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04.01.2014
There are two voltage ratings to be considered on an adapter, converter or inverter: the input voltage, and the output voltage. A conversion device with selectable voltage will have a slide switch or dial to select which voltage will be used. Voltage is indicated by the letter "V" or by the letters "VAC" (for AC voltage) or "VDC" (for DC voltage). The frequency rating is measured in Hertz (Hz) and indicates the number of cycles per second for alternating current (AC). Large electronic appliances such as televisions, VCR's and computers should not be used on 50 Hz power unless the device specifically states that it can accept both 50 and 60 Hz. Through our Faith energy we can transmute the negative frequencies and restore our consciousness to the vibration of Spirit. We must go to our hearts and feel the Truth of these statements ~ leaving our doubting minds behind. The following animation shows you the internal workings of a four-speed transmission with reverse. If you think diesel engines are noisy, smoky, slow and sluggish, then you probably think television sets have small oval screens, black-and-white pictures, and one tinny little speaker. What has been responsible for this dramatic evolution and refinement of diesel engines?
The four cycles of an Otto-cycle engine are the intake, compression, power, and exhaust cycles. We will limit this review to four-cycle engines, commonly referred to as Otto-cycle engines after Nikolaus Otto, who patented this concept for engines in 1876. While gasoline engine operation is fairly common knowledge, some of the subtleties are not. Less often discussed are the pumping losses associated with four-cycle, air-throttled engines.
On the intake cycle, a pumping loss occurs if there is anything impeding the free flow of air (and fuel) into the cylinder while the intake valve is open and the piston is descending. Also, factory compromises in the overall intake system can impose restrictions at all engine speeds. Interestingly, intake pumping losses can be completely eliminated at wide open throttle by supercharging (or turbocharging) an engine.
The combination of an exhaust turbine coupled to a compressor on the intake side of the engine is called a turbocharger. The third cycle (power cycle) of the engine is the only cycle that does not have pumping losses. The fourth cycle (exhaust stroke) also requires effort to expel the exhaust gases from the cylinder.
Before going on to diesel engines, we should mention the pumping action of the underside of the pistons too.
Higher compression ratios result in more efficient burning of fuel in four-cycle engines. Diesel engines also have significantly lower pumping losses than do gasoline engines. With all of the above taken into consideration, especially the lower pumping losses and greater thermal efficiency, it becomes clear why diesel engines are more efficient and produce notably more torque than similar displacement spark ignition engines.
Now that we've covered the basics of operation of the diesel as compared to the gasoline engine, we can discuss how electronic fuel management has contributed to the evolution of the modern diesel.
Until recently, diesel fuel injection was a purely mechanical function that varied the amount of fuel injected into the combustion chamber based on injection pressure that was controlled by fuel pump speed and the fuel throttle position that varied the fuel volume. Another significant difference between gasoline and diesel fuel has to do with the way the two fuels vaporize.
In comparison to gasoline engines, modern diesels produce 30- to 40-percent less carbon dioxide, very low hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, and over their usable life, diesels produce less oxides of nitrogen than gasoline engines.
With all of the gains made in today's modern diesel engines, the future of diesel appears bright. The input voltage indicates the voltage the conversion device is expecting to receive, and the output voltage indicates the voltage that the conversion device will provide. This has the advantage of allowing a single conversion device to work for multiple devices, which is most useful when the consumer has several devices that require different voltages but which will not be used simultaneously.
In the US, the AC frequency is 60 Hz (one cycle per second) and is used as a reference in some timing circuits. You are putting your faith in the possibility and probability of misfortune, lack, and limitation. For me, my heart tells me that we are blessed with intervention while humanity continues to wake up ~ while the Lightworkers continue to wield their Light through their loving hearts. The answer is the same thing that has given us full color, high-definition televisions with large flat-panel screens, digital picture and stereo surround sound quality: electronics. A gasoline four-cycle engine is throttled by controlling the mass airflow into the engine. During normal power generation, ignition usually occurs later, and may occur as late as TDC. For example, let's assume that the combustion space above the piston of given engine, with the crankshaft rotated to 15º after TDC is 6 cubic inches (about 82 cc).
Other than friction, pumping losses are anything that resists the rotation of the crankshaft. Other than the normal flow restrictions of the intake air ducting, air cleaner, intake manifold and cylinder head, the main obstruction of concern is the throttle if it is closed or partially closed.
Gale Banks Engineering offers products for both gasoline and diesel engines aimed specifically at eliminating or reducing such restrictions to improve pumping efficiency and power output.
Under such conditions, positive pressure (above atmospheric pressure) actually helps push the piston down on the intake stroke, adding torque. Because the hot, expanded exhaust gases still pressurize the cylinder to some extent, that pressure pushes against the piston as it rises. The most significant differences from spark ignition engines are that diesels have no air throttle, fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber, diesel fuel is used instead of gasoline, and the heat generated by the compression of the air in the cylinders ignites the fuel when it is injected. Some aftermarket diesel chip manufactures simply dump in excessive fuel for power, causing the engine to operate in the undesirable rich range, as evidenced by plumes of black smoke. Since the fuel pump was driven by the engine, pressure was a function of engine RPM up until a regulated pressure was reached. The transition to four valves per cylinder also allows positioning of the fuel injection nozzle directly in the center of the combustion chamber aimed into the middle of the cylinder. First, power is increased up to 40 percent over older indirect injection designs while at the same time fuel consumption is up to 30 percent less. The more sophisticated fuel injection system is expensive to manufacture, now accounting for 30 to 40 percent of the cost of a modern diesel engine. Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can help diesels further reduce oxides of nitrogen and soot formation, and some new diesels are EGR-equipped. The diesel engine is the most fuel-efficient energy-conversion device in mass production today.
Either or both of the voltage ratings can be either a single voltage or a selectable voltage.
Using a device on AC voltage with a different frequency will not cause a problem in most small electronic devices; however, timing circuits such as clocks will be affected.


Faith is the creative energy of things hoped for, the evidence of things unseen; therefore, your consciousness is that which stands under and supports that which you are experiencing in your world. Come forth, my Faith ~ saturate my emotions with total trust, total certainty, total conviction in myself as a being of the Universe. It is one of the spiritual tools available to you for strengthening your spiritual consciousness. I believe (have Faith) that we are being divinely guided and helped by the Galactic Federation, Agarthans, Ascended Masters and the entire Spiritual realm. Many people have this perception of diesel engines, but friend, diesels have changed.
However, before we get into the electronic fuel management advancements, let's review some of the basic differences, and similarities, of diesel and gasoline engines.
This allows time (in degrees of crankshaft rotation) for combustion to begin, generating peak cylinder pressure about 15º after TDC on the power stroke. Let's also assume the piston top has a surface area of 12 square inches, and that maximum cylinder pressure at 15º after TDC is 1000 PSI. You might think of this as "negative torque" whereas anything that promotes rotation of the crankshaft is "positive torque".
When this happens, the piston is trying to depressurize the cylinder and the entire intake conduit back through the intake port and the intake manifold against a flow restriction. It is worth noting that intake stroke pumping losses also occur at high RPM with a wide open throttle when the intake conduits can no longer pass all the air mass necessary to fill the cylinder to full atmospheric pressure at the end of the intake cycle. Of course, there is no "free lunch" and power to drive the compressor (supercharger or turbocharger) has to come from somewhere.
In other words, on the compression cycle, the pumping loss is greatest at wide open throttle. This cylinder pressure also promotes the flow of exhaust gases out of the cylinder with the exhaust valve open. Diesels also operate in a narrower RPM band than gasoline engines, and have lower peak RPM.
Special high-octane gasoline permits slightly higher compression ratios (usually for racing), but the added cost and availability of high-octane (high lead) fuels precludes the use of higher compression ratios in most applications. Thermal efficiency of diesels can be, and is, further enhanced with turbocharging to increase the available air (oxygen) to support combustion of more fuel. In describing the operation of the gasoline engine, it was noted that once the intake valve had closed, the thermal potential for that intake charge was set. Further, computer-controlled fuel injectors can now be controlled to "shape" the fuel injection curve somewhat using multiple injection events during each firing cycle.
This means only the surface of the fuel droplets is vaporizing and burning, or stated more correctly, reacting with the oxygen around it. Unfortunately, the application of cooled EGR does have a negative impact on efficiency and fuel economy.
Specifically, using a 60 Hz device on foreign power (such as 50 Hz) may cause the circuits to run slow.
You may have created illness through the energy of faith-faith in drafts, weather, germs, old age. Internally, it looks something like this: --> There are three forks controlled by three rods that are engaged by the shift lever. Combustion may continue beyond this point, further assisting power generation, but the effective cylinder pressure drops due to the downward movement of the piston. More than anything else, it is this resistance to crankshaft rotation on the intake stroke that provides "engine braking" when the driver backs off the throttle. When this point is reached, both the volumetric efficiency and torque of the engine will begin to decline. For a supercharger, that power (or negative torque) comes off the crankshaft as it drives the supercharger. Similarly, if the engine is supercharged (or turbocharged), the increased charge density will increase the pumping loss on this cycle.
Yes, some of the work done on the compression cycle is converted to heat, and a small part of that heat is lost to the engine cooling system, but that is a very small percentage of the pumping loss that is not recovered.
At low speeds, the movement of air under the pistons balances out since on most multi-cylinder engines there are always as many pistons moving down as are moving up. This also means that unfortunately there is virtually no engine braking when the driver backs off the fuel throttle pedal unless an exhaust brake, such as the Banks Brake is installed, but that's a separate story. This is possible by utilizing computer control of the injectors and ultra-high fuel pressure in a common fuel rail that feeds the injectors, hence the name "common rail injection". These advantages occur largely because the higher injection pressure results in smaller fuel droplet size for faster and more complete combustion, and more even fuel distribution in the cylinder. Gasoline readily vaporizes, and gasoline also has time to more fully vaporize after it enters the intake air stream and during the compression cycle before ignition occurs in a gasoline engine. The heat of the combustion causes the next layer of the droplet to vaporize, and if the droplet finds available oxygen, it then reacts. Likewise, using a foreign device on our AC voltage can cause the timing circuits such as clocks to run fast.
Looking at the shift rods from the top, they look like this in reverse, first and second gear: --> Keep in mind that the shift lever has a rotation point in the middle. The following fourth cycle forces the spent exhaust gases from the cylinder (upward exhaust stroke).
This is done utilizing either a carburetor or a fuel injection system before the incoming air enters the cylinder.
It is because of the burning time required for the mixture to generate heat and pressure that the spark timing must be advanced as RPM goes up. This is often erroneously called "compression braking", but in truth, it has nothing to do with the compression stroke.
For a turbocharger, the negative torque comes in the form of an exhaust restriction that increases the pumping losses on the exhaust cycle.
Of course, combustion does occur, but that simply adds to the downward force on the piston during the power cycle. At very high RPM, the crankcase air really doesn't have time to move back and forth from cylinder to cylinder. The higher compression ratio and cylinder pressure of diesel engines also requires heavier rotating and reciprocating components that limit maximum RPM.
If the diesel is turbocharged, boost pressure can actually help generate "positive torque" on the intake stroke.
The thermal potential for the power stroke in the diesel can be controlled by the amount of fuel injected and the length of time it is injected. For comparison, a modern common-rail fuel injection may operate at pressures as high as 19,000 to 24,000+ PSI, whereas the typical gasoline engine fuel injection system operates at only 40 to 60 PSI. This process continues like peeling away layers of an onion until the fuel droplet is fully consumed, or the droplet fails to find oxygen and the fire goes out.
Having already overcome most of the objections against diesels, engineers continue to refine electronic fuel management and emission controls. I now let my world reflect the Divine Activity of Love, life, and abundance, for my Faith has made me whole. When you push the knob forward to engage first gear, you are actually pulling the rod and fork for first gear back.


Today's diesels are different from those of just a year or so ago, and further evolution is just around the corner.
These four cycles correspond to mechanically-timed valve openings and closings to admit the intake mixture and permit exhaust flow. Burning time is required to heat and expand the gases (called the working fluid) in the combustion space to produce maximum cylinder pressure shortly after TDC.
Anything that restricts exhaust flow, such as the turbine section of a turbocharger, or such as a restrictive exhaust system, increases the exhaust pumping losses.
Instead, it just compresses and expands under each piston, but again, expansion balances compression and there's no pumping loss as a result. Few diesels operate at speeds above 4000 RPM, and most run notably slower than 4000 RPM. Gasoline engines cannot operate at these higher compression ratios because the air and fuel is already mixed together before it enters the cylinder. Diesels do have high pumping losses on the compression stroke due to high compression ratios, but that is offset by nearly equal rebound on the power stroke, as explained earlier. The only limits to that are the amount of air in the cylinder to support combustion and the capacity of the fuel injection system. This meant that combustion tended to be rich at the beginning of the burn and lean at the end of the burn. For example, a small amount of fuel is pre-injected early in the compression cycle to begin the burning process without the noisy clatter previously associated with diesels. Technically, it is also possible for the droplet to collide with the piston top or cylinder wall, which typically terminates combustion. Diesel fuel is more commonly available at many service stations, eliminating yet another perceived disadvantage. For example, the world's fastest pickup truck (222 MPH) is powered by an '03 Cummins diesel, and this same pickup is quiet, street-driven, and even pulled its own support trailer to the Bonneville Salt Flats for the certified Land Speed Record runs (see Project Sidewinder Goes to the Salt elsewhere on this site)! All of this is explained in detail in the accompanying article, "Airflow - the Secret to Making Power".
After the intake valve closes, the thermal potential of the combustible mixture is set. Another inch of piston movement doubles the combustion space again, and the cylinder pressure will be only 250 PSI, or 3,000 pounds of force on the piston. Here again, Banks offers products to reduce or eliminate factory exhaust restrictions and improve the efficiency of the exhaust system, thus reducing pumping losses and liberating power. One of the benefits of a crankcase evacuation system that depressurizes the crankcase is that the density of the air beneath the pistons is reduced, further minimizing pumping actions. Diesels are thermally more efficient than gasoline engines because they operate at higher compression ratios than gasoline engines, and they have fewer pumping losses. At compression ratios above those usually used in gasoline engines, the heat of compression would cause the mixture to self-ignite too early, causing "engine knock", parts damage, and a significant reduction in power. Because fuel can be injected longer into the power cycle to sustain effective cylinder pressure, torque output can be dramatically increased. It also meant the engine produced a loud clattering sound at the beginning of combustion, less than ideal burn efficiency and notable soot in the exhaust. Considering this process, the smaller the diesel fuel droplets are when they exit the injector nozzle, and the faster they are traveling, the more likely the droplets are to find available oxygen and complete combustion before colliding with the piston or cylinder wall. Meeting future emissions requirements might prove to be problematic, but not impossible. What is most significant about the gasoline four-cycle engine is how it is throttled, when the fuel is introduced, and how the fuel is ignited. The good news is, no matter whether the pumping losses are high or low, these losses are mostly recovered on the power cycle. In any case, the upward movement of the piston must displace any gases remaining in the swept volume of the cylinder, and that requires work. Additionally, diesel fuel typically has about 11 percent more energy per gallon than gasoline. This is largely responsible for the massive torque numbers diesels are able to produce. The sulfur in today's diesel fuel also contributes to the smell associated with diesels. Typical diesel fuel has 138,700 BTU per gallon whereas typical gasoline has 124,800 BTU per gallon.
Only air goes into the cylinder on the intake stroke, and the pressurized fuel is injected after the air is compressed. The foregoing is assuming the exhaust conduits are sufficiently unrestricted for the size and power output of the diesel.
During the compression stroke, the temperature of the intake air rises to as much as 1400º F.
If not, increasing the efficiency of the exhaust system will result in significant power gains.
The problem, if there is one, is that even today's clean diesels still can produce some particulate matter in the form of smoke or soot. At all times, the blue reverse gear in this diagram is turning in a direction opposite to all of the other blue gears.
This is why products such as Banks Power Elbow, Monster Exhaust, Monster turbine outlet pipe, and Dynaflow mufflers work so well. Therefore, it would be impossible to throw the transmission into reverse while the car is moving forward -- the dog teeth would never engage. The injection of fuel is timed for minimal emissions, efficiency, and maximum torque generation.
In fact, the particulate levels are so low that the smoke is barely detectable with the naked eye, but some people perceive any smoke as unhealthful. As with the spark timing in gasoline engines, the fuel injection timing is advanced slightly in some, but not all, diesel engines as the RPM rises. This post burn occurs at a relatively low combustion temperature, and is sometimes referred to as a "cold burn". Considerable debate continues regarding whether the current levels of diesel emissions reach a threshold that is harmful to humans. However, it should be noted that turbocharging quickens the burn time of the air and fuel as boost pressure rises. This means initiation of the fuel injection pulse must be retarded, or delayed, as boost pressure rises in a turbo diesel.
In most diesels, the fuel injection timing changes for rising RPM and rising boost cancel each other out, and the timing of the beginning of the main fuel injection pulse remains relatively fixed.
In the Banks Sidewinder, for example, fuel is injected beginning 24º before TDC on the compression stroke.



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