice, The Edge, and The Dark. FX announced that it had cast Lucy Punch and Jason Patric in the lead roles of this upcoming comic book adapted Drama. It was time to find out as the last season gave fans a long-awaited cliffhanger about what choice the two made when Walter was facing immediate death. He was defending Louis Roulet, who was a Beverly Hills playboy accused of rape and attempted murder. When Frank lost his fife to a drug dealer after his wife relapsed, he reacted by turning himself into the Crimson Bolt. The familiar faces of this franchised films returned to carry out another high-octane thrill ride. 51 one titles begins in September, the 52nd is also the 1st of the patch, Justice League #1 opens a week before the massive DCU overhaul. Together they will have full access to the Watcher files and opportunities to make amends for all they have done and all they will need to do.
For those that just saved the universe, the four-Earth Green Lanterns, they were treated like second-class members.
Matta€™s attitude was reborn, resurrected and renewed as the Devil returned in this new re-booted ongoing series. Briones illustrated this storyline with additional work by Todd Nauck, Pat Olliffe and Chad Hardin. His father, Jose Cano was a former MLB player and the pinch-pitcher for his sona€™s three rounds of actions. At the end of a well-played four set match, Djokovic beat out Nadal and won his first ever Wimbledon Championship trophy.
The sides worked through the weekend and wrapped up the details on the morning of July 25th, on a final pact that is for 10 years, without an opt-out clause. A tentative timeline would allow NFL clubs to start signing 2011 draft picks and rookie free agents on Tuesday, July 26th. Japan won 3-1 in four penalty kick situation after the score was equal at 2-2 and no points were scored in that Extra time.
The sound bites of the month included: President Obama, Nancy Grace, Bachman, Jeph Loeb, Stewart, and Thaddeus McCotter.
This team played as a team and made a name for themselves when they returned back to America.
Another day of dizzying developments that also saw a second top police official resign and the announcement of a broader police corruption probe.
It also forced the resignation of Coulson, who quit as Camerona€™s communications director in January as the scandal began to heat up. Already, Metropolitan Police Commissioner Paul Stephenson has resigned and the assistant commissioner, John Yates, after being caught up in the scandal. Such denials, though, did not halt the Independent Police Complaints Commission from announcing that Yates and Stephenson are among four current or former senior London police officials it had been asked to investigate. The management board of the Metropolitan Police has already agreed to new standards regarding its officersa€™ relations with media, including recording meetings between police and reporters and publishing information on the Internet, May said.
Brooks, who resigned as chief executive of News International, was one of 10 people arrested in connection with the phone-hacking probe and the fourth arrested in the bribery investigation, according to police.
Soon after that link was taken down, those going to the Suna€™s website were redirected to LulzSeca€™s Twitter page. Check out the story below for in-depth discussion on the surprises and snubs of the July 14th announcement. 70+ citizens have been killed during this shooting spree massacre that took 2 occasions the attacker admitted to being involved in. Part of this plan was that the new titles beginning with new #1 (including history-making)a€™s Detective Comics, Action Comics and Batman would be released with same-day digital day and date copies. For those who are fans of the USA Network summer hit series, Burn Notice, now you can read further adventures (what happened between the spring season finale and the summer season premiere) online with Michaela€™s global adventures.
The studio announced it had pushed back the planned release date in favor of a summer 2013 start.
The cast includes: Gina Carano, Michael Douglas, Channing Tatum, Michael Fassbender, Bill Paxton, Antonio Banderas, and Ewan McGregor. Ryan Gosling, Carey Mulligan, Christina Hendricks, Bryan Cranston, Ron Perlman, Oscar Isaac, and Albert Brooks.
I have never forgotten that trip; I can still see the gleaming chocolate-brown Pullman cars alongside the platform at Chicagoa€™s Union Station, still remember our sleeping compartments and dinner in the dining-car.
And rich smooth Colombian coffee afterwards, followed by Armagnac and such in the club car.
Now Peles Castle is to be returned in two years to the king in exile, Michael, already eighty-nine years old, whom the Roumanian government expects will sell it back to the State for a sum that will set up Michaela€™s daughter and grandson for life, or however long the loot lasts after their grieving arrival in Monte Carlo.
On the large round bottlea€™s label was a famous fifteenth-century woodcut of Vlad the Impaler. What she did convey again and again is how Bulgarians feel about Turks, who conquered and ruled the land for several centuries. He could only issue a statement breathing his somewhat belated passion for constitutional government and then await another daylight. Finally the implosion of Soviet Russiaa€™s evil empire in 1989-90 made it possible for service to be restored. In Buda-Pest, Istvan took us to the Citadel the Austrians built after the 1848 revolutions, a spectacular artillery platform high above the Danube below which the entire city lies totally exposed.
The bishop spoke for at least ten minutes, maybe fifteen, but I can reduce what he told us to these few pointed words: a€?Make no mistake about it, the Cold War is coming back. In this process, we all find moments that bring the plays to life and make it much more than some cold reading with the actor's faces buried in scripts. There were twelve other sheets of the same size in the book, making another world map but containing no authora€™s name or date. And (to begin with our own continent) in the middle of Europe we have placed the eagles of the Roman Empire (which rule the Kings of Europe) and with the key (which is the symbol of the Holy Father), we have enclosed almost the whole of Europe, which acknowledges the Roman Church. In that letter, Vespucci proposed that the new lands ought to be called a a€?New World, because none of those countries were known to our ancestors . In the western hemisphere inset the two Americas are shown as a continuous landmass firmly joined together by an isthmus, unlike the representation in the world map where the two continents are inexplicably separated by a strait. Die that he prepared the treatise Cosmographia Introductio, which presented this description of itself: An Introduction to Cosmography, together with some principles of Geometry necessary to the purpose.
Both the inset and the world map illustrate another important feature, the representation of a great ocean even broader than the Atlantic, between the New World and Asia. However, this view is not supported on the WaldseemA?ller map either by the place-names found in the area of the new discoveries, or by the overall visual image presented by the placement of the new discoveries as totally separated by some distance from Asia. One difference being that the WaldseemA?ller map is basically a a€?land mapa€™ and the interiors are somewhat filled-in, whereas the Caveri chart is basically a portolano, or nautical chart, with little or no interior detail.
This Ptolemaic basis results in giving the map an extremely exaggerated representation of the eastern extension of Asia; in fact, the landmass of the Old World, alone, extends through some 230 degrees of longitude. All these we have added to the earlier known places, so that those who are fond of things of this sort may gaze upon all that is known to us of the present day, and may approve of out painstaking labors. In 1512 appeared, far away in Cracow, Poland, in the Introductio in Ptholomei Cosmographia of Johannes de Stobnicza, the inset hemispheres of the 1507 map, copied and reprinted by the Polish scholar without reference to their source (#319).
From it evolved, indeed, today's concept of the geographical divisions of the continents and islands, and of the great waters that form our earth. A black African discovery of America, it has been argued, took place around 3,000 years ago, and influenced the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations. The naming of America, then, becomes essential to a full understanding of our history and cultural values a€” ourselves a€” especially when considered in terms of the range of theories about the origin of the name.
Subsequently, according to Marcou's account, Vespucci changed his Christian name from Alberico to Amerigo. Amalrich, which literally meant work ruler, or designator of tasks, might be freely translated as master workman.
Moreover, as a reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary argues that the European explorers of the New World (or their priests) named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints.
He also had to prepare the official map of newly discovered lands and of the routes to them (for the royal survey), interpreting and coordinating all data that the captains were obliged to furnish.
Harriet de OnA­s) are among the best efforts that dispel the shadows to which he was relegated by those who maligned his fame. In the voyage of 1499a€“1500, Vespucci would seem to have left Hojeda after reaching the coast of what is now Guyana (Carew's homeland).
His published letters had fallen into the hands of these German scholars, among whom was the young cartographer Martin WaldseemA?ller. WaldseemA?ller's 1507 map, lost to scholars until 1901 when it was found in a German castle, is now reckoned to be the first to show the name, and the earliest record of its use.
Moreover, to read the passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio as explanation lends credence to the theory, argued by Carew, Marcou, and others, that the early European explorers called the new continent Amerrique or, perhaps, another name with a similar pronunciation. Their ignoring it, Rea claims, further supports the idea that they were trying to force an explanation and that the only one they could think of was a Latinization of Vespucci's first name.
Columbus, who met the Indians of this coast, presumably heard the name Amerrique from them: he was looking for gold and the Indians gave him some, telling him he could get more to the west in the mountains there. Amerrique, therefore, must derive from a Carib word, possibly one of the Carib culture words a€” not a word in the Mayan language, which was not spoken in Nicaragua, though it almost resembles in sound the Quiche Mayan iq' amaq'el meaning perpetual wind. The purchase of the map concluded a nearly century long effort to secure for the Library of Congress that very special cartographic document revealing new European thinking about the world nearly 500 years ago.
Waldseemullera€™s 1507 map was a bold statement that rationalized the modern world in light of the exciting news arriving in Europe as a result of explorations sponsored by Spain, Portugal, and othersa€”not only across the Atlantic Ocean, but around the African coast and into the Indian Ocean.


Because of Vespucci's recognition of that startling revelation, he was thus honored by the use of his name for the newly discovered continent. Sometime later in history, the family of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg acquired and retained Schoner's portfolio in their castle in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, where it remained unknown to scholars until the beginning of the twentieth century when its extraordinary contents were revealed. Having obtained this license, which allowed this German national treasure to come to the Library of Congress, the Prince pursued an agreement to sell the 1507 map to the Library.
Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?marquettea€™ of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely.
They were provided with at least six printed editions and certainly several manuscript versions of the Geographia.
The notoriety and mystery that has surrounded both the globe, map and large wall-map has often concentrated on the naming of America, but in truth, given that they named South America after Vespucci, who had sailed furthest around it, it is not unreasonable. Vera Sack found a third example of the gores inserted into a copy of Aristotle published in Freiburg in 1541. This is where the colorful landscape of each networka€™s new look can be seen for user-friendly new shows, night-by-night and each network is covered 7 days a week. In the closing minute of the season premiere, the new Chief was about to announce to the department all these red tape political carrier moves changes when out of nowhere he was hit by what looked like a heart attack. The story of this comedy features Nick who is a small town pizza delivery guy whose mundane life collides with the big plans of two wanna-be criminal masterminds.
But the seemingly straightforward case suddenly developed into a deadly game of survival for Haller. He was a red-clad vigilante who defeated criminal and other annoying people by hitting them in the head with his weapon, a household wrench. Sharpay Evans traveled to New York Where she was pursuing a Broadway career but it turned out it was her dog, Boi who landed an acting job first. This story takes place fives years in the a€?pasta€? that will explain how the first superhero team formed. This Buffy: The Vampire Series spin-off title is a new ongoing series that landed Angel back at Dark Horse. That was because the original artist did not do the entire book (which ended up being a good thing since his artwork does not work well with this high-level of storytelling.
Prince Fielder hit a 3-run home run that was the biggest reason that the NL (the home field crowd) beat the AL for the second straight year (after losing to them for numerous straight years).
He had 8 in the first round, 12 in the second with overall 20 going into the finals where the slate was clean and added another 11 more in the finals. Conversations with veteran free agents also could start around the same time, and their signings could begin as early as the end of July.
Saki Kumagai was named the MVP but she got some help from teammates Homare Sawa and Aya Miyama. The face of the USA team was a young woman that scored a goal in another match that became a viral sensation; the USA is proud to be the home of Abby Wambach.
Coulson was News of the World editor when one of the newspapera€™s reporters and a private investigator were sent to prison after pleading guilty to phone hacking in 2007. Yates ruled two years ago that there was no reason to pursue an investigation into phone hacking by journalists. Police said that they would take no further action against one of the people who was arrested, a 34-year-old woman. The hacks that have gotten investigatorsa€™ attention were alleged to have been done by News Corporation employees.
While it occurred it made for some awkward moments during the 2011 ESPYa€™s when Mark Cuban could not talk to his players the Championship winning, Dallas Mavericks while all of them accepted awards during this ceremony. Acts included: Linkin Park, Coldplay, Paul Simon, Swedish House Mafia, Katy B, Raphael Saadiq, and Neon Trees. For those fans that want to read these new exciting stories they will be available on social media platforms, and can be purchased through iTunes.
Over a decade in the making a global cultural phenomenon took a grand bow on the blockbuster screen.
But it wasna€™t that we were unsteady on our feet as we made our way back to our sleeping-car, you understand; it was the rocking of the train as it sped along. Susan, seeing it for the first time, loved it and wants to return sometime to spend a week there. The greater part of Africa and a part of Asia we have distinguished by crescents, which are the emblems of the Sultan of Babylonia, the Lord of all Egypt, and of a part of Asia.
To the east of the continent in the inset is the Atlantic, to the west is another great sea with the island Zipangri [Japan, Marco Poloa€™s Zipangu] nearly in the middle of it but closer to the American continent than to the Asian. Mundus Novus [New World] and Terra Incognita [Unknown Land] were less real names than descriptions, though for many years these last two terms were quite prevalent on maps showing new discoveries. The duke and several professors in the college used this press in their geographical project. The decision to display a large expanse of ocean west of the New World discoveries was, of course, pure conjecture on the part of WaldseemA?ller since, in 1507, the discoveries of Balboa and Magellan were still a few years off in the future.
On the other hand, navigators unknown to modern historians, may have sailed along the coast of Florida at this time. This lack of any substantive modification, of the Far East especially, is understandable in light of the scarcity of verifiable reports from this region and the focus of popular attention on both Africa and the New World. This one request we have to make, that those who are inexperienced and unacquainted with cosmography shall not condemn all this before they have learned that it will surely be clearer to them later on, when they have come to understand it.
To question the origin of America's name is to question the nature of not only our history lessons but our very identity as Americans.
The records of Scandinavian expeditions to America are found in sagas a€” their historic cores encrusted with additions made by every storyteller who had ever repeated them. The two men eventually became friends; Columbus later wrote that he trusted Vespucci and held him in high esteem. Vespucci, who obtained Spanish citizenship, held this position until his death in Seville in 1512. Nonetheless, both biographers disagree about the authenticity of his two published letters, key documents in a dramatic controversy: Arciniegas accepts them as genuine, whereas Pohl rejects them as forgeries. In the first series of documents, four voyages by Vespucci are described; in the second, only two.
Turning south, he is believed to have discovered the mouth of the Amazon River and explored the coast of present-day Brazil. This voyage is of fundamental importance in the history of geography in that Vespucci himself became convinced that the lands he had explored were not part of Asia but a New World.
Inspired to publish a new geography that would embrace the New World, the group collectively authored a revision of Ptolemy, which included a Latin translation of Vespucci's purported letter to Soderini, as well as a new map of the world drawn by WaldseemA?ller. Hudd opens with a reference to Bristol's 1897 celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of North America by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the Italian navigator and explorer who had sailed for England, laying the groundwork for the later British claim to Canada. The map must have created quite a stir in Europe, since its findings departed considerably from the accepted knowledge of the world at that time, which was based on the second century A.D.
It is remarkable that our entire Western Hemisphere was thus named for a living person; Vespucci died in 1512. Yet, cartographic contributions by Johannes Schoner in 1515 and by Peter Apian in 1520 adopted the name America for the Western Hemisphere, and that name became part of accepted usage. The uncovering of the 1507 map in the Wolfegg Castle early last century is thought by many to have been one of the most extraordinary episodes in the history of cartographic scholarship. In late June 2001, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the Library of Congress reached a final agreement on the sale of the map at the price of $10,000,000. Waldseemuller recognized the transition taking place, as the title of his map notes and his placement prominently of images of Ptolemy and Vespucci, next to their worlds, at the top portion of the 1507 world map denotes. In 1949, the Liechtenstein map collection was bought en bloc by the famous New York dealer H.P. The Aristotle formed part of the Grimmelshausen-Gymnasium library given to the Stadtbucherei Offenburg. To learn more about the biggest moments from this past month, scroll down.A  News on comic books, President Obama, music, scandals, TV shows, politics, award central, sports, DC Comics, movies and much more is on the tip of your fingers. The story focused on the chameleonic character of an actual chameleon in this spaghetti western-inspired flick about solving the mystery of where all the water went. The film starred: Matthew McConaughey, Ryan Phillippe, Laurence Mason, Trace Adkins, William H. The best part of this gory superhero comedy was the opening credits, which was funky animated sequence. He joined an ensemble cast of which included: Vin Diesel, Paul Walker, Chris Bridges, Tyrese Gibson, Jordana Brewster, Sung Kang and Matt Schulze. In the epic finale, the battle between the good and evil forces of the wizarding world escalated into an all-out war.
In a universe where superheroes are strange and new to general population, Batman has discovered a dark evil that requires him to unite the Worlda€™s Great Heroes. This first issue is 40-pages and includes the framework by executive-producer, Joss Whedon.
The co-artist that stepped in, Kirkham was up to the task and those pages that he completed were well done. Yes, lives were lost; yes death has its toll, but what about thank you, or understanding of the plight that these four journeymen just went through.
Having turned his world upside down over the past few years, Matt Murdock realized that justice may not be blind to his past and villains may not be the only ones looking for answers. This issue featured a lead story with lavish artwork from Rivera and a back-up tale with retro artwork by Martin. Each side hit home runs after this annual midsummer classic did not have any home runs hit by either squad in the 2009 or 2010 event.
The defending champion lost to the hottest player in his profession for the 2011 calendar year. Under the proposed schedule, training camps would open for 10 of the 32 teams on Wednesday, July 28th, 10 more on Thursday, another 10 on Friday, and the last two teams on Sunday, July 31st. They pushed a Japanese squad to the limits in overtime and into penalty kicks for the trophy.A  While Japan won, it gave a country not only a World Cup championship, but also a much-needed boost to a country reeling from the earthquake that hit earlier this year. Former News of the World reporter Sean Hoare, who told the New York Times in 2010 that former newspaper editor Andy Coulson encouraged him and other reporters to hack into the voice-mail accounts of public figures, was found dead, according to the British Press Association.
British press reports identified her as Laura Elston of the Press Association, who was thought to be the only person not working for Murdoch who had been arrested in the probe. Police in the United Kingdom have identified almost 4,000 potential targets of phone hacking in documents recovered from a private investigator working for News of the World. This came on the heels of hacking issues with celebrities that included: George Michael, Sienne Miller, and Gwyneth Paltrow. The August airing ceremony celebrating the best in music videos from the network that invented the genre gave much love to leading pop star, Katy Perry. It all begins after the events of August 31st releasing Flashpoint #5 and into the first grand title, Justice League #1. And just had dinner the night before with good old class-of-a€™69 Bob Kimmett, the Treasury under-secretary! This stop was only twenty-four hours, but we had perfect weather, a personable young guide named IstvA?n SzabA? whose enthusiasm for his city was infectious, rooms on the Buda heights with smashing views of the Danube below and Pest on the other bank, a banquet at the Academy of Sciences, a cruise up and down the Danube as well as an excellent tour of the town, and lunch the day of our departure at Gundel, one of Buda-Pesta€™s great surviving institutions. It must have come all right in the end, though, because when the chef inscribed a menu for Susan at the end of the journey, it was practically a mash-note. It was the chimney, he told us, of a nineteenth-century power plant now converted from coal to natural gas. We also invite that audience to stick around after and enjoy some refreshments.A  Writers, actors, and directors connect with audience members and engage in active dialogues over how they liked and perceived the work on stage. The part of Asia called Asia Minor we have surrounded with a saffron-colored cross joined to a branding iron, which is the symbol of the Sultans of the Turks, who rules Scythia this side of the Imaus, the highest mountains of Asia and Sarmatian Scythia.
Westward from that island is to be recognized the eastern coast of Asia, showing Catay, or Cathay, and other identifiable names.
But now the fact that there was a new continent beyond the western ocean had become nearly common knowledge throughout Europe, and there was everywhere a subconscious demand for an adequate name, a universally acceptable name. In all its forms the underlying meaning was that of work; as for example, the word for work in Hebrew is amal, and in old Norse aml, the consonant sounds of which were retained in the verb moil. In this respect, WaldseemA?ller may have been led by the maps of La Cosa, Caveri, and Cantino to believe that this was at least a possibility, for he depicts a small portion of the northern mainland extending from the narrow strait in Central America to just north of Terra Ulteria€? Incognita [Florida]. Not many interior details are shown to speak of, but a large group of natives is shown at the Cape, and above them, a large vignette of an elephant. As can be seen, Terra Incognita replaces America and it is placed up against a frame that avoids any speculation as to the size or shape of the new continent(s).
It appeared in feminine forms in Amelia and Emily; its masculine forms were Amery, Emeric, and Emery.
In the face of the spurious charges that he was an ignorant usurper of the merits of others, the fact that Spain entrusted him, a foreigner, with the office of pilot major certainly bolsters his defense. Until the 1930s the documents of the first series were considered from the point of view of the order of the four voyages.
On the way back, he reached Trinidad, sighting en route the mouth of the Orinoco River, and then made for Haiti.
Unlike Columbus, who, to his death, clung to the idea that he had found the shores of Asia, Vespucci defined what had indeed been found a€” and for this he has been rightfully honored.
He clearly never tried to have the New World named after him or to belittle his friend Columbus. Very different spellings for the same Carib word reflect variants that sound little like each other; thus, the variants of the name Carib are Canibe, Galibi, Caniba, Canibal and Caliban. For his achievement Cabot received a handsome pension conferred upon him by the King, from the hands of the Collectors of Customs of the Port of Bristol. In 1479, four Bristol merchants received a royal charter to find another source of fish and trade. The map sheets have been maintained separated (not joined, with each of the large maps comprised of twelve separate sheets) and that is the probable reason why they survived. In late May 2003, the Library completed a successful campaign to purchase Waldseemullera€™s 1507 world map, after receiving substantial Congressional and private support to achieve the terms of the contract. 37 (1985), 30-53, is an extensive airing of the date of the printing of the 1507 world map and other Waldseemuller contributions. But how you shall understand the globe and the description of the whole world you will hereafter find out and read.a€? Harrisse thinks it probable that a real globe accompanied and was sold with this little volume. Ringmann, a supporter of Vespucci, had already published in 1505 an edition of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus, a vivid description of the New World which became a bestseller around Europe. The mystery of the globe map, its definition of Florida (before it was discovered by the Spanish), the Pacific (before any man had officially seen it), the coast of South America (before anyone had officially sailed along it) and the use of the name The Western Ocean in the Pacific, all suggest that the Portuguese may have been more active west of the Tordesillas Treaty Line before 1505. Kraus, however the globe map was retained and offered by the Prince at a special auction at Parke-Bernet in New York on 24 May 1950. The latest on the case of Casey Anthony (Caylee Anthony), the evidence, the jurors, whata€™s next for her, the OJ-themed coverage, and Nancy Grace ratings.
She claimed that Brenda dropped off her son in the middle of gang territory in which he was later killed in. Macy, John Leguizamo, Michael Pena, Frances Fisher, Bryan Cranston, Marisa Tomei, and Josh Lucas.
Join Batman, Superman, The Flash, Green Lantern, Wonder Woman, Cyborg and Aquaman in this new title with new costumes and a new attitude.
The introduction of the brainwashed members of the GLC having a€?post-traumatic stressa€? was neat as a contextual egg to the plot but was too much of an umbrella explanation for what just happened emotionally to the army of universe-spanning defenders. The winner was National League as an overall team (for the first time gimmick) and Cano as the individual player for the first time being champion of the Home Run Derby in his first ever Home run tournament. Hertfordshire police confirmed that a mana€™s body was found and a€?pronounced dead at the scene shortly after.a€? The death is a€?being treated as unexplained, but not thought to be suspicious,a€? the department said in a written statement. Hugh Grant became the spokesperson for this anti-Murdock protests that took place outside of Parliament on July 6th. Though Katy Perry scored the most recognition with 9 nods, Beyonce, Nicki Minaj and Rihanna were not far behind. When DC announced that two of these titles would take place 5 years in the past, Justice League represents the first superheroes (of the DCU) forming on the heels of the events of Action Comics which is the first superhero making his grand entrance.
What the Roumanians make of Bucharest life today is mixed, according to our intelligent young guide Alexandra, but no one would think of bringing that vampiric era back. To hear her talk, Bulgarians still brood over Britain and France siding with the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War. Today, he told us, all of Hungarya€™s electricity, power for industry and business, and heat comes from natural gas; and, he said, a€?Ninety-eight percent of it comes from Russia.
There was no question whatever in the mapmaker's mind, therefore, as to the separate identities of the American and Asian continents. Here the northern coast terminates abruptly with open sea beyond approximately 50 degrees, with Newfoundland being shown as an island far to the east.
While the shape his Africa resembles reality more so than Martellusa€™, WaldseemA?ller extends the continent to beyond its actual 34 degrees South in a similarly misguided manner as Martellus with WaldseemA?llera€™s Africa reaching an inexplicable 50 degrees plus. Gone, however, is that mysterious strait that had separated North and South America on the 1507 map. But the question concerning the authenticity of these historic letters remains fundamental to the evaluation of Vespucci's achievement. According to the conflicting theory to which Pohl and other modern scholars subscribe, these documents should be regarded as the result of skillful, unauthorized manipulations by entrepreneurs, and the sole authentic papers would be the private letters, so that the verified voyages would be reduced to two.
Vespucci thought he had sailed along the coast of the extreme easterly peninsula of Asia, where Ptolemy, the 2nd-century Greek geographer, believed the market of Cattigara to be; so he looked for the tip of this peninsula, calling it Cape Cattigara.
Nonetheless, the name America spread throughout Europe and quickly established itself through sheer force of usage. One of these officials, the senior of the two, who was probably the person who handed over the money to the explorer, was named Richard Ameryk (also written Ap Meryke [Welsh] on one deed, and elsewhere written Amerycke) who seems to have been a leading citizen of Bristol at the time.
Not until 1960 did someone find bills of trading records indicating that Richard Amerike was involved in this business.
To us, the 1507 map appears remarkably accurate; but to the world of the early sixteenth century it represented a considerable departure from accepted views regarding the composition of the world. The portfolio with its great treasure was uncovered and revealed to the world in 1901 by the Jesuit priest Josef Fischer, who was conducting research in the Waldburg collection.
And from that fragile first glimpse of the world, so adequately described by WaldseemuI?ller in 1507, the Library of Congressa€™ cartographic resources provide the historical breadth and cartographic depth to fill in the geographic blanks left by those early cosmographers. Works that have increased our knowledge about WaldseemuI?ller and the group in Saint-DieI? include: Joseph Fischer and Franz R. They exhibit the Old World, in the main, in accord with the Ptolemaic idea, and the New World with a close resemblance to the Caveri map record (#307), and that of WaldseemA?llera€™s world map of 1507. By April 1507, WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann had completed the booklet, Cosmographiae Introductio, to accompany the globe and wall-map.
Such information would have been kept secret by the Portuguese, and it is perhaps here in this globe that the secrets were first drawn up for a wider audience, particularly since Vespuccia€™s allegiance to Portugal changed when he became a Spanish citizen. The catalogue published a reserve of $50,000, but it failed to sell and was sold privately in 1954 to James Ford Bell for approximately $45,000. They were offered for sale in 1991, and purchased by the Bavarian State library in Munich for approximately 2 million DM (in excess of $1million). The twists were thin but they were not what a viewer might have thought would have happened. The main three joined forces for the third time (1,4 & 5), but the secondary characters most of whom had been in at least one previous franchise film ranging from the second installment to the fourth time flick. But it was Harry Potter who was called upon to make the ultimate sacrifice as he drew closer to the climactic showdown with Lord Voldemort. This issue was a decent start for a complex character, looking forward to where the series goes from here. John Romita Sr., Neal Adams and Martin each handled artwork duties on three additional variant cover editions.
Prior to this match and due to the tremendous play of Djokovic two days earlier on Friday July 1st, Novak won that match to advance to the finals. Riots broke out and the media covered this story in the special a€?OJa€? overblown coverage.
Petry, who was awarded the Medal of Honor in July by President Barack Obama, was inducted into the Hall of Heroes during a ceremony hosted by Defense Secretary Leon E. The world lost a young tortured talented musical performer on the July 22nd weekend when Amy Whinehouse passed away at the age of 27. Geoff Johns and Jim Lee handle the new status quo of the Greatest Heroes of the DCU, Grant Morrison and Rags Morales handle the new status quo of Superman.
On December 8th, the first of two match-ups between the Lakers and the Miami Heat takes place.
A red cross symbolizes Prester John (who rules both eastern and southern India and who resides in Biberith); and finally on the fourth division of the earth, discovered by the kings of Castile and Portugal, we have placed the emblems of those sovereigns.
This interpretation is similar to both Cantino and Caveri and helped keep alive the possibility of a northern access to the as yet unnamed Pacific and, of course, the riches of far Cathay. Over to the left, on Tabula Terra Nove, apparently referring to the Pearl Coast and perhaps to Honduras, we read the surprising inscription: Hec terra cum adiacentib insulis inuenta est per Columbu ianuensem ex mandato Regis Castellae [This land with the adjacent islands was discovered by Columbus of Genoa by order of the King of Castile]. Its appearance undoubtedly ignited a debate in Europe regarding its portrayal of an unknown continent (unknown to Europe and others in the Eastern Hemisphere) between two huge bodies of water, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and separated from the classical world of Ptolemy, which had been confined to the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia.
Shortly after the appearance of the 1507 world map by Waldseemuller, Vespucci was appointed the first Pilot Major in the Spanish House of Trade (the Casa de la ContratacioI?n) in Seville, and in that capacity was responsible for navigational issues and concerns of Spanish shipping to the new western possessions, across the Atlantic. In 1903 an elaborate set of facsimiles of the 1507 and the 1516 maps accompanied by a scholarly study by Josef Fischer and Franz von Wieser appeared.
The North American region is nameless, but the South American region bears conspicuously the name America.
Japan in the 2011 Womena€™s World Cup Finals, a team that united a nation, MLB All-Star game Arizona controversy, a€?Carmaggedon,a€? Straus-Cahn, scandal about The Family Leadership group pledge, Bachmana€™s husband a€?praying away the gaya€? controversial counseling, employment rates,- jobs report, Federal Protection Information Agency, and Glenn Beck.
As the clock ticks, the two must deal with the police, hired assassins, flamethrowers, and their own tumultuous relationship. Plus just when you thought this cast could not get anymore sexier, the franchise surprises viewers. Under this writera€™s work, he has shown on many occasions that he can write the Green Lantern Corps well and even ad his own spin on a truly epic adventure. Fans who liked to watch power hitting got their moneya€™s worth during the Phoenix Chase Bank field located 2011 ceremony. By just advancing he made another piece of history, he would become the new number seeded player in his sport. Rupert the face of the whole empire stated that this was a a€?a€?Humble day.a€? He became the headline all his own after he was hit during this session of Parliament with a pie. The world lost a true legend in July when former First Lady and face of social change through decades, Betty Ford passed away.
Though he bathed daily in milk and never forgot to rouge his saffron cheeks, Abdul-Hamid looked all of his sixty-six years.
And what is to be borne in mind, we have marked with crosses shallow places in the sea where shipwreck may be feared. Gemma Frisius and Sebastian Munster edited versions of the latter, so that the WaldseemA?ller type, or Lusitano-Germanic Group, held the field until the advent of Mercator, Ortelius, and the Dutch school of the mid-16th century. A statement that is in obvious conflict with the thrust of both the graphic productions of 1507 (map and globe) and the text of Introductio CosmographiA¦ referred to earlier - both prepared more or less as a testimony to Amerigo Vespucci.
As soon as he was back in Spain, he equipped a fresh expedition with the aim of reaching Asia. He made that clear because by this move from Walter and Jesse he could no longer kill Jesse. In the premiere the recently promoted Chief, stunned plenty of viewers first by bringing back Brendaa€™s frenemy, Radar; demoting Pope, and promoting Taylor.
The battle fans of this phenomenon have been waiting for on the big screen really paid off.
He also made history by hitting that home run early in the game it was the firs time a player that was representing the Milwaukee franchise ever hit a home run in this annual event. Ortiz and Prince were the Captains of their respective teams under this yeara€™s new politicizes, but at the end of the day. When the new rankings were released on Monday, July 4, 2011, Novak for the first time in his career was seeded at number one while Rafael dropped to number two overall.
Prior to her release the media focused on the fears of threats that were being directed towards Anthony. It was a good month for Prince Feilder who won the MVP honors for the National League during the MLB All-Star Game.
His concubines, of whom in that house of a thousand divans he had, through the force of tradition, acquired rather more than he any longer remembered what to do with, were themselves having the vapors. But the Spanish government did not welcome his proposals, and at the end of 1500 Vespucci went into the service of Portugal. Instead he stunned them and viewers when he brutally murdered his number two, but slitting his throat. The best news of this episode was within all of these proposed changes, Brendaa€™s squad; Major Crimes was potentially going to be broken up. The rest of the cast was equal parts cute and quirky with a fun comic book store employee geek-girl turned sidekick, Ellen Page.
Not too bad of a July 4th weekend for a player from Europe taking place in a tennis tournament in England. In another story, two Republican Primary Presidential candidates signed a pledge that alone was controversial. He hit a three-run homerun to push his team in the lead and eventually they went on to win.
And anyway, if he must somehow while away the time until dawn, he would need a more potent anodyne.
The Cosmographiae provided an introduction to the new geography of the world as laid out in the globe and wall-map, and included a Latin translation of Vespuccia€™s four voyages. It became a story due to a section on the first page that was a Slavery clause in the pledge by The Family Leadership group. On July 12th, the Democratic primary was held in Wisconsin for the August-held state recall election. Green Arrow), Superman (Supergirl), Batman (Nightwing), Green Lantern (Red Lanterns), Young Justice (Teen Titans), The Edge (Voodoo) and The Dark (Justice League Dark). Happily this was provided by the linguists at the press bureau, for in the nick of time there came dawdling into Constantinople from London a recent issue of The Strand Magazine, and they all worked like beavers on a translation from its pages. After Bachman and Santorum signed this pledge they were the focus and this specific group was for the language and views that those that are part of this group believe in. While this story continues to have additional chapters, the piece that the Prime Minister David Cameron was part of scandal is its own scandal within a scandal. And this was a big year that included: 5 back-to-back singles and 5 back-to-back videos (three of which went all the way to #1!) The network that profits off stars like Rihanna, Perry, Beyonce, Spears, and Minaj could not get much respect unless you were Perry and a couple here and there for Beyonce and Spears. The first game would be at 12pm on ESPN when the Boston Celtics go to New York to play the Knicks. I suspect it was the issue distinguished in the minds of collectors by the first publication of the magnificent story called a€?The Bruce-Partington Plans.a€? Thus it befell that the Great Assassin spent his last night as Sultan sitting with a shawl pulled over his poor old knees while his Chamberlain deferentially read aloud to him the newest story about Sherlock Holmes. Initially the jurors kept quit of what they went through but shortly after the case was concluded, some jurors spoke up. You could not turn the radio station or iTunes hit list without landing on one of Rihannaa€™s many hits. The effects begin on August 31st with Justice League #1 and the 51 other titles throughout the month of September.
According to a juror, explained that this juror and some others wanted to convict Anthony but they followed the law and due to the credibility of evidence presented during this trial they ruled on the facts presented not what some of their guts suggested. On July 19th Wisconsin Primary was held and the State Senator Dave Hansen, a Democrat was the incumbent recall election winner for his seat.
This year she was behind- Only Girls in the World, Whata€™s My Name, S&M, Man Down and California King Bed. Another reason was because it was released that her husband who with the Presidential candidate co-ran a counseling service that practiced an ideal that this specific organization used a€?Praying Away the Gaya€? when working with individuals that are gay but did not necessarily want to change. Scandals broke out from all sorts of aspects of this case ranging from rumors that ABC News funded legal fees (rumored) for Caseya€™s parents to pay her legal fees, after throwing some of her family members under the bus during portions of the case, who would Anthony live with once she was released, that Anthony may get more prison time for lesser charges, to who and if Anthony going to sell her story.
The notion that Anthony may make financial gains from the outcome of this tragic event was unfair in itself. The June edition of the Jobs report was released and the research supported that the countrya€™s employment issues have gotten worse.
Image Comics got some love for Chew and DC Comics received recognition for Wednesday Comics hardcover collection.
Some theories believe that the state of Florida would bring a case about the financial implications for the manhunt of Caseya€™s daughter, and the amount to prosecute her case took out of taxpayera€™s pockets.
The word resection was either a phrase thrown out to scare American citizens or warn them.A  President Obama named Richard Cordray as his nominee to head up the Federal Protection Information Agency.
One thing was clear through this whole case; the character that gained the most was Nancy Grace. Congress must confirm this nominee but according to many congressmen and women they would vote against the Presidenta€™s nominee.
While she was in the camp that saw a miscarriage of justice played out, she got tons of exposure from viewers and other media outlets.



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