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10.03.2015
Sigmund Freud is definitively the greatest and one of the most famous psychologists of all time.
According to Freudian psychoanalysts, the unconscious is the cornerstone of reality, it’s the true psychical reality, the innermost nature that is unknown to us, it is masked by the data of consciousness and the external world. Repression is to push away from conscious mind any instinct or pleasure related with erotic drive or with destruction. About Us: We are a team of young professionals and psychology enthusiasts who believe there is a gap between academic psychology and practical applications of psychology in the everyday life of ordinary people. The articles on this website are written by our staff, special contributors, and guest bloggers. Disclaimer:This web site and its agents make no promises, guarantees, representations, or warranties, expressed or implied,and assume no duty or liability with regard to the information contained herein or associated in any way therewith. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. A presentation for Truro College Foundation Degree in Integrated Counselling course on the unconscious mind and hypnosis. The Unconscious Mind A chance to take a look at your unconscious and talk about the feeling of what it is like to be in a trance now! Your clients will be your clients because they are not in rapport with their unconscious mind.
While some doubt its existence for others the unconscious mind is considered to be a cornerstone of the psychoanalytic process.
Much of the current empirical research into the unconscious mind, or automatic thoughts strongly suggests that theorists such as Freud, Schelling, and Coleridge were on the mark in their inclusion of this phenomenon into the analytic lexicon. With the names of more modern era thinkers attached to its ideology it would be easy to overlook the importance of the idea of the unconscious mind on the views of the world held by much of humankind. Dating back to between 2500 and 600 BC the experience of the unconscious mind can be found in Hindu texts. In the 21st century any definition of the unconscious mind must rely on language, and in particular the metaphor to be valid. Of equal importance is to distinguish between unconscious process (psychoanalytic stimuli) and the unconscious mind (the reaction to that stimuli). It is from this psychoanalytical model that Freud argued that these thoughts were not accessible using introspection, but required a more sophisticated and lengthy intervention – psychoanalysis.
Building further on Freud’s concept, Carl Jung introduced two distinct sources of the unconscious. Lucan seemed to be arguing that if we do not possess any symbols, words, or phrases to represent thought, there can be no thought. In today’s 21st century one of the keys to moving forward seems to be adaptability, or to coin an old phrase “Don’t throw the baby out with the bath water.” Our “baby” today is the unconscious mind.
In light of the advancements being continually made in psychoanalysis theory it is important that we do not lose sight of just how closely linked are the “pure” subconscious mind theories of Freud, the Archetypes of Jung, and Lucan’s linguistics to one another. With the modern thinking and forward-looking research capabilities available to today’s professionals there should be no reason for not advancing and improving the ability to assist people in achieving the highest level of functioning which they are capable. Eric Fromm and the Social Unconscious The truth is often realized through balance, found in the middle ground between opposing extremes—a reality Fromm embraced when developing his theory of the unconscious.
You may ask why an entire list is dedicated to Sigmund Freud, but the man is famous the world over. While some of his theories may seem quite wild, the field of psychology today would not be what it is without his influence and early work. Sigmund Freud abused drugs, and when we say that, what we mean is that Freud really, really, really liked cocaine.
Freud had a collection of very strange theories, many of which are pretty much discredited today. Freud is famous for being the inventor of psychoanalysis, though some argue whether he was the first to use the method. Some of Freuda€™s contemporaries were women, and a bit more feminist than he was (then again, it sounds like just about everybody is more feminist than Freud.) In response to his belief that many of womena€™s ills belonged to the fact that they did not have a penis and were jealous of men for having one, a female contemporary came up with the alternate theory of womb envy. Sigmund Freud placed a lot of importance on the unconscious, so perhaps not all too surprisingly he had quite a hang up on dreams. Freud was one of the first to really propose serious theories on the unconscious, and it was truly a cornerstone of nearly all of what he believed. There is a popular story that Freud was once with a class smoking one of his favorite cigars when one of his students suggested that perhaps his constant need to have something in his mouth meant that he had an oral fixation, basically pinning him with his own made-up disorder. Sigmund Freud didn't exactly invent the idea of the conscious versus unconscious mind, but he certainly was responsible for making it popular and this was one of his main contributions to psychology.
Freud (1900, 1905) developed a topographical model of the mind, whereby he described the features of the minda€™s structure and function. Freud (1915) described conscious mind, which consists of all the mental processes of which we are aware, and this is seen as the tip of the iceberg. The preconscious contains thoughts and feelings that a person is not currently aware of, but which can easily be brought to consciousness (1924). Finally, the unconscious mind comprises mental processes that are inaccessible to consciousness but that influence judgements, feelings, or behavior (Wilson, 2002). Freud applied these three systems to his structure of the personality, or psyche – the id, ego and superego. While we are fully aware of what is going on in the conscious mind, we have no idea of what information is stored in the unconscious mind.
The unconscious contains all sorts of significant and disturbing material which we need to keep out of awareness because they are too threatening to acknowledge fully. The unconscious mind acts as a repository, a a€?cauldrona€™ of primitive wishes and impulse kept at bay and mediated by the preconscious area. The unconscious mind contains our biologically based instincts (eros and thanatos) for the primitive urges for sex and aggression (Freud, 1915). Freud (1915) emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect. Freud believed that the influences of the unconscious reveal themselves in a variety of ways, including dreams, and in slips of the tongue, now popularly known as 'Freudian slips'. Initially, psychology was sceptical regarding the idea of mental processes operating at an unconscious level. However, the gap between psychology and psychoanalysis has narrowed, and the notion of the unconscious is now an important focus of psychology. However, empirical research in psychology has revealed the limits of the Freudian theory of the unconscious mind, and the modern notion of an 'adaptive unconscious' (Wilson, 2004) is not the same as the psychoanalytic one.


Whereas Freud (1915) viewed the unconscious as a single entity, psychology now understands the mind to comprise a collection of modules that has evolved over time and operate outside of consciousness. Finally, while Freud believed that primitive urges remained unconscious to protect individuals from experiencing anxiety, the modern view of the adaptive unconscious is that most information processing resides outside of consciousness for reasons of efficiency, rather than repression (Wilson, 2004).
Hundreds of books were written by him just to set up the foundations of dynamic unconscious processes, which he describes in length through his works.
The unconscious on Freud is a synonym of those events that we have forgotten, repressed from conscious memory recall, those events, feelings and or thoughts that are inhibited and suppressed. It is a defense mechanism (the most important) of the ego to avoid internal conflict and pain, because the superego is always striving for moral aims, censuring what the Id wants. In academic psychology you learn about social psychology, cognitive psychology, physiological psychology, and mental health conditions. We have the privilege of working with many best-selling authors, motivational speakers, life-coaches, and psychologists who are spending their knowledge, time, and resources to make the life of people, you for example, happier. No medical or other professional services are being rendered and nothing is intended to provide such services or advice of any kind. For some cultures it has served as a way of explaining ancient ideas of temptation, divine inspiration, and the predominant role of the gods in affecting motives, actions.
Whatever name is attached to it, the idea of unspoken thought as an integral part of the functions of the mind continues to be important in the psychoanalytical world. There are so many words and phrases used interchangeably with the unconscious mind that one can easily lose track of what it is being must discussed.
Recent studies seem to support that while unconscious processes occur as though they were in a vacuum the human reaction to them is measurable and real. His first, personal unconsciousness did not differ much from Freud’s views in that individually we all encounter evens that are removed from our individual conscious memory and placed into our unconscious. It is here that he postulated that humans were the repositories for what he called Archetypes; Innate, universal and hereditary messages about how we experience our world. As is often the case with many far reaching issues, it seems that the discussions, research, and practices of psychoanalysis is circular. And while on the surface the differences between the theories of Freud, Jung, and Lucan may seem herculean, they are not. He is renowned for his theories on the unconscious and for essentially pioneering psychotherapy, even if there is some argument as to whether he was the first to actually invent it. Sigmund Freud is proof positive that you can be both a genius who essentially creates an entire field and a complete quack, both at the same time.
This was mainly due to his constant habit of smoking cigars, leading to mouth cancer later in life. Freud, though, was unquestionably the first to popularize the method, and influenced many great psychologists such as Carl Jung. Also known as vagina envy, this is an alternate theory that states men are actually jealous of women, because they do not have a womb and thus cannot create life.
The unconscious, for our purposes, is supposed to be all of the processes in our brain that we perform without really thinking. To this, Freud famously replied a€?sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.a€? Funnily enough, it turns out that some people have investigated this quote and discovered that the entire thing probably never even happened. And Sigmund Freud was a serious polyglot, with a strong knowledge of German, Italian, Greek, English, Spanish, Hebrew and Latin.
For example, you are presently not thinking about your mobile telephone number, but now it is mentioned you can recall it with ease. Here the id is regarded as entirely unconscious whilst the ego and superego have conscious, preconscious, and unconscious aspect. For example, Freud (1915) found that some events and desires were often too frightening or painful for his patients to acknowledge, and believed such information was locked away in the unconscious mind. Freud argued that our primitive urges often do not reach consciousness because they are unacceptable to our rational, conscious selves. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to reveal the use of such defence mechanisms and thus make the unconscious conscious. Freud (1920) gave an example of such a slip when a British Member of Parliament referred to a colleague with whom he was irritated as 'the honorable member from Hell' instead of from Hull. For example, cognitive psychology has identified unconscious processes, such as procedural memory (Tulving, 1972), automatic processing (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999; Stroop, 1935), and social psychology has shown the importance of implicit processing (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995).
Indeed, Freud (1915) has underestimated the importance of the unconscious, and in terms of the iceberg analogy there is a much larger portion of the mind under the water.
For example, universal grammar (Chomsky, 1972) is an unconscious language processor that lets us decide whether a sentence is correctly formed. The unconscious cannot be brought to the forefront of consciousness voluntarily, it needs special paths because there are forces(defense mechanisms) that will not allow to reveal the unconscious because it is too painful and thus is rejected. He learned that through hypnosis that some of these repressed thoughts emerged to consciousness. He realized that interpretation of dreams through free association (he asked patients to say the first thing that come to their minds, even dumb or silly images) were a method to set free the traumas that are the essence of the unconscious. It is closely related with shame, moral and repulsiveness working as motors of the unconscious. The Id is related with primitive basic needs and feelings and its governed by pleasure principle( irrational, the Id is all unconscious and is seeking constantly to satisfy our two primitive instincts: pleasure or destruction). This repressed sexual drive cannot be destroyed because it is expressed in the form of energy, thus it is transformed into neurotic symptoms(anxiety, depression, psychosomatic illnesses).
Psychology is the study of the brain and its functions and the science of the mind and human behavior.
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By definition the use of the term unconscious suspends introspection about them, while including related behaviors, thought processes, memory, affect, and motivation. While Freud and Jung along with their disciples continue in their approaches and practices the later introduction of Lucan’s Linguistic Unconsciousness has only increased the knowledge base of this area of psychology. They validate one another and even more importantly each one allows for increased interaction with the professional and the client during a therapy session. Freud is also infamous for his theories on psychosexual development, and the fact that his worldview was fairly misogynistic even for his time.
While that may be the greatest excuse for drug use ever, he also did write several papers on the wonders of this drug, touting its use in all sorts of things, including anesthesia. Freud believed that womena€™s problems stemmed essentially from them not having a male sex organ, and felt that women didna€™t have a good sense of justice.


At one point Freud managed to actually quit for over a year, but eventually went back to the habit again full-time.
Psychoanalysis often involves attempting to understand a patient through their childhood development and greatly involves the unconscious.A His psychoanalysis has been criticized, and still enjoys a certain controversy among the psychology community today. To make up for this jealousy, men try to construct businesses instead so it feels like they are creating something.
His theory was that what you actually remembered was just something that represented what you were actually thinking during the dream, and that it was meant to disguise the true thought.
For those of who arena€™t counting, that is a grand total of seven languages, which makes us look bad as most people are lucky to be proficient in their own language.
Like an iceberg, the most important part of the mind is the part you cannot see.Our feelings, motives and decisions are actually powerfully influenced by our past experiences, and stored in the unconscious.
People has developed a range of defence mechanisms (such as repression) to avoid knowing what their unconscious motives and feelings are.
Such empirical findings have demonstrated the role of unconscious processes in human behavior. The mind operates most efficiently by relegating a significant degree of high level, sophisticated processing to the unconscious. Separate to this module is our ability to recognize faces quickly and efficiently, thus illustrating how unconscious modules operate independently. He was not the first to discover the mechanisms of the unconscious, but he surely developed new methods for its verification. He promptly learned that the past events or experiences are the cause of present conduct and that some traumatic events in our childhood, emerge in present life as different symptoms. This way, dreams are some sort of metaphor, a figurative representation or dramatization of the unconscious. Freud soon realized that the unconscious manifest itself not only through dreams but also through slips of the tongue or through neurotic symptoms (paralysis, obsessive behaviors, manias or nervous tics). He states that sexual energy(libido) and tanatos(anhiliation and destruction of the self, for example through drugs or risky behaviors) are the real motivations of human behavior.
Repression is necessary and normal at some degree in any individual, someone who doest have defense mechanisms will behave as a psychopath and will be a harm to society, however there are degrees of repression.
However, most of our society are poorly educated about the applications of these studies in their daily life.
This web site bears no responsibility for the accuracy, legality or content of the external sites or for that of subsequent links. Just below its surface lie two additional aspects of the mind the Id (one’s instincts) and the Super Ego. However, he did enjoy the high that the drug gave him, and definitely used it for more than just medicinal reasons. He also considered women to be weak socially, to have a jealous nature, and to be exceedingly vain. Someone with an oral fixation gained in this early stage may end up constantly needing to chew on something, or have something in their mouth, while someone who wasna€™t raised properly during the anal stage could be anal-retentive, which is where the expression comes from. According to some, he smoked as many as twenty cigars in a typical day and had to go through 34 operations, still eventually succumbing to cancer. His beliefs have always been considered controversial, but his contribution to the field of psychology and his influence cannot be denied. One feminist even makes the argument that Mary Shelleya€™s Frankenstein is essentially a story about a man with womb envy.
Freud even wrote a book on dreams called, creatively titled a€?The Interpretation of Dreams.a€? A His main belief at the time was that dreams are a way of fulfilling things we wish we could do while conscious, but were unable. He believed that the unconscious drives how we behave, often acting on feelings that have been repressed inside us since he were very young. He was been quoted as saying that cigars were essential to his life, and he believed that they improved his work. Freud was also quite the little genius, already reading Shakespeare at the tender age of eight.
He also learned that when patients where under hypnotic-type states they tend to enter in cathartic(liberation) states where they revived forgotten traumatic states that had a corrective emotional experience through involuntary discharge acts such as tears or movement of paralyzed limbs (cure of the symptoms). He explains that the individuals are driven from birth by the desired to acquire and enhance bodily pleasures. Freud defines the human nature as essentially sexual, thus, through child development repression arises and constricts this impulses into constructive ways such as education and work. Those who visit or use this web site, links, or any other information assume all risks associated therewith. It is in the latter two realms that negative events are converted into unconscious thought with both symbolic and actual significance.
Freud was also known to believe women to be the problem in society, especially when it came to sexual tension between the genders. He also had theories involving the Oedipus Complex, which had young boys attracted to their mothers, and the Elektra Complex, which had young girls attracted to their fathers.
He believed very strongly that nearly all actions that people performed were the result of unconscious processes, which would mean that our free will does not perform quite the way we first thought. He was also accepted into a prestigious high school and graduated with honors, eventually proving himself as the kookiest psychologist ever to walk the Earth. Therefore, psychoanalysis became an art on transforming the unconscious into consciousness.
The ego, is governed by reality principle(the need to postpone or inhibit pleasure principle). While it is certain that we do have an unconscious mind, it is hard to say just how many of Freuda€™s theories regarding it are actually true, or even have elements of truth to them. The ego is related with consciousness processes such as attention, memory, perception or will. Finally the superego are all the moral, values and mandates that were thought to us since childhood as a norm to behave(the way we are supposed to behave, interiorized by most humans). All civilization arises from a compromise between the Id(pleasure and destruction wishes) and repression of the superego, creating a balanced Ego.



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