Weetamoo was first married to Alexander (Massasoita€™s son) from 1653 until his death in 1662. Another book, Massasoit of the Wampanoags by Alvin Weeks (available in the Los Angeles City Library, but which I have not been able to obtain) says that Weetamoo had two additional husbands, or a total of five. If Weecum were Weetamoo's daughter by Alexander she would have been between 13 and 22 years old, certainly of marriageable age and about the same age as her husband Benjamin. The Pocasset Tribe was one of the largest and most powerful tribes in the Wampanoag Federation.
It was Corbitant who, in July 1621, shortly after the Pilgrims arrived, contrived a plot to become the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags. This plot was thwarted when Hobomock and Squanto heard Corbitant's speech to the Nemaskets. In March of 1623, when Massasoit was suffering from his serious illness, Winslow was sent to pay his respects to the dying Sachem.
After dinner Corbitant asked Winslow, if it had been Corbitant who was ill, would Governor Bradford have sent medicine and would Winslow have come such a long distance to heal him. Winslow had to think for a moment on this and then replied that it was a mark of respect and they treated all people that way when they felt a great respect for them.
Their conversation turned toward religion and they were both surprised that their religions actually had much in common.
Following Alexander's death, Weetamoo returned to her home to assume her role as Squaw Sachem of the Pocassets. Weetamoo eventually married Peter Nannuit, (Petanonowett, Petanunuit.) Little is known of him, except that at the outbreak of the King Philip War, he sided with the English. As the main body of Indians moved north, Weetanoo, went to Ninigret, Sachem of the Eastern Niantics, in Rhode Island.
In the fall of 1675, while she was still with the Eastern Niantics, Quinnapin escaped from jail in Rhode Island and came to seek refuge with his friend (and father's cousin) Ninigret.
Quinnapin was the son of Canjanaquand, (Cagianaquan) who was a brother to Miantonomo, Great Sachem of the Narragansetts before his son Canonchet. Quinnapin and Weetamoo joined with Canonchet in his swamp island shortly before the surprise attack of the English known as the Great Swamp Massacre, of December 19, 1675. Under the military leadership of Canonchet, Quinnapin became one of the leading war sachems, striking hard with his force of 400 warriors. Following the death of Canonchet in April, Quinnapin was the leader of the Narragansetts in battles.
In early August, as the end seemed to be nearing, Quinnapin led what was left of his Narragansett warriors, back to Rhode Island. There remained some question as to her cause of death but this is the state in which her body was found and desecrated. After returning to Rhode Island, Quinnapin was also hunted down by the English and eventually captured.
Little is know of Weecum (Weecome) except that she was a Squaw Sachem, probably of the Pocasset Tribe. Pamantaquash (Pomantaquash) was the Sachem of the Assawampsetts Tribe in the Wampanoag Federation.
Pamantaquash has been confused, by some writers, with Poquanum, the Sachem of Nahant, a tribe located north of Boston on a peninsula south of Lynn.
In 1668, six years after the death of Massasoit, Pamantaquash had the following will recorded by Nathaniel Morton, secretary of the Plymouth Colony, naming Tuspaquin as his heir. Tuspaquin (Tuspequin Tispaquin, Watuspuquin) was a highly regarded sachem at Assawampsetts Pond. In contrast to the very tall, fair complexioned Indians of New England, Tuspaquin, is said to have been short, very heavy, with unusually long arms for a short person. Tuspaquin was regarded highly enough to win the hand of Amie, the daughter of Massasoit, for his wife.
There are indications that Tuspaquin extended his domain to include the Nemasket Tribe to the north as he is sometimes referred to as being the Sachem of the Assawampsetts and Nemaskets. Although he seemed compatible with the English settlers, Tuspaquin never aligned himself closely with them.
At the outbreak of the War, Tuspaquin led a large force of 300 warriors in support of Philip. After Philip returned to Wampanoag country near the end of the war, it was easier for the English to enlist volunteers and also to surround the holdouts. Of Tuspaquin's and Amie's children, it is quite certain that William was killed in the war. Benjamin Tuspaquin (Tuspaquin II, Squim, Squin, Benjamin Squinnamay, Benjamin Squamnaway) is the only child of Old Tuspaquin and Amie known to have survived the King Philip War and remain in this country. After the King Philip War, the surviving Indians recognized their place as a conquered people and settled down to be subservient to the English in, what was formerly their land. Lydia's parents both died when she was young and she was raised by her grandparents, Benjamin and Weecum.
At the time of his second marriage, Andrew already had two children of his own from his prior marriage. A point against the argument that this was a case of mistaken identity and that the dead man was not Andrew Newcomb, is the fact that he was known by the men who identified him.
The obvious omission of his oldest son, Andrew II, as an heir could be due to the fact that this son was already well established in life and had no need of an inheritance; or it is possible that there was a falling out between father and son. The first record of Andrew buying land was on 20 April 1669 (deeds at Alfred, York Co., Maine, Vol. At this time Andrew Newcomb became Constable of the town and was living at the Shoals, or in Kittery. The name of Andrew's first wife, Sarah, appears only once, on a deed of land sold and recorded 21 July 1673 (from the deeds at Exeter, N.H. At Edgartown, Andrew became a prominent citizen and his name appears in many documents, as witness for land transfers, etc.
Sometime after his arrival in Edgartown, Andrew met and married his second wife, Anna Bayes, daughter of Anna Baker, of Boston and Captain Thomas Bayes.
By 1690, Andrew was an established member of the community and had acquired several parcels of land.
Although some records list 11 children for Zerviah and Josiah Bearce, other records make it clear that they, in fact, had no children. Bearce says (9) he knows from family tradition that Margaret was the daughter of one of Massasoit's two brothers but he could not remember which one.
The birth date of Margaret is not known but, it is likely to have been about 1612-15, or about the same time as her Uncle Akkompoin. At the arrival of the pilgrims, Quadaquinna was in his thirties and could easily have been the father of the 6-9 year old Margaret. Even before the arrival of the Pilgrims, while exploring New England, Captain Dermer was captured by the local Indians at Nemasket. When the Pilgrims landed, in December of 1620, Quadaquinna was in his prime, probably somewhere in his 30's. As Quadaquinna entered the English lodge where they were to meet, he was concerned about their guns and refused to sit down until they had all been removed from the building. It is not known whether Quadaquinna died young, or whether he was so much a part of Massasoit's company that no one bothered to specifically mention him again.
Nothing is known of Quadaquinna's family except that Bearce (9) says, one of Massasoit's brothers was the father of Margaret. Gabriel Wheldon was born in England and seems to have had a wife and children before coming to America. From the pilgrim's records, it is not apparent that Gabriel Wheldon was sent, or sentenced, to Matachees.
To summarize much of the above, Gabriel Wheldon arrived in Plymouth, probably from Nottinghamshire, England, in 1628 and went immediately to Mt. After living with the Pokanoket Indians for some time, Gabriel must have felt safe in returning to the town of Plymouth.
On October 27, 1646 Ruth Wheldon, the daughter of Gabriel and Margaret, was married to Richard of Yarmouth. A record can be found of an Indian Sagamore by the name of a€?Richarda€? at Yarmouth at this time. A dissenting view is expressed by Bearce, who says that a€?Richard Tayler was born in England.a€? No source, or support is given for this statement.
Richard of Yarmouth, the tailor, at about age 42, married Ruth Wheldon, age 14, October 27, 1646. The Indians on Cape Cod were considered part of the Wampanoag Nation but, that may have been because they really didn't have much choice.
The Indians on the Cape, those of Marthas Vineyard, Nantucket and Elizabeth Islands were part of the Wampanoag Federation but more removed physically, socially and perhaps politically.
During the life of Massasoit, most of the Nipmuck tribes, of central Massachusetts, and many of the Massachusetts Federation, of eastern Massachusetts, also gave allegiance to the Wampanoag's Great Sachem and were considered to be part of Massasoit's followers in about the same way as the Cape Indians. Because of this, there is less known of the Cape Indians than of some of the other Wampanoag Tribes. It is not absolutely clear if all of the other Cape Indians belonged to a single tribe, or if there were further divisions. Coneconam, Sachem at Manomet, was one of those captured by Captain Edward Harlow in 1611, along with Epanow, Sachem at Gay Head on Marthas Vineyard Island. It will be remembered that, the first encounter the Pilgrims had with any of the natives was in December 1620, when they first landed on the Cape. In June 1621, less than three months after Massasoit and Quadaquinna signed the first treaty with Plymouth, a young boy from the colony got lost in the woods. It was no secret to the Indians where the boy was, but when the colonists were unable to find him they sent word to Massasoit, who responded that they need not worry, the boy was safe and in good hands.
Before they could return to their boat, it was mid-day and Iyanough invited them to stay for lunch. Aspinet then told them that Massasoit had been captured by Canonicus, of the Narragansetts, and recommended that they return to help him as soon as possible. As soon as they got underway they met with such strong winds that the colonists could make no real headway. Iyanough was evidently supportive of the Treaty of Submission to King James, signed at Plymouth on September 13, 1621. In January, Miles Standish, the ill tempered military captain, went with the ship and a shallop to Nauset to pick up the corn that had been left there. Shortly thereafter, in February 1623, Miles Standish went to Mattachee to pick up the food that Governor Bradford bought and left there. About the same time, Governor Bradford made a trip to Manomet to ask for food from Coneconam. NO treatise which deals with symbolism would be complete without a section devoted to the consideration of cryptograms. The arcana of the ancient Mysteries were never revealed to the profane except through the media of symbols. The temples of the ancient Mysteries evolved their own sacred languages, known only to their initiates and never spoken save in the sanctuary.
Secret alphabets were not entirely satisfactory, however, for although they rendered unintelligible the true nature of the writings, their very presence disclosed the fact of concealed information--which the priests also sought to conceal.
During the Middle Ages scores of writers--members of secret political or religious organizations--published books containing ciphers. Many churchmen, it is interesting to note, used cryptograms, fearing excommunication or a worse fate should their scientific researches be suspected.
One year after the publication of the first Great "Shakespearian" Folio, a remarkable volume on cryptogram, and ciphers was published.
A careful inspection of the first four "Shakespeare" folios discloses the use throughout the volumes of several styles of type differing in minute but distinguishable details.
The biliteral cipher was not confined to the writings of Bacon and "Shakespeare," however, but appears in many books published during Lord Bacon's lifetime and for nearly a century after his b death.
The Baconian biliteral cipher is difficult to use today, owing to the present exact standardization of type and the fact that so few books are now hand set. At this point the inquirer might reasonably expect the letters to make intelligible words; but he will very likely be disappointed, for, as in the case above, the letters thus extracted are themselves a cryptogram, doubly involved to discourage those who might have a casual acquaintance with the biliteral system. After the document to be deciphered has been reduced to its "a" and "b" equivalents, it is then broken up into five-letter groups and the message read with the aid of the above table. This Plate is reproduced from Bacon's De Augmentis Scientiarum, and shows the two alphabets as designed by him for the purpose of his cipher. Of course, by moving the inner disc of the wheel cipher, many different combinations in addition to the one given above can be made of the letters, but this is the only one which will produce sense, and the cryptogrammatist must keep on experimenting until he discovers a logical and intelligible message.
There are several other forms of the literal cipher in which letters are substituted for each other by a prearranged sequence. By substituting the letters of the lower alphabet for their equivalents in the upper one, a meaningless conglomeration results, the hidden message being decoded by reversing the process.
The acroamatic cipher is the most subtle of all, for the parable or allegory is susceptible of several interpretations.
Beginning with the word VISITA and reading clockwise, the seven initial letters of the seven words inscribed in the outer circle read: VITRIOL.
The first circle portrays the divine antecedents of justice, the second the universal scope of justice, and the third the results of human application of justice. In the third or inner circle is man, a tenfold creature, consisting of nine parts--three of spirit, three of intellect, and three of soul--enclosed within one constitution.
The most simple numerical cipher is that in which the letters of the alphabet are exchanged for numbers in ordinary sequence. Authors sometimes based their cryptograms upon the numerical value of their own names; for example, Sir Francis Bacon repeatedly used the cryptic number 33--the numerical equivalent of his name. There are also numerical ciphers from which the cryptic message may be extracted by counting every tenth word, every twentieth word, or every fiftieth word. To render more difficult the decoding of arbitrary ciphers, however, the characters are seldom broken up into words, and, further, the table of recurrence is partly nullified by assigning two or more different characters to each letter, thereby making it impossible to estimate accurately the frequency of recurrence.
In addition to the foregoing classifications there are a number of miscellaneous systems of secret writing, some employing mechanical devices, others colors.
Curious alphabets were invented by the early and mediæval philosophers to conceal their doctrines and tenets from the profane.
IN THE FALL of 1950, a short, cleanshaven, ebullient man had dinner behind closed doors in a Moscow office and while he was munching the excellent meal suddenly realized that this could very well become his last supper. TOP SECRET magazine, in this special exclusive report, can reveal the details of that Moscow party and expose behind it the most extraordinary spy drama ever staged. It is a story as spine-chilling for all of us as was the sudden change of a friendly dinner’s climate for that man in Moscow.

His host was a faceless Soviet general named Petro Vasilievich Fedotov, one of the top ranking officials of the espionage department of the Soviet secret police.
Fedotov dined and wined Morros on receiving the composer into the inner sanctum of the Soviet secret service, because Morros was, behind his Hollywood mask, a secret agent of the Soviet Union. Now, at the height of the dinner, General Fedotov abruptly turned to Morros and said in a cold, searching tone: “Boris Mihailovich! BORIS DOES FAST TALKING It was a blockbuster between the soup and the nuts and it caught Morros with his guard down. Almost seven years later, when Morros himself related the story of that close shave, it became known that the mysterious woman’s suspicions were abundantly justified. By the time Morros pointed the accusing finger at the woman who betrayed him, Miss Dodd and her tycoon husband were safely beyond the reach of the FBI. With the revelation of her involvement in Soviet espionage against this country, the emphasis in the plot shifts from Jack Soble and other small fry, from Fedotov, Zubilin and even Boris Morros, to the Stern couple, Martha and Alfred. The disclosure of Martha Dodd’s crime comes as a shock, but not as a surprise, to her intimates. But it was not known that Martha was a producing spy, a busy bee in the Soviet espionage network. TYPICAL TWENTIES’ FLAPPER It is possible, on the basis of the Martha Dodd file in the possession of TOP SECRET, even to pinpoint the origin of her treachery, which came about in the strangest of ways. As a typical flapper of the Roaring Twenties, she was somewhat naive in her politics But that did not prevent her from taking sides. It was while working for that conservative newspaper, the most powerful mouthpiece of isolationism in the States, that she suddenly contracted the Bolshevik germ.
She was given a book to review and it turned out to be a violently pro-Soviet work by Ella Winter, a noted fellow-traveller and ex-wife of Lincoln Steffens. FLIRTS WITH NAZISM Nazism meant good-looking, tall, blond men to her and she liked what she saw. This reputation gained confirmation when she started an affair with a sinisterly handsome Nazi official, Rolf Diels by name. It was from Diels that Miss Dodd first learned the intricate science and art of totalitarian espionage, the manner in which agents are planted on suspects, telephones tapped, correspondence rifled. In her yen for adventure, and in her naivety, Miss Dodd overlooked Diel’s true purpose in courting her. HONEYMOONS WITH COMMUNISM In the meantime, others tried to cuddle up to Martha, in both a political and an amorous sense.
Again under the influence of a boy friend, the love-thirsty Miss Dodd revived her dormant interest in Russia and Communism. In July 1934, Miss Dodd was ready for the trip which she undertook over her ambassador-father’s violent objections.
MARRIES PINK TYCOON Martha also undertook miscellaneous activities on behalf of the Communist Party and the Young Communist League, and signed several manifestos defending Communist causes.
If she wasn’t yet a producing espionage agent, she was not too far from becoming one.
All of the time, as she moved boldly on the lunatic fringe of Communism, she was slowly being sucked into the international Soviet conspiracy and its espionage branch inside the United States.
On her wanderings in the Red labyrinth, in 1937-38, Martha met a debonair North Dakotan who enthusiastically shared her ideas and aspirations. Born in 1897, a graduate of Exeter and Harvard, Alfred Stern inherited most of his money from his highly respected banker father in the Middlewest.
Early in the Thirties, when still a young man, Alfred Stern thought he had enough money for the rest of his life, retired from business, and decided to go into public service. He was dabbling in practical politics, too and, although he was a registered Democrat, he gradually drifted to the outskirts of American Communism. When Alfred Stern bumped into Martha Dodd, she was also on the rebound from a brief and unhappy first marriage.
BECOMES TOP-RANKING SPY Under Martha’s energetic influence, Alfred Stern sank ever deeper into the morass of Communism. But while Alfred Stern confined his activities to such political skullduggeries, Martha Dodd became a spy. In 1940, several spymasters stationed in the Washington Embassy of the Soviets established direct contact with Martha Dodd Stern and met with her, strangely enough, in two sets of contradictory places. Much of her contact work was done at her husband’s estate in Lewisboro where Martha plotted and conspired against her native country with secret emissaries of the Soviet spy network — Soble, Morros, Zubilin, and others — until she herself became a top-ranking member of the ring. She even returned to the Soviet Union, allegedly on a harmless visit, but in fact to formalize her association with the Russian spy organizations. WOMAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY The daughter of an American history professor and New Deal ambassador renounced her country in all but name. Today, both Martha Dodd and Alfred Stern enjoy the protection of a Soviet satellite government.
Upon her return from the Soviet Union the following year, when she attached herself body and soul to the aims of Communism, she described herself in a melancholy sentence. The outward change must have startled her parents, though they knew nothing of the transition within their daughter. She would also have been a part of the royal family which would make her a suitable mate for Benjamin. Rowlandson says that a victory dance a€?was carried on by eight of them, four men and four squaws.a€? Weetamoo was one of the squaws. James Church and certain members of his company of friendly Indians, in consideration of services rendered by them to the Province tract of land in what was then Freetown, but now East Fall River.
1666-7, in the Ketch _______, Andrew Newcomb, Master, for Virginia for account of John Ely and Eliakim Hutchinson--various horses described--avouched by Mr. Andrew Nurcom complayneth agaynst Amos an Enden (Indian) for Inbaseling or purloyning away Sidor & Rum. 2 p.24) Late that afternoon, the shallop finally got out of the harbor and made Plymouth before nightfall.
The use of ciphers has long been recognized as indispensable in military and diplomatic circles, but the modern world has overlooked the important rôle played by cryptography in literature and philosophy. Symbolism fulfilled the dual office of concealing the sacred truths from the uninitiated and revealing them to those qualified to understand the symbols. The illumined priests considered it sacrilege to discuss the sacred truths of the higher worlds or the divine verities of eternal Nature in the same tongue as that used by the vulgar for wrangling and dissension. Through patience or persecution, the keys to these alphabets were eventually acquired and the contents of the documents revealed to the unworthy. Secret writing became a fad; every European court had its own diplomatic cipher, and the intelligentsia vied with one another in devising curious and complicated cryptograms. Only recently an intricate cipher of Roger Bacon's has been unraveled, revealing the fact that this early scientist was well versed in the cellular theory. Accompanying this chapter are facsimiles of Lord Bacon's biliteral alphabet as it appeared in the 1640 English translation of De Augmentis Scientiarum. All the combinations used in the Baconian biliteral cipher consist of groups containing five letters each. Compare each letter with the two types of letters in the biliteral alphabet table reproduced from Lord Bacon's De Augmentis Scientiarum. The smaller, or inner, alphabet moves around so that any one of its letters may be brought opposite any me of he letters on the larger, or outer, alphabet. There is also a form of the literal cipher in which the actual cryptogram is written in the body of the document, but unimportant words are inserted between important ones according to a prearranged order. A notable example of this practice is found on the title page of Montaigue's Essays, third edition, where an initial B is formed by two arches and an F by a broken arch. The capital letters of the seven words in the outer circle read clockwise, form the word SVLPHVR.
This is a very simple alchemical enigma, but is a reminder that those studying works on Hermeticism, Rosicrucianism, alchemy, and Freemasonry should always be on the lookout for concealed meanings hidden either in Parables and allegories or in cryptic arrangements of numbers, letters, and words.
Hence, the first circle deals with divine principles, the second circle with mundane affairs, and the third circle with man.
The upper and light section is called the Supreme Region and is the abode of the gods, the good spirits, and the heroes. Therefore, the greater the number of arbitrary characters used to represent any single letter of the alphabet, the more difficult it is to decipher an arbitrary cryptogram. A few make use of sundry miscellaneous objects to represent words and even complete thoughts.
Some of these alphabets are still used to a limited extent in the higher degrees of Freemasonry.
In the midst of pleasantries he abruptly felt the cold gust of death breathing down his spine.
In the center of the story stands a fantastic femme fatale whose role in America closely resembles that of Benedict Arnold. Far from being a dedicated Soviet spy, Morros was a brave and ingenious counterspy working for the FBI.
Dodd, wife of a Chicago millionaire, Alfred Kaufmann Stern, himself an undercover agent of the Soviet Union.
They quickly picked up a few hundred thousand random dollars of the Stern millions and took a run-out powder, on the eve of their scheduled appearance before a grand jury.
Dodd, was a senior history professor at the University, specializing in George Washington and Woodrow Wilson. Unlike her democratic father, Martha flirted with the fashionable totalitarian ideas of those days, had at least an interest in Fascism and Nazism, and a touch of anti-Semitism. The place of Diels in her heart was taken by a tall, blond, good-looking young Reichswehr officer who turned out to be the exact political opposite of Rolf — a violent anti-Nazi. While previously she had frequented the gatherings of young pro-Nazi men and women, she now drifted into the clandestine circles of pro-Russian Germans. Martha Dodd was started off on her fateful journey, with treason lurking at the end of her road.
By then, in Moscow, she was put down as a promising espionage candidate, so naturally she was given the appropriate reception. She was already feeding invaluable information, that was gathered through her unsuspecting contacts, to various Communist middlemen and a certain amount of it even to Soviet spies working out of the Embassy.
He himself started out by following in his father’s footsteps and from Harvard went into the banking business in his home town. He became chairman of the Illinois Housing Commission — but already he was far too radical for his New Deal friends.
It was a strange sideline for a businessman with a lavish country estate in Lewisboro, New York, a big town house in New York City, offices in Rockefeller Center — and literally mil- lions in the bank.
He, too, joined those front organizations of which his pretty second wife was a charter member. By early 1940, Soviet agents in the United States saw no reason to doubt her sincerity and loyalty to the cause. Once in a while they invited her into the inner sanctum of the Embassy; on other occasions they made arrangements for circumspect meetings, in out of the way restaurants and al fresco. She picked up whatever she could from them and relayed it to her couriers and go-betweens, until she came to be regarded inside that secret world as one of the most valuable agents the Soviet’ had in this country. She no longer dealt with peripheral persons like the pretty secret agent posing as an Intourist guide. She painted a vivid picture of her reception by her parents, at the ramshackle old Silesian railroad station in Berlin, as she stepped from the train.
This Indian plantation was afterwards surveyed and divided into 25 lots, of which the 19th, 20th, 21st and 22nd lots were assigned to the lineal descendants of Benjamin Tuspaquin. John Kendrick was the first ship-master who went on a voyage to the northwest coast from the United States and discovered the Columbia River. 25, 1651-2, at Barnstable, Mass.) The King Philip War had just ended in which her husband, Joseph, served for the English.
If the art of deciphering cryptograms could be made popular, it would result in the discovery of much hitherto unsuspected wisdom possessed by both ancient and mediæval philosophers.
The literature of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries is permeated with ciphers, few of which have ever been decoded.
The most famous of all literal cryptograms is the famous biliteral cipher described by Sir Francis Bacon in his De Augmentis Scientiarum. These ciphers may have been added to the original plays, which are much longer in the folios than in the original quartos, full scenes having been added in some instances. The cipher may run through an entire book and be placed therein at the time of printing without the knowledge of the original author, for it does not necessitate the changing of either words or punctuation. A comparison of the "d" in "wisdom" with the "d" in "and" discloses a large loop at the top of the first, while the second shows practically no loop at all. In some, cases the inner alphabet is written backwards, but in the present example, both alphabets read the same way.
The biliteral system did not in every instance make use of two alphabets in which the differences were as perceptible as in the example here given, but the two alphabets were always used; sometimes variations are so minute that it requires a powerful magnifying glass to distinguish the difference between the "a" and "b" types of letters. The literal cipher also includes what are called acrostic signatures--that is, words written down the column by the use of the first letter of each line and also more complicated acrostics in which the important letters are scattered through entire paragraphs or chapters.
Any picture or drawing with other than its obvious meaning may be considered a pictorial cryptogram. Pictorial cryptograms are sometimes accompanied by the key necessary for their decipherment.
The religious and philosophical writings of all nations abound with acroamatic cryptograms, that is, parables and allegories. They are satisfied with the moral interpretation of the parable and forget that each parable and allegory is capable of seven interpretations, of which the seventh--the highest--is complete and all-inclusive, whereas the other six (and lesser) interpretations are fragmentary, revealing but part of the mystery. On the at the top of the picture sits Themis, the presiding spirit of law, and at her feet three other queens--Juno, Minerva, and Venus--their robes ornamented with geometric figures. The third circle is further divided into three parts called ages: the Golden Age of spiritual truth in the upper right section, the Iron Age of spiritual darkness in the lower right section and the Bronze Age--a composite of the two occupying the entire left half of the inner circle and itself divided into three parts. Many cryptograms have been produced in which numbers in various sequences are substituted for letters, words, or even complete thoughts. Imperfect pagination, though generally attributed to carelessness, often conceals important secrets. The first important word may be found by counting 100, the second by counting 90, the third by counting 80, and so on until the count of 10 is reached.
John Wilkins, afterwards Bishop of Chester, in 1641 circulated an anonymous essay entitled Mercury, or the Secret and Swift Messenger. The system of exchanging letters of the alphabet for hieroglyphic figures is too easily decoded to be popular. The secret alphabets of the ancients are comparatively easy to decode, the only requisites being a table of frequency, a knowledge of the language in which the cryptogram was originally written, a moderate amount of patience, and a little ingenuity.

But as these more elaborate devices were seldom employed by the ancients or by the mediæval philosophers and alchemists, they have no direct bearing upon religion and philosophy. Probably the most famous is the angelic writing, termed in the above plate "The Writing called Malachim." Its figures are supposedly derived from the constellations. His was one of the most breathtaking scoops in espionage history, because very few such operatives ever manage to infiltrate to the top of the Soviet Union’s secret hierarchy. Last January, the Bureau arrested one of Morros’ associates, a bristle salesman named Jack Soble, and unmasked him as second-in-command in the Morros ring. They first crossed the unguarded border to Mexico, then sneaked surreptitiously to safety be- hind the Iron Curtain. TOP SECRET magazine can now fill this authentic and exclusive story of Martha Dodd’s insidious double-life. When after her gradua- tion from the University of Chicago, it was time for her to go to work, she accepted a job with the right-wing bitterly anti-Roosevelt, Chicago Tribune as associate literary editor.
She went out on the town every night, flirting, drinking and dancing, mostly with young men who happened to be Nazis She gained a dual reputation.
His curriculum included spying on Martha’s own father and the American Embassy in Berlin. It soon became known to Martha that her new friend was a secret Communist, actually doing yeoman duty for the Soviet secret service. Before long, she had a contact inside the Soviet Embassy on Unter den Linden — the Russian Ambassador, Jacob Surich himself. He added to the family fortune through investments in real estate, public housing becoming his philanthropic hobby. On September 4, 1938, they married, thus embarking on a joint trip that was to lead them eventually behind the Iron Curtain.
It would prove that many apparently verbose and rambling authors were wordy for the sake of concealing words. With reverence the wise pierce the veil and with clearer vision contemplate the reality; but the ignorant, unable to distinguish between the false and the true, behold a universe of symbols. Secret alphabets also were invented, and whenever the secrets of the wise were committed to writing, characters meaningless to the uninformed were employed. The result was the appearance of cryptic systems of writing designed to conceal the presence of both the message and the cryptogram. Many of the magnificent scientific and philosophic intellects of this period dared not publish their findings, because of the religious intolerance of their day.
In spite of the rapid progress made by science in the last two hundred and fifty years, it still remains ignorant concerning many of the original discoveries made by mediæval investigators. It is possible that this cipher was inserted for political purposes into many documents and volumes published during the seventeenth century.
Consider carefully the differences between these four and note that each alphabet has the power of either the letter a or the letter b, and that when reading a word its letters are divisible into one of two groups: those which correspond to the letter a and those which correspond to the letter b.
Contrast the "i" in "wisdom" with the "i" in "understanding." In the former, the lines are curved and in the latter angular. There are probably a score of different systems used in the "Shakespeare" folio alone, some so intricate that they may forever baffle all attempts at their decipherment. The two accompanying alchemical cryptograms illustrate another form of the literal cipher involving the first letter of each word.
Instances of pictorial cipher are frequently found in Egyptian symbolism and early religious art. A figure may point toward the starting point of the cipher or carry in its hand some implement disclosing the system of measurement used.
The acroamatic is unique in that the document containing it may be translated or reprinted without affecting the cryptogram. The creation myths of the world are acroamatic cryptograms, and the deities of the various pantheons are only cryptic characters which, if properly understood, become the constituents of a divine alphabet. The capitals of the six words in the inner circle, when properly arranged, also read ESTSOL. The axis of law connects the throne, of divine justice above with the throne of human judgment at the bottom of the picture. Between these two extremes is the larger section in which are blended the powers and impulses of both the superior and the inferior regions. The lowest division of the Bronze Age depicts ignorant man controlled by force, the central the partly awakened man controlled by jurisprudence, and the upper the spiritually illuminated man controlled by love.
The reading of numerical ciphers usually depends upon the possession of specially arranged tables of correspondences. This cipher can be made more difficult by reversing the alphabet so that Z becomes 1, Y 2, X 3, and so on. The mispaginations found in the 1623 folio of "Shakespeare" and the consistent recurrence of similar errors in various volumes printed about the same period have occasioned considerable thought among scholars and cryptogrammatists. In this little volume, which was largely derived from the more voluminous treatises of Trithemius and Selenus, the author sets forth a method whereby musicians can converse with each other by substituting musical notes for the letters of the alphabet. Albert: Pike describes an arbitrary cipher based upon the various parts of the Knights Templars' cross, each angle representing a letter. Its most familiar form is the Morse code for use in telegraphic and wireless communication. The mystics of the Middle Ages, borrowing the terminology of the various arts and sciences, evolved a system of cryptography which concealed the secrets of the human soul under terms generally applied to chemistry, biology, astronomy, botany, and physiology. Advanced students of occult philosophy will come upon many valuable documents in which these figures are used.
Zubilin, a lieutenant colonel in the Soviet secret service, masquerading in Washington as a secretary of the Soviet embassy on 16th Street. Insiders described her as a nympho- maniac in her sex life and a Nazi sympathizer in her politics. 1 went to his office once and saw dictaphones on the desk in an unpretentious, large and somewhat bare room.
Instead of assigning to Miss Dodd a bona fide Intourist guide, they planted on her brilliant young agent of the secret service, a comely woman who was as flirtations and vivacious as Martha herself.
This was the beginning of another love affair in Martha’s life — her love affair with the Soviet Union.
He became treasurer of the notorious American Labor Party which was itself a front organization of the Soviet Union, headed by Congressman Marcantonio. Her zeal and sincerity was never doubted, and her ability to acquire important strategic information was admired. She was wearing a colorful Caucasian cap and tried to look as much as she could like one of those drab, healthy Soviet women she had come to admire so much. It may well be said of Nature--the Great Mother--that she is ever tracing strange characters upon the surface of things, but only to her eldest and wisest sons as a reward for their faith and devotion does she reveal the cryptic alphabet which is the key to the import of these tracings.
Having thus devised a method of transmitting their secrets to posterity, the illuminati encouraged the circulation of certain documents specially prepared through incorporating into them ciphers containing the deepest secrets of mysticism and philosophy. In order to preserve the fruitage of their intellectual labors for mankind, these pioneers of progress concealed their discoveries in ciphers, trusting that future generations, more kindly than their own, would discover and appreciate their learning.
The only record of these important findings is that contained in the cryptograms of the volumes which they published. The biliteral cipher requires the use of two styles of type, one an ordinary face and the other specially cut.
It is well known that ciphers were used for the same reason as early as the Council of Nicæa. In order to employ the biliteral cipher, a document must contain five times as many letters as there are in the cipher message to be concealed, for it requires five letters to conceal one. Every cryptogram based upon the arrangement or combination of the letters of the alphabet is called a literal cipher. There are also frequent instances in which the cryptographer purposely distorted or improperly clothed some figure in his drawing by placing the hat on backwards, the sword on the wrong side, or the shield on the wrong arm, or by employing some similar artifice. Parables and allegories have been used since remote antiquity to present moral truths in an attractive and understandable manner. The initiated few comprehend the true nature of this alphabet, but the uninitiated many worship the letters of it as gods. Upon the latter throne is seated a queen with a scepter in her hand, before whom stands the winged goddess Nemesis--the angel of judgment.
Both the second and third circles revolve upon the axis of law, but the divine source, of law--Heavenly Justice--is concealed by clouds. The numerical cryptograms of the Old Testament are so complicated that only a few scholars versed in rabbinical lore have ever sought to unravel their mysteries.
By inserting a non-significant, or uncounted, number after each of the significant numbers the cipher is still more effectively concealed, thus: 23-16-5-9-18. In Baconian cryptograms, all page numbers ending in 89 seem to have a special significance. Two persons understanding the code could converse with each other by merely playing certain notes upon a piano or other instrument.
The many curious alphabets that have been devised are rendered worthless, however, by the table of recurrence. This form of cipher may be complicated somewhat by embodying dots and dashes into a document in which periods and colons are dots, while commas and semicolons are dashes. Ciphers of this nature can only be decoded by individuals versed in the deep philosophic principles upon which these mediæval mystics based their theories of life.
If she had ever flirted with the idea of doing Diels’ bidding, she no longer wanted to accommodate the Nazis, now that her mentor and lover was in disgrace.
1716, she married Josiah Bearce I, the son of Joseph and Martha (Taylor) Bearce, and grandson of Austin (Augustine) and Mary Bearce.
If those interested in Freemasonic research would give serious consideration to this subject, they might find in books and manuscripts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the information necessary to bridge the gap in Masonic history that now exists between the Mysteries of the ancient world and the Craft Masonry of the last three centuries.
Some--such as the famous angelic writing--are still retained in the higher degrees of Masonry.
Thus mediæval philosophers disseminated their theories throughout Europe without evoking suspicion, since volumes containing these cryptograms could be subjected to the closest scrutiny without revealing the presence of the hidden message. The differences between the two fonts are in many case so minute that it requires a powerful magnifying glass to detect them. The biliteral cipher somewhat resembles a telegraph code in which letters are changed into dots and dashes; according to the biliteral system, however, the dots and dashes are represented respectively by a's and b's. The "o" in "more" differs only from the "o" in "wisdom" in that it a tiny line continues from the top over towards the "r." The "a" in "than" is thinner and more angular than the "a" in "are," while the "r" in "riches" differs from that in "desired" in that the final upright stroke terminates in a ball instead of a sharp point. In addition to the simple pictorial cipher, there is a more technical form in which words or letters are concealed by the number of stones in a wall, by the spread of birds' wings in flight, by ripples on the surface of water, or by the length and order of lines used in shading. The much-discussed fifth finger on the Pope's hand in Raphael's Sistine Madonna and the sixth toe on Joseph's foot in the same artist's Marriage of the Virgin are cunningly concealed cryptograms. The acroamatic cryptogram is a pictorial cipher drawn in words and its symbolism must be so interpreted. All of the symbols and figures ornamenting the plate are devoted to a detailed amplification of the principles here outlined.
Musical cryptograms can be involved to an inconceivable point; by certain systems it is possible to take an already existing musical theme and conceal in it a cryptogram without actually changing the composition in any way. According to Edgar Allan Poe, a great cryptogrammatist, the most common letter of the English language is E, the other letters in their order of frequency are as follows: A, O, I, D, H, N, R, S, T, V, Y, C, F, Q L, M, W, B, K, P, Q, X, Z. There are also codes used by the business world which can be solved only by the use of a private code book. Much information relating to the invisible nature of man is concealed under what seem to be chemical experiments or scientific speculations. Originally, the cipher messages were concealed only in the italicized words, sentences, or paragraphs, because the italic letters, being more ornate than the Roman letters, offered greater opportunity for concealing the slight but necessary variations. The word biliteral is derived from the fact that all letters of the alphabet may be reduced to either a or b. These minor differences disclose the presence of the two alphabets employed in writing the sentence.
Such cryptograms are not obvious, and must be decoded with the aid of an arbitrary measuring scale, the length of the lines determining the letter or word concealed.
Page 289 is correctly numbered and has no unusual features, but page 89 of the Histories is missing. The pennants upon the notes may conceal the cipher, or the actual sounds of the notes may be exchanged for syllables of similar sound.
Other authorities declare the table of frequency to be: E, T, A, O, N, I, R, S, H, D, L, C, W, U, M, F, Y, G, P, B, V, K, X, Q, J, Z. Because they furnish an economical and efficient method of transmitting confidential information, the use of such codes is far more prevalent than the average person has any suspicion. Every student of symbolism and philosophy, therefore, should be reasonably well acquainted with the underlying principles of cryptography; in addition to serving him well in his researches, this art furnishes a fascinating method of developing the acuteness of the mental faculties.
Sometimes the letters vary a trifle in size; at other times in thickness or in their ornamental flourishes.
The shape and proportion of a building, the height of a tower, the number of bars in a window, the folds of a man's garments--even the proportions or attitude of the human body--were used to conceal definite figures or characters which could be exchanged for letters or words by a person acquainted with the code.
By merely counting the number of times each character appears in the message, the law of recurrence discloses the English letter for which the arbitrary character stands. Discrimination and observation are indispensable to the seeker after knowledge, and no study is equal to cryptography as a means of stimulating these powers. Later, Lord Bacon is believed to have had two Roman alphabets specially prepared in which the differences were so trivial that it is almost impossible for experts to distinguish them. In order to demonstrate the working of this cipher, the message concealed within the words "Wisdom and understanding are more to be desired than riches" will now be deciphered. According to the simple numerical cipher, the sum 138 is equal to the words Note carefully. Further help is also rendered by the fact that if the cryptogram be split up into words there are only three single letters which may form words: A, I, O. Therefore in a book using this method, line 138, page 138, or paragraph 138 may contain the concealed message. An examination of them might reveal musical cryptograms, for it is quite certain that Lord Bacon was well acquainted with the manner of their construction.
Thus any single character set off from the rest of the text must be one of these three letters.
In addition to this simple numerical cipher there are scores of others so complicated that no one without the key can hope to solve them.

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