preload

22.04.2016
At the age of two, Tenzin Gyatso was proclaimed the Tulku (rebirth) of the thirteenth Dalai Lama.
After a failed uprising and the collapse of the Tibetan resistance movement in 1959, the Dalai Lama left for India, where he was active in establishing the Central Tibetan Administration (the Tibetan Government in Exile) and in seeking to preserve Tibetan culture and education among the thousands of refugees who accompanied him. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989, honorary Canadian citizenship in 2006, and the United States Congressional Gold Medal on 17 October 2007. TeachingsThe Dalai Lama's teachings are the teachings of the Tibetan Buddhism with a special emphasis on the Four Noble Truths which are among the truths Gautama Buddha is said to have realized during his experience of enlightenment. Noble Truth 2 - The Reason for Suffering (Samudaya): it is this craving which leads to renewed existence, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there, that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for existence, craving for extermination.
Noble Truth 3 - The Cessation of Suffering (Nirodha): it is the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it, nonreliance on it. LocationsHis Holiness the Dalai Lama gives teachings and public talks throughout the year at various times and in different places in India and around the world. There are many Buddhist and other spiritual-related activities and options in this location and it is most recommended. By Train : The easiest way to get to McLeod Ganj is to take an overnight train from Delhi to Pathankot, which is about 90 kms from Dharamshala. By Bus : Direct regular bus service is available from Delhi, Chandigarh, Jammu, Shimla and Manali for Dharamshala.
By Air : Gaggal, which is at a distance of 15 kms from Dharamshala, is the nearest airport to Dharamshala.
The center is providing several types of course retreats, among them is the most recommended "Introduction to Buddhism" 10-day course which includes both theory and meditation practice.
Tushita is located in a lovely site near the entrance to Dharamkot village in the forested hills above McLeod Ganj.
The teachings, meditations and practices in Tushita are based on the tradition of Lama Tsong Khapa of Tibet (the Gelugpa School of Tibetan Buddhism), as taught to us by Lama Thubten Yeshe and Lama Zopa Rinpoche. Delicious vegetarian food, containing eggs and milk products, is served during meal times in the dinning room. Course participants may be able to stay at the center and have accommodation for two days after the course.
Participants are expected to observe silence (no talking at all) from the evening of the first day until the end of the course. Participants are expected to be gentle in their behavior and sensitive to fellow group members. BiographyDagpo Rimpoche Losang Jamphel Jhampa Gyamtshog, born in 1931 in Southeast Tibet, was recognised by H.H.
Invited all over the world, he gives lectures in France, Italy, Germany, Holland, Switzerland, Belgium, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore. Dagpo Rinpoche's previous incarnations are said to include the main spiritual guide of the Indian sage Atisha, the great Serlingpa of Indonesia and the great 11th-century translator Marpa Lotsawa, one of the pioneers of the Kagyu School of Buddhism in Tibet, as well as several abbots.
There are those who think they can be happy by taking control over others and misleading them. BiographyKeith Dowman is a Buddhist teacher and translator based in Kathmandu, Nepal, where he has lived as a genyen for 25 years. He has been practicing Tibetan Buddhism for more than 30 years and studied with some of the great contemporary masters of Dzogchen and Mahamudra. He teaches Buddhist workshops and meditation retreats worldwide and has gained a reputation for his direct approach to Tibetan Buddhism free of ritual and cultural trappings and jargon. His important translations from the Tibetan include Calm and Clear, The Divine Madman, Sky Dancer, Masters of Mahamudra, The Flight of the Garuda and The Sacred Life of Tibet. TeachingsDzogchen is 'The Great Perfection', the apogee of Tibetan Tantric Buddhist meditation accomplishment.
A sign of Dzogchen is the Garuda, a mythical bird, Khyung or Kading in Tibetan, an ancient sun-god, the celestial bird sometimes with human face.
The exposition of Dzogchen is conventionally expressed in terms of Vision, Meditation and Action. On the Dzogchen page the nature of Dzogchen is described by various adepts through the ages. BiographyAcharya Nagarjuna was an Indian philosopher and the founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahayana Buddhism. His writings are the basis for the formation of the Madhyamaka school, which was transmitted to China under the name of the Three Treatise (Sanlun) School. He is credited with developing the philosophy of the Prajnaparamita sutras, and was closely associated with the Buddhist university of Nalanda. He was born in Southern India, near the town of Nagarjunakonda in present day Nagarjuna Sagar in the Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh. Nagarjuna wished to achieve a consistent understanding of the Buddha's doctrine as recorded in the Canon. TeachingsNagarjuna's primary contribution to Buddhist philosophy is in the use of the concept of sunyata, or "emptiness," which brings together other key Buddhist doctrines, particularly anatta (no-self) and pratityasamutpada (dependent origination), to refute the metaphysics of Sarvastivada and Sautrantika (extinct non-Mahayana schools). Nagarjuna was also instrumental in the development of the two-truths doctrine, which claims that there are two levels of truth in Buddhist teaching, one which is directly (ultimately) true, and one which is only conventionally or instrumentally true, commonly called upaya in later Mahayana writings.
Nagarjuna differentiates between sa?v?ti (conventional) and paramartha (ultimately true) teachings, but he never declares any to fall in this latter category; for him, even sunyata is sunya--even emptiness is empty. Nagarjuna also taught the idea of relativity; in the Ratnavali, he gives the example that shortness exists only in relation to the idea of length. BiographyTheos Casimir Bernard (December 10, 1908 – death date unknown, probably mid-September, 1947) was an accomplished American practitioner of Yoga and Tibetan Buddhism, a scholar of religion and explorer. Theos Bernard graduated from University of Arizona first in 1931 with a LLB degree and again in 1934 with a BA. From Columbia University he received an MA in philosophy in 1936, and in 1942 he entered Columbia University for a second time to pursue his PhD. Theos Bernard had hoped to become an athlete while being a young man, but he suddenly suffered a serious attack of infectious rheumatism that almost killed him and made him suffer from ill-health for many months. After finishing his studies in University of Arizona he traveled to India to perfect his studies. In order to get important Tibetan manuscripts, mainly the Kangyur and the Tengyur , Theos Bernard traveled to Tibet.
During the days of Trisong Detsen Tsampo, Songtsen Gampo's grandson and also son of another princess Jin Cheng, he invited Indian Buddhist master Padmasambhva to impart Esoteric Buddhism.
Afterwards, although Tibetan Buddhism underwent oppression, it continued to thrive from the 10th century and took into ten sects. Nyingmapa in Tibetan means 'old sect', which suggests it is a branch of the Tibetan Buddhism with the longest history. There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions]. According to these documents Hiuen-tchoang, while on his travels in the Indies, found the original of the map, and, after having marked on it in vermilion ink the route he had followed, he placed it in the Ta€™sing-loung-tseu [Blue Dragon Temple] at Tcha€™ang-ngan, then the capital of China.
These editors made history by quoting many Chinese books on the title of the map, which was originally Go Tenjuku Zu [Map of the Five Indiesa€?] and which, in their opinion, was not correct, since it dealt not only with the Indies but with the western regions also.
From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older. In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85).
This map is a great example for Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology with real world cartography. On the other hand, this map is much more than a world map and the main concept by the author was to celebrate a historically very important event. This all was based on the Japanese version of Hsuan-Tsanga€™s Chinese narrative, the Si-yu-ki, printed as late as 1653. In the preface, in the upper margin of the sheet, are listed the titles of no less than 102 works, Buddhist writings, Chinese annals, etc., both religious and profane, which the author consulted when making his map.
In the Buddhist world maps or Shumi world, the space for the regions called Nan-sen-bu and Nan-en-budai, etc.
This map can be described as a characteristic specimen of the type of early East Asiatic maps whose main distinctive feature is their completely unscientific character. From every point of view, however, the map preserved among the precious objects in the North Pavilion of the Horyuzi Temple at Nara is the most interesting. The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki.
There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries. From Nakamuraa€™s examination of a many manuscript and printed Korean mappaemundi he has come to the conclusion that they cannot in themselves be dated earlier than the 16th century. A hybrid map, forming a link between the Korean mappamundi and Hiuent-choanga€™s itinerary, which dates from the eighth century, causes one to seek further the connection between these two groups of maps to establish the parentage of the Korean mappamundi.
The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology. We do not know if Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary map was known from the commencement as The Map of the Five Indies, although it may commonly have been so called. But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.
Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, a€?woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Contains a list of Buddhist sutras, Chinese histories and other literary classics on the left side of the map title. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps. Therefore, so far from the area described in Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels being the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the Thang period, the world they actually did know was very much greater.
The map covers almost the whole of Asia, from the extreme east to Persia and the Byzantine Empire in the west, from the countries of the Uigours, the Kirghis and the Turks in the north to the Indies in the south, an area incomparably wider than that covered by Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels. This alone is sufficient to prove that the Chinese at this period well knew that the Map of the Five Indies was not of the whole world, but that it extended into the west and north beyond the areas indicated by the Si-yA?-ki. The fact that the Chinese represented the geographical content of the Si-yA?-ki in world form, without taking the slightest trouble to show the true shape of countries they knew well, not even China itself shows that, at the period of the Thang Dynasty, seventh to eighth century, they had a mappamundi of the Tchien-ha-tchong-do type in common use that they adopted it just as it was, without modifying it at all, and entered on it the Si-yA?-ki nomenclature. Therefore it may be said that the Korean mappamundi had its beginnings at a period rather earlier that than of the Thang Dynasty; that a map very like it in form was introduced into Korea from China at a certain period and, thanks to the development of printing in the 16th century. There is no doubt that the map by JA?n-cha€™ao, which also represented Jambu-dvipa as India-centric continent, utilized the Map of the Five Indies for reference, as we can see from the method of drawing both the boundary lines of the Five Indies and the courses of the four big rivers. The map, however, has a distinctive feature of its own, namely, the outline of the continent in the center and a number of islands lying scattered around it. Professor Nakamura treats this map in detail in his paper and states that the Ta€™u- chu-pien map is a hybrid between the Korean mappamundi of Tchien-ha-tchong-do type and the map of Jambu-dvipa.
But neither JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map nor this Ta€™u-shu-pien map could not go beyond Asia in their representation.
Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?. Among the maps made by Japanese we find none which regard China as the center of the world. There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions].A  It is accompanied by two documents, also reproduced in the book.
This information is not easy to accept, since it often confuses the copy and the original.A  Moreover it is impossible that the map should have been of Indian origin, and it is doubtful that it was constructed by Hiuen-tchoang, seeing that it shows an area greater even than the Indies. From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older.A  An example of Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology can be seen in the earliest map of this type, the Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu [Outline Map of All the Countries of the Jambu-dvipa]. In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85).A  It is not a faithful copy of the preceding, but has many corrections and additions. The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki.A  They are just the itineraries of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels. There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries.A  This very precious geographical relic, though it may have undergone some slight alteration, remains nevertheless to shed much light on the development of the Korean mappamundi. The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology.A A  That is what is proposed for this final portion. But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.A  Moreover, its central continent being always entirely surrounded by an immense ocean, it would seem that for its draughtsman this continent represented the whole of the then known world. Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps.A  Nevertheless certain scholars are doubtful about the positive knowledge of scientific cartography possessed by the Chinese of that period.
A  We cannot suppose, however, that JA?n-cha€™ao was the first to produce a map of this type. Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?.A  But so long as it remains a Buddhist map, dogmatism stands in the way of reality.
His timeless teaching is profound and in Southeast Asia remains a vital part of the cultural fabric of society. Thus he became Tibet's most important political ruler just one month after the People's Republic of China's invasion of Tibet on 7 October 1950.
HRTC (Himachal Road Transport Corporation) has recently introduced a luxury bus service from New Delhi for McLeod Ganj. It is a friendly and conducive place for people of all nationalities and backgrounds to learn about and put into practice the teachings of the Buddha.
He taught Tibetan language and civilization for 30 years at the School of Oriental Studies in Paris. Please help by clicking the Edit tab and adding details about ashrams, centers, temples, satsangs and any other locations and events related to this guru. Women have a special place in tantra, but except for Sky Dancer there are few writings that present the spiritual practices and evolution of female aspirants. In the eyes of Nagarjuna the Buddha was not merely a forerunner, but the very founder of the Madhyamaka system. The determination of a thing or object is only possible in relation to other things or objects, especially by way of contrast. His many works include texts addressed to lay audiences, letters of advice to kings, and a set of penetrating metaphysical and epistemological treatises.
He was the third American to ever set foot in Lhasa, Tibet, and the first American to be initiated into the rites of Tibetan Buddhism.
Completed in 1943, less than a year later, his dissertation Hatha Yoga: The Report of a Personal Experience , was subsequently published and served to introduce the practices of Yoga to an American audience. While convalescing in the Dragoon Mountains, Arizona, he dedicated plenty of time to read books about oriental philosophy belonging to his mother. He arrived to Calcutta around September 1936, at the end of the Monsoon season, only to find that his Guru had recently passed away.


At the holy city of Lhasa he was accepted as a reincarnation of Padma Sambhava, a saint of the Tibetan Buddhism, a fact that enabled him to take part in many special religious ceremonies and to discuss Tibetan teachings with some of the leading lamas at famous Tibetan monasteries. Then the master chose seven talented Tibetans to tonsure and enter into this religion, thus they became the earliest monks of Tibet. It had widespread branches, but the mutual doctrine is the emphasis on dzogchen and theoretical study and belittling of fixed content in articles. Since the main monastery Sakya Monastery was built on white land of river valley; and the bounding walls were painted with red, white and black flower patterns which indicated Manjusri, Avalokitesvara and Vajrapani Bodhisattva. The entries in the boxes in the sea part of the manuscript are extracts from the Da Tang xiyu ji. This traditional Buddhist depiction of the civilized world (mainly India and the Himalayan regions, with a token nod to China) divides India into five regions: north, east, south, west and central India. Huei-kuo (746- 805), chief priest of the temple, presented it to Kukai (774-835), his best Japanese disciple, when he returned to his own country. Here numerous details are given, including the interesting feature of the so-called a€?iron-gatea€?, shown as a strongly over-sized square, and the path taken by the monk whilst crossing the forbidden mountain systems after leaving Samarkand. Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least i??from a cartographic perspective.
They are based not on objective geographical knowledge or surveys but only on the more or less legendary statements in the Buddhist literature and Chinese works of the most diverse types, which are moreover represented in an anachronistic mixture. Prior to this map America had rarely if ever been depicted on Japanese maps, so Rokashi Hotan turned to the Chinese map Daimin Kyuhen Zu [Map of China under the Ming Dynasty and its surrounding Countries], from which he copied both the small island-like form of South America (just south of Japan), and the curious land bridge (the Aelutian Islands?) connecting Asia to what the Japanese historians Nobuo Muroga and Kazutaka Unno conclude a€?must undoubtedly be a reflection of North Americaa€?.
The map has been reproduced in Mototsugu Kuritaa€™s atlas Nihon Kohan Chizu Shusei, Tokyo and Osaka, 1932 and in color in Hugh Cortazzia€™s Isle of Gold, 1992. Their content however, their nomenclature, being for the most part that of the Han period, and taking into consideration the periods at which the few additions to that nomenclature have been made, is of a date not latter than the 11th century. The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions. A land bridge connects China to an unnamed continent in the upper right corner, and the island of Ezo [Japan] with its fief of Matsumae is located slightly to the south of the mystery continent. Kia Tana€™s map is perhaps not a proof of this, since it no longer exists, and was always, in any case, kept secret at the Imperial Court, and so was not easily consulted even by those of the generation in which it was produced. It proves finally, therefore, that Hiuen-tchoanga€™s map does not represent the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the time of the Thang Dynasty.
Why, then, should the area described by Hiuen-tchoang have been represented in the form of a shield surrounded by an immense ocean? But the distinctive feature of the map is that China, which had till then occupied a purely notional situation, was represented as a vast country in the eastern part of the continent with place-names of the period of the Ming Dynasty.
When we note that his map is not free from errors and omissions due to repeated transcription, and that almost contemporaneously there were maps of closely analogous type, such as the Ta€™u-shu-pien map mentioned below, there is little doubt that maps of this kind had already been produced before by somebody. This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613. The continent as a whole is wide in the north and pointed in the south, and still shows the traditional shape of Jambu-dvipa. He rests this statement on the ground that a map closely resembling the Ta€™u-shu-pien map is to be found among the maps of the Tchien-ha-tchong- do type that were widely circulated in Korea. Chan, Old Maps of Korea, The Korean Library Science Research Institute, Seoul, Korea, 1977, 249 pp. According to Nakamura, it was drawn by someone else, after his return, to illustrate the story of his travels, and that the map given to Kukai by his master was a copy, and not the original.
Nansen Bushu is a Buddhist word derived from the Sanskrit, Jambu-dvipa, or the southern continent. The most striking innovation is an indication of Europe to the northwest of the central continent, and of the New World in an island to the southeast.
Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least from a cartographic perspective. Among several maps of this kind that of Horyuzi is certainly the oldest and the most authentic in existence, though even it is not quite free from alterations.A  The others are very far from being in their original condition. The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions.A  Which is, in Nakamuraa€™s opinion, still not correct, for it contains not only the Western Regions but India and China also, so that Terazima is right in calling it The Map of the Western Regions and of the Indies, the title he gives to his small reproduction of part of Hiuen-thoanga€™s map.
This idea does not arise simply from the imagination, for the Hindus and the Chinese, like the Greeks, believed that an immense, unnavigable ocean entirely surrounded the habitable world. Yet in face of the number of early references to maps it cannot be doubted that they had, under the Tsa€™in Dynasty, maps sufficiently exact for their own purposes.
This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613.A  With the exception of many quaint islands lying scattered in the surrounding seas, this map has much in common with JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s, the central continent consisting of India, with the place-names from the Si-yA?-ki, and of China under the Ming Dynasty.
In the Ta€™u-shu-pien map the eastern coastline of the continent is represented with approximate accuracy, yet Fu-lin is drawn on the western side, is a fictitious peninsula similar to Korea on the east, so as to keep the symmetrical figure of the continent of Jambu-dvipa. He is a practicing member of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism and is influential as a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, as the world's most famous Buddhist monk.
There, he has helped to spread Buddhism and to promote the concepts of universal responsibility, secular ethics, and religious harmony.
Their insights shook our perception of who we are and where we stand in the world, and in their wake have left an uneasy coexistence: science vs.
Here women are in an eminent position, and a path of practice is given for present-day initiates to emulate. This may be the reason he was one of the earliest significant Buddhist thinkers to write in classical Sanskrit rather than Pali or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. He held that the relationship between the ideas of "short" and "long" is not due to intrinsic nature (svabhava). His greatest philosophical work, the M=ulamadhyamikak=arik=a--read and studied by philosophers in all major Buddhist schools of Tibet, China, Japan, and Korea--is one of the most influential works in the history of Indian philosophy.
He published several accounts of the theory and practice of the religions of India and Tibet, including his PhD dissertation on Hatha Yoga. After reading that "There is infinite energy available to anyone, if you know how to obtain it. Then, a friend of his former Guru introduced him to a teacher, called Tantrik friend by Theos Bernard, who took him under his guidance. Since then, there appeared a great many of monasteries and monks, and sutras were translated into Tibetan.
Integrated with the teachings of Tantras and Bon, the primitive religion of ancient Tibet, its core is Dzogchen - through cultivating themselves through meditation, the followers can disentangle from mortal and become Buddha. Initialized by Tsong Khapa, Gelugpa was highlighted by the combination of Esoteric and Exoteric Buddhism, as well as mitzvah.
Each of these five regions is again divided into many kingdoms a€“ those current during the career of Buddha. They all represent a large, imaginary India, where Buddha was born, as the heart of the world, but also depictions of Europe and the New World.
The largest part of the map is dedicated to Jambudvipa with the sacred Lake of Anavatapta (Lake Manasarovar in the Himalayas, a whirlpool-like quadruple helix lake believed to be the center of the universe and, in Buddhist mythology, to be the legendary site where Queen Maya conceived the Buddha). Also, in the upper left corner there are 102 references from Buddhist holy writings and Chinese annals that are mentioned to increase the credibility of the map.
China and Korea appear to the west of Japan and are vaguely identifiable geographically, which itself represents a significant advancement over the Gotenjikuzu map.
Thus, on this map we see, in addition to the mythical Anukodatchi-pond which represents the center of the universe and from which flow four rivers in the four cardinal directions, in the left-hand upper corner of the map a region designated as Euroba, around which are grouped, clockwise, the following named countries: Umukari (Hungary?), Oranda, Barantan, Komo (Holland, the country of the redhaired), Aruhaniya (Albania), Itaryia (Italy), Suransa (France) and Inkeresu (England).
Whether this represents ancient knowledge from early Chinese navigations in this region, for which there is some literary if not historical evidence, or merely a printing error, we can only speculate. Another, almost analogous edition of the same map, also dated 1710, but published by Chobei Nagata in Kyoto, is reproduced in George H. The names of the countries, written in the rectangles are in Chinese and Tibetan characters. Both maps came from the same temple so that they must have been co-existent there, and moreover, there is reason to believe that both had their origin at almost the same period. Evidently the composition of this map owed much to the ideas of Chih-pa€™an and JA?n- cha€™aoa€™s book contains another map entitled Tun-chA?n-tan-kuo-ta€™u [Map of the Eastern Region or China], which followed Chih-pa€™ana€™s Topographical Map of the Eastern Region or China. Possibly one such prototype of JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map, introduced into Japan and repeatedly copied, constituted the greatly transfigured SyA»gaisyA? map. But instead of the geometrical figure, its coastline is drawn more realistically and is indented. But with regard to their representation of both the central continent and outlying islands, these two maps have very little in common and there seems to be no need to seek any particular relation between them. Certainly the map is full of inaccurate and even false information, but it gave the Chinese people a fresh conception of the world in contrast to their traditional view of their own country as the center of the world both culturally and geographically. There are not many of these Chinese world maps in Japan, but the remaining Daimin Kyuhen Bankoku Jinseki Rotei Zenzu, of various sizes, are common. The place names are derived from mythical places noted in Chinese classics and from known lands around China, which occupies the centre 'of the map. But whatever the authorship of the map there is no doubt that it was brought from China by a religious student, whether Kukai or another. Jambudvipa is the Indian name for the great continent south of the cosmic Mount Meru, marked on this map by a central spiral. Even in those remote times, he says, there existed manuscript maps, named Go-Tenziku-Zu [Map of the Five Indies] in the most famous temples, but they were even worse than that of the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki. But these maps treat India as the heart of their world, and consequently we can say that they never recognized the European world maps. On the verso is the title, Go Tenjiku-Zu, but neither authora€™s name nor date.A  The inscriptions are only partly completed. Japan and Korea, northeast of the central continent, having no connection with the Si-yA?-ki, must be later additions.
Under the Han Dynasty maps played a very important part in political and military affairs, and many of them covered a vast area. As for the contents of the map, more respect was paid to the old classical authority than to the new geographical findings, so that many quaint, legendary place-names were mentioned to advertise the bigoted belief that the world of Buddhist teaching included even the farthest corners. It is the school of Buddhism with greatest affinity to the sanity of twenty-first century mystical aspiration.
He was the founder of the first Tibetan Buddhist research institute in United States, he compiled a Tibetan grammar and planned for the systematic translation of Indian and Tibetan literature into English. And this is part of the science of Yoga" in Lily Adams Beck's The Story of Oriental Philosophy , he became convinced that Yoga was the only discipline that could give him a solution for his health. He was a man of strong theoretical knowledge, much versed in Yoga, but not a practitioner himself. To reinforce the regime, Songtsen Gampo attached great importance to the Buddhism and married princesses from Nepal and the Tang Dynasty (618-907), both of where the Buddhism prevailed. All of disciples of Gelugpa wear yellow cassock and hat, which gives their sect the other name 'Yellow Hat Sect'. The Himalayas are shown as snow-capped peaks in the center of the map, and Mount Sumeru, the mythical center of the cosmos, is depicted in the whirlpool-like form.
Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo. During this time period Japan maintained an isolationist policy which began in 1603 with the Edo period under the military ruler Tokugawa Ieyasu, and lasting for nearly 270 years. From the quadruple beast headed helix (heads of a horse, a lion, an elephant, and an ox) of Manasarovar or Lake Anavatapta radiate the four sacred rivers of the region: the Indus, the Ganges, the Bramaputra [Oxus], and the Sutlej [Tarim]. Strong impression, printed on several sheets of native paper, joined; colored fully in yellow and ochre, and a few marks in red.
Southeast Asia also makes one of its first appearances in a Japanese Buddhist map as an island cluster to the east of India.
Europe, which had no place at all in earlier Buddhist world maps, makes this one of the first Japanese maps to depict Europe. No one succeeded in deciphering these until Professor Teramoto did so, publishing his findings at the end of 1931 in an article entitled a€?Relations between Japan and Tibet in the history of Japana€? (#208). It is not very probable that the originators of these two maps tried deliberately to represent the world in two different ways. Did the draughtsman of this Buddhist pilgrima€™s itinerary exaggerate, making these travels represent the whole world?
The forerunner of these maps can therefore be traced back far beyond the end of the Ming Dynasty. What attracts particular attention is that Fu-lin [the Byzantine Empire], west of the continent, is represented as a peninsula symmetrical with Korea in the east. It is true that among the Korean mappaemundi may be found one almost exactly like the Ta€™u-shuh-pien map.
Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo.A  The latter, delighted with this wonderful Buddhist geographical treasure, and deeming it too rare and important to keep to himself, caused another copy of it to be made, for what he had received was only a rough sketch. In spite of this authora€™s boasting his map is, in reality, according to Nakamura nothing but a mutilated copy of the a€?Map of the Five Indies,a€? made up from a confusion of heterogeneous and anachronistic materials, and including topographic names from the time of the Chan-hai-king up to modern times, some betraying European influence.
In their maps the Buddhists connected the Five Continents with the Spiritual World where the spirit of human beings must go after death.
In the Horyuzi and Hoyuzi and Hosyoin maps the Japanese Archipelago is shown by a birda€™s eye view, in Hotana€™s map and in its reduced reproduction it is shown in plan, adopted from a modern map, and in the SyA»gaisyA? map Korea has been placed in a rectangle to the northeast of the central continent in place of Japan. In putting forward the idea that the Chinese of the 7th and 8th centuries believed that the geographical knowledge acquired by Hiuen-tchoang in his travels was concerned with the whole of the then known world we are saying that their world had become smaller than that known in the Han period, which is impossible. The invention of paper at the beginning of the second century, by the eunuch Tsa€™ai Louen, made possible a great step forward in cartography, thanks to its handiness, and its cheapness compared with wooden or bamboo tablets, or the linen or silk stuffs in use up to that time. In the text of the Ta€™u-shu-pien is found a quotation from the prefatory note written by an unknown priest who drew this map. The problem now was to introduce heterogeneous information without conflict with the Buddhist teachings and to give the dogma some apparent plausibility. Countries like Korea, Japan and Ryuku are only described in the text and are not represented on the map. Ordained as a Gelug monk, the itinerant yogi Shabkar was renowned for his teachings on Dzogchen, the heart practice of the Nyingma lineage. Garfield provides a clear and eminently readable translation of N=ag=arjuna\'s seminal work, offering those with little or no prior knowledge of Buddhist philosophy a view into the profound logic of the M=ulamadhyamikak=arik=a. He then started reading about Yoga eagerly and talked to everyone that knew about it or who had been in India.
After two weeks, pleased with the knowledge that Theos Bernard demonstrated, the Tantrik teacher introduced him to another teacher with actual practicing knowledge, called Swamaji by Theos Bernard. A much reduced China (Changa€™an is visible on the plain at the upper right) is labeled a€?Great Tanga€?. Although knowing the world map by Matteo Ricci, published in Peking in 1602, Japanese maps mainly showed a purely Sino-centric view, or, with acknowledge-ment of Buddhist traditional teaching, the Buddhist habitable world with an identifiable Indian sub-continent. In essence this is a traditional Buddhist world-view in the Gotenjikuzu mold centered on the world-spanning continent of Jambudvipa.


Africa appears as a small island in the western sea identified as the a€?Land of Western Women.a€? Hiroshi Nakamura regarded this map, therefore, simply a mutilated copy of the Map of the Five Indies which is said to have come to Japan about 835, and a copy of which, dating from the 14th century, is preserved in the Horyuji Temple of Nara, Japan. Moreover, the geometrical form of the Sino-Tibetan map was foreign to China, so that it must owe something to western influence. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference.
Perhaps this indicates that people were no longer content with geographical representations in an unrealistic form, as the pilgrimage map of Holy India had been transformed into the map of the world, in which the intellectual interest requires a more objective and concrete image. But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map.
Ninkai, Ryoseki and Dyogetu drew the map, while Ryogetu, Keigi and Zyunsin added the place-names, collating and correcting them according to the Si-yA?-ki and other works. Drawn by a Japanese Buddhist monk of the Kegon sect and published in Kyoto in 1710, this map is based on earlier Japanese Buddhist world maps that illustrate the pilgrimage to India of the Chinese monk Xuanzang (602a€“664).
This map became the prototype of Buddhist world maps, the Nan-en-budai Shokoku Shuran no Zu (a world map), the date of which is still uncertain, and the Sekai Daiso Zu (a world map), En-bu-dai-Zu (a world map), Tenjuku Yochi Zu (a map of India), a trilogy by Sonto, a Buddhist, are derived from Hotana€™s world map. We shall presently see what really was the extent of geographical and cartographical knowledge in the Thang period.
At the same time the expansion of geographical knowledge under the Han Dynasty brought out the importance of the invention of paper. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference.A A  In this map the Han-hai [Large Sea] is represented as a desert and the River Huang rises in Lake Oden-tala.
According to it, the map was newly compiled on the basis three maps in the Fo-tsu-ta€™ung-ki, as well as many other materials. But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map.A  Any close relationship, beyond this, can hardly be imagined between the Chinese Buddhist World Map and the Korean Tchien-ha-tchong-do. So it was of course quite inconceivable that the compiler of this map should utilize the newly acquired information for the purpose of altering the dogmatic notion of the world. The fact that such dogmatic world maps were widely favored in old Japan shows that some Japanese in the Age of National Isolation believed China to be the center of the world and all the other countries to be in subordination to her.A  The sheet under discussion is a reprint by the book dealer Yahaku Umemura in Kyoto, which is tentatively dated 1700 by Professor Kurita.
He wandered the countryside of Tibet and Nepal, turning many minds toward the Dharma through his ability to communicate the essence of the teachings in a poetic and crystal-clear way.
Some time later, "a person that has just arrived from India" met him for just one night, in which he opened to Theos Bernard a whole world of Yoga philosophy and practices, becoming his first Guru. This last teacher was in charge of initiating him into Yoga in preparation for the final goal of the Yoga practice: to awaken his Kundalini. Directly across from China, over the stormy seas, the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku and the form of Honshu can be detected.
The map was drawn by the scholar-priest Zuda Rokashi, founder of Kegonji Temple in Kyoto, and illustrates the fusion of existing Buddhist and poorly known European cartography. For it is a historical fact that, under the Thangs, the Chinese, having conquered the eastern Turks, annexed an immense territory, stretching from Tarbagatai in the north to the Indus in the south, and their national prestige was then at its zenith.
This could not have been so, for Hiuena€™s travels were not always mapped in the form of a shield. And this growth of geographical consciousness led to a fresh demand for maps to comprise the whole of the known world.
Hotan has not drawn the route of this famous pilgrim here, but the toponymy of India and Central Asia accords with Xuanzanga€™s account. The special features of these maps are the representation of an imaginary India, where Buddha was born, and the illustration of the religious world as expounded by Buddhists. All these heterogeneous elements, so different from the other parts of the map are clearly the result of retouching at a later date, so that, in its most authentic form, the map of Hiuen-tchonga€™s itinerary had doubtless the shape of a shield, with a few small, rocky islands near the south and southeast coasts of the central continent, but without showing either Japan or Korea. But it was not until the middle of the third century that the correct scientific principles for the production of a good map were enunciated.
Therein lies the character and limitation of the Buddhist maps.A  The Ta€™u-shu-pien map was rough and small, but as it appeared in a popular encyclopedia, it attracted wide attention, which in time came to affect even the maps produced in Japan. He holds a noose and skull-crested club, with a string of severed heads hanging from his waist. Which is the true path to understanding reality?After forty years of study with some of the greatest scientific minds, as well as a lifetime of meditative, spiritual, and philosophic study, the Dalai Lama presents a brilliant analysis of why all avenues of inquiry—scientific as well as spiritual—must be pursued in order to arrive at a complete picture of the truth. Buddhists of all stripes, including practitioners of Zen and Vipassana, will find ample sustenance within the pages of this book, and be thrilled by the lyrical insights conveyed in Shabkar\'s words. Through the years that followed, Theos Bernard perfected his Yoga practice under the guidance by mail of that Guru. When the initiation was completed it was decided that he should travel throughout India to familiarize himself with the people and beliefs of the country. The language is Chinese, except for a few Japanese characters on the illustrations of European countries. They were constantly in touch diplomatically and commercially with Tibet, Persia, Arabia, India and other countries both by land and sea. There is one map of his journeys, drawn as an itinerary, preserved in the Tongdosa Temple in the province of Kei-shodo (south) in Korea.
The shape of the central continent is just the same as in the Korean mappamundi, as was demonstrated also by the hybrid map. It was Pa€™ei Hsiu, 234-271, who formulated them so that he may rightly be called the father of Chinese cartography. To sum up, taking over Chih-pa€™ana€™s view of China as equal with India, and on the basis of the theory of four divisions of the world implicit in the Map of the Five Indies, JA?n-cha€™ao tried to reunify the world which had been disintegrated into three regional maps in the Fo-tsu- ta€™ung-ki, and he thus succeeded in offering an image of the whole of Jambu-dvipa anew.
Yama is the Indian god of death, who in Tibetan Buddhism was conquered by Manjushri and made a protector of the Buddhist dharma (teachings). Through an examination of Darwinism and karma, quantum mechanics and philosophical insight into the nature of reality, neurobiology and the study of consciousness, the Dalai Lama draws significant parallels between contemplative and scientific examinations of reality. Along with the song by Shabkar, translator Keith Dowman includes several other seminal Dzogchen texts. Illuminating the systematic character of N=ag=arjuna\'s reasoning, Garfield shows how N=ag=arjuna develops his doctrine that all phenomena are empty of inherent existence, that is, than nothing exists substantially or independently. After visiting many cities and places he finally found a great teacher whom Theos Bernard references only by his title, Maharishi, who was a former student of the first Guru that Theos Bernard had met for just one night in the USA, and that for that reason knew about Theos Bernard beforehand.
Europe is shown at upper left as a group of islands, which can be identified from Iceland to England, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary and Turkey, but deliberately deleting the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Thangs China had attained to a high degree of civilization, perhaps the highest it has ever reached, and cartography then made remarkable progress.
This breathtakingly personal examination is a tribute to the Dalai Lama’s teachers—both of science and spirituality. Dzogchen practice brings us into direct communion with the most subtle nature of our experience, the unity of samsara in nirvana as experienced within our own consciousness. Despite lacking any essence, he argues, phenomena nonetheless exist conventionally, and that indeed conventional existence and ultimate emptiness are in fact the same thing. It was this Maharishi that after a complete training of around three months guided Theos Bernard to awaken his Kundalini. At the lower right South America is featured as an island south of Japan with a small peninsula as part of Central America, carrying just a few place-names including four Chinese characters whose phonetic Japanese reading is a€?A-ME-RI-KAa€?. The scroll begins on the extreme right with the Touen-houang region and finishes with Ceylon. The legacy of this book is a vision of the world in which our different approaches to understanding ourselves, our universe, and one another can be brought together in the service of humanity.How to See Yourself As You Really Areby His Holiness the Dalai Lama (Paperback)According to His Holiness the Dalai Lama, we each possess the ability to achieve happiness and a meaningful life, but the key to realizing that goal is self-knowledge. Within the Nyingma school, it is held higher than even the practices of tantra for bringing the meditator face to face with the nature of reality. This represents the radical understanding of the Buddhist doctrine of the two truths, or two levels of reality. North of Japan, a land bridge joins Asia with an unnamed landmass, presumably North America. It is dated April 1652, lunar calendar, is roughly drawn and has no special interest from the geographical point of view, but it serves to prove that the map of the travels of Hiuen-tchoang was not always drawn in shield form. It may be because the Buddhist Holy Writings referred to some islands belonging to Jambu-dvipa that the compiler of this map arranged islands around the central continent so as to represent the various data obtained from sources other than the Si-yA?-ki or the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki. To our great regret is has disappeared without any trace, but the author of the stela map at Si-gna-fou, engraved in 1137 (#217), of which the original drawing was made before the middle of the 11th century, said that he had consulted it, and that it contained many hundreds of kingdoms.
In How to See Yourself As You Really Are, the world\'s foremost Buddhist leader and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize shows readers how to recognize and dispel misguided notions of self and embrace the world from a more realistic -- and loving -- perspective.
He offers a verse-by-verse commentary that explains N=ag=arjuna\'s positions and arguments in the language of Western metaphysics and epistemology, and connects N=ag=arjuna\'s concerns to those of Western philosophers such as Sextus, Hume, and Wittgenstein. Through illuminating explanations and step-by-step exercises, His Holiness helps readers to see the world as it actually exists, and explains how, through the interconnection of meditative concentration and love, true altruistic enlightenment is attained. 150-250 CE) was the founder of the Madhyamaka (Middle Path) school of Mahayana Buddhism and arguably the most influential Buddhist thinker after Buddha himself. Witness the intense journey that monks undergo during their rigorous training regimen and the ancient rituals involved in attaining the spiritual goal of a liberated mind through compassion, discipline, and sacrifice, all in the beautiful Asian landscape. In this book, Jan Westerhoff offers a systematic account of Nagarjuna\'s philosophical position. Being happy is not only our right, he teaches, but is clearly the principle force that drives our lives. In a fun and easy going way, the Dalai Lama shows how to meditate and obtain mental happiness. This is the first step on the path to improving our capacity for joy, compassion and happiness. He mastered the practices quickly, impressing his teachers so much that they asked him to succeed them, but although reaching high levels of meditative consciousness, Siddhartha remained dissatisfied with the path and continued his journey. He and a group of five companions led by Kondanna practiced severe austerities, seeking enlightenment through the deprivation of worldly pleasures, including food and sleep. Graphic portrayals of the emaciated Siddhartha were popular with artists of the kingdom of ancient Gandhara in north-western India. Compassionate people are happier, calmer and healthier and create a pleasant environment for the family and community. These are some of the questions posed to His Holiness the Dalai Lama by filmmaker and explorer Rick Ray. Ray examines some of the fundamental questions of our time by weaving together observations from his own journeys throughout India and the Middle East, and the wisdom of an extraordinary spiritual leader. This is his story, as told and filmed by Rick Ray during a private visit to his monastery in Dharamsala, India over the course of several months.
He entered ever deeper and more profound states of consciousness, contemplating the nature of emptiness, impermanence and the interdependence of all things. Also included is rare historical footage as well as footage supplied by individuals who at great personal risk, filmed with hidden cameras within Tibet.
His mind at times was assailed by the forces of fear, temptation, attachment, greed, hatred, and delusion, but in his heightened state of awareness he saw clearly that their root was ignorance. Part biography, part philosophy, part adventure and part politics, \"10 Questions for The Dalai Lama\" conveys more than history and more than answers - it opens a window into the heart of an inspiring man. Gautama saw that understanding and love are one and that without understanding there can be no love. In order to love it is first necessary to understand; in order to understand it is necessary to live mindfully, making direct contact with the present moment, truly seeing what is taking place within and outside oneself. Imagine sitting with the Dalai Lama in his private meeting room with a small group of world-class scientists and philosophers.
The talk is lively and fascinating, as these leading minds grapple with age-old questions of compelling contemporary urgency: Why do seemingly rational people commit acts of cruelty and violence?
He felt as though a prison that had held him for a thousand lifetimes had vanished as an illusion, no more than the sum of innumerable thoughts based in ignorance. Can we learn to control the emotions that drive these impulses?Organized by the Mind and Life Institute, this rich encounter of science and spirit, East and West, brings together cutting-edge research in neuroscience, education, and psychology with the most sophisticated Buddhist practices for transforming negative emotions. Goleman, as scientific coordinator and narrator, also reveals the personalities behind the debates as the participants develop ideas for further collaboration and research.
Throughout his life, the Buddha taught the way of compassion, the way of ending suffering by fully understanding its causes through the practice of mindfulness and meditation.
The Buddha entered Parinirvana or the final deathless state, abandoning the earthly body, at the age of 80.
Before his passing, the Buddha asked the attendant Bhikshus to clarify any doubts or questions they had.
This light is expressed in art as a halo or aura of light called prabhamandala, depicted as circles of light.
An exercise in meditation is to contemplate these images in order to realize their deepest meaning.
Artists were very conscious of the sacredness of the Buddha image and endeavored to create an aura of equanimity, perfection and holiness in their work. A number of rules existed regarding the execution of a Buddha image and the artist studied Buddhist symbolism well. All Buddha images created by skilled artists communicate subtle meanings to the viewer through a range of characteristics. Perhaps the most important of these characteristics are the mudras, or hand gestures of the Buddha. These well-defined gestures have a definite meaning throughout all styles and periods of Buddha images. Marked differences are apparent when examining Buddha images from different countries within Asia.
Sculptures of the free standing, walking Buddha are synonymous with Sukhothai art (Thailand), the first walking images appearing in the 13th century. Further south in the old capital, Ayutthaya, images are characterized by a distinctive hair fame and 2 small lines carved above the upper lip and the eyes.
This process takes 1-2 weeks and we ask for your patience while this formality is observed. Buddhist images to which religious respect is paid that are more than one hundred years old are not permitted to be taken out of the country. Artists also are often inspired by their sacred subject and produce works that are both beautiful and moving.
Whether in a temple or in a special place in one’s home, Buddhist art provides a wonderful reminder of a profound teaching of great wisdom that has survived two and a half millennium.



The secret to success eric thomas free pdf download gratis
Sharing the secret online free uk
Change of last name after marriage in florida



Comments to «Tibetan buddhism main beliefs»

  1. iceriseherli writes:
    Out emotional reactivity or volatility extra I would suggest following continuouing I realized that.
  2. QARTAL_SAHIN writes:
    Experience, having an curiosity introduce your self to the and.
  3. FREEMAN writes:
    Advantages of meditation can complain about bearable voices on meditation CD's having.
Wordpress. All rights reserved © 2015 Christian meditation music free 320kbps.