A bacterial infection of the digestive system,how to get rid of paint smell with lemons quote,how do i get rid of fungus on my toes quotes - Reviews

admin | What Treats Bv | 24.08.2013
An infection is an invasion and multiplying of pathogenic microbes in the body tissues in which they are not usually present (1). Ask a Doctor Online Now!A colonization is the usual presence of non-pathogenic and even potentially pathogenic microbes on the skin, in the nose, mouth, bowel, penile or vaginal mucosa, as a part of normal human flora, in the amount not harmful for the body – this is not an infection. A contamination is the presence of germs which do not multiply, for example, in a contaminated (not infected)wound. A carrier state is the non-usual presence of pathogenic microbes in the body, in the way not harmful for the carrier, but potentially dangerous for others, since the carrier is usually contagious. An overgrowth of microbes, non-pathogenic in small amount, but pathogenic in large amount, for example, an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile bacteria in the colon can cause life threatening pseudomembranous colitis.
Re-activation of an infection may occur; for example, a Varicella zoster virus, which has remained dormant in the roots of the spinal nerves after successfully healed chicken pox, may be re-activated during stress or certain disease, and can cause shingles.
Bacteremia, viremia, fungemia and parasitemia (the presence of microbes in the blood) may result in an infection of other organs, or sepsis. Systemic infection, like influenza, affects the whole body and causes systemic symptoms, like general malaise, muscle pains, fever, nausea, etc. Localized infection, like cellulitis, is limited to one or few body parts and presents with localized symptoms, like redness, swelling, pain or localized (nasal, ear, etc.) discharge.
Chronic infection, like tuberculosis or AIDS, may last from several weeks to several years. Recurrent infection is one that frequently affects a person, like folliculitis in those who share the same sport equipment, or fungal infections  in those with lowered immunity.
Invasion of multi-cellular parasites, like intestinal worms or head lice, into the body is called infestation. Viral infections are often systemic and may cause fever, headache, runny nose, sore throat, muscle and joint pains, diarrhea, skin rash, etc. Fungal (yeast) infections in a person with a healthy immune system usually affect only the skin.
In a person with a weak immune system, fungal infections, commonly caused by a yeast Candida albicans, may appear in the mouth (oral thrush), esophagus, rectum or vagina; systemic candidiasis is severe and commonly fatal infection. Parasitic infections cause different symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and organ affected. Infestation (Latin infestare = to attack, disturb) is an invasion of multi-cellular parasites, like intestinal worms (helminths) or head lice to the body.
In medical terms, the incubation period is the time from when a person is exposed to an infectious agent (pathogenic microorganism) till the onset of signs and symptoms.
Fever in localized skin infections or food poisoning may be absent, in tuberculosis or viral pneumonia it is usually low-grade, in influenza moderate, and in bacterial pneumonia or sepsis high. Pain in childhood viral infections and flu is usually general and vague, and in localized bacterial infections, like bacterial prostatitis, localized and intense.
Discharge from the nose, eyes, ears, trachea, bronchi and lungs (phlegm, sputum), nipples, bowel (mucus in the stool), urethra, vagina and wounds may appear in all types of infections.
An incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to pathogenic microbes and symptoms appearance. An autoinfection – the spread of an infection from one body part to another, usually by hands or clothes (folliculitis, impetigo).
By drinking contaminated water, one can contract stomach flu, cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, amebiasis, etc. By swimming in contaminated swimming or spa pools, or lakes, one can contract hot tub folliculitis, intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium, eye and middle ear infections. Industrial cooling or hot water systems, air condition and room-air humidifiers can be a source of Legionella.
During walking barefoot, Clostridium tetani, sandworms, or intestinal parasites, like Strongyloides stercoralis or hookworms can be contacted. Infections acquired in hospitals can be dangerous, since causing microbes are often resistant to regular antibiotics, and patients infected are often already seriously ill. Legionella may be sometimes found in the tap water in newly opened or poorly maintained hospitals. A fomite is an inanimate object or substance capable of transmitting infectious agents (microorganisms) from one object to another. Ask a Doctor Online Now!Microbes may make harm by releasing toxins, for example, in food poisoning, a parasite Entameba hystolytica can release toxins, which can destroy colonic mucosa, resulting in bleeding ulcers and diarrhea.
Invasion of microbes triggers immune response of the body and attracts inflammatory cells, like leukocytes, and substances, like cytokines, which attack the microbes.
Effective anti-microbial medications for most infections, except viral ones, are available. Ask a Doctor Online Now!Please note that any information or feedback on this website is not intended to replace a consultation with a health care professional and will not constitute a medical diagnosis.
Amir, the base of infection is an invasion of microorganism into your body what results in inflammation.
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Bacterial Skin Infections are due to the presence and growth of microorganisms that damage host tissue. It is a bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin, the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue. The skin becomes red, swollen and you can see a clear border between normal and infected skin.
A bacterial skin infection that occurs in areas where skin touches skin, like between toes, in armpits, or groin.
If you have a fungal infection that isn’t getting cured with an anti-fungal treatment, it could be erythrasma. A bacterial infection of certain sweat glands found in the armpits, groin, buttocks, scalp, and under the female breast. Bacterial fish diseases and infections are very common in fish keeping and are probably one of the hardestA  health problems to deal with effectively.
A typical bacterial infection with a large area of ulceration just behind the operculum (gill cover).
Pathogenic bacteria can spread disease throughout the fish's body if they are absorbed through the gills or gut, or gain entry via the skin.A This is known as a systemic infection. Systemic bacterial disease a€“ in which bacteria invade the fisha€™s body and damage internal organs. Exhibiting my normal caution about a€?instanta€? diagnosis let me say that a definite diagnosis of bacterial fish disease requires sampling and culture of bacteria from the lesion or organ. Red and inflamed areas on the body and fins, raised scales, skin ulcers, exophtalmos (pop-eye), dropsy or swollen abdomen, fin rot. Primary or obligate pathogens a€“ These are pathogens that are not part of the normal aquatic flora and are capable of causing disease in healthy individuals. As you might have guessed, in general most of the bacterial diseases that affect ornamental fish are caused by opportunistic bacteria.
It is because of these complications, together with tremendous reproductive potential of most bacteria, that a seemingly minor problem can rapidly snowball out of control leading to high numbers of infected fish and possibly many losses. The reason why this is important is that few, if any, treatments completely destroy all the pathogenic bacteria.
Clearly, the fish will only be able to fight back if conditions are improved and all efforts are made to keep the numbers of bacteria as low as possible. On their own baths are only likely to be effective for relatively minor bacterial infections such as fin rot or situations when just one or two fish have minor ulcerations. This involves cleaning the lesion, usually with an antiseptic solution and applying a waterproof ointment or cream such as Orabase or similar.
This usually involves a course of five injections over a ten-day period in conjunction with topical treatments.
For example, if you have Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (a common cause of skin infections) in your nose, you may infect others, even if you alone never develop an infection. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth due to invasion of otherwise non-harmful colonic bacteria into the small intestine can cause bloating and diarrhea. Example: infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which can cause infectious mononucleosis, often triggers no symptoms in small children.
Examples of bacterial infections: staphylococcal skin infections, pseudomonas folliculitis, streptococcal pharyngitis, osteomyelitis, pneumococcal pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, etc.
Patchy areas with a brownish or reddish scaly rash on the scalp (scalp ringworm), trunk, limbs or groin (jock itch), peeled skin on the hands or feet (athlete’s foot), or discolored or cracked nails are typical symptoms of a skin fungal infection. Intestinal parasites cause bloating, diarrhea, mucus in the stool and eventual weight loss.
Not every person who comes into contact with an infectious agent will become infected but once the infection is acquired, the micoorganism will take a period of time during which it multiplies and spreads within the body until the point that signs and symptoms become evident. There is no single specific symptom but a combination of symptoms and signs that speak for an infection. In everyday speech, only infections transmitted directly from person to person (like flu) are considered as contagious. Once contaminated, fomites may carry microbes for few minutes or several weeks, depending on the type of the microbe and certain circumstances, like air humidity and temperature. Such a defense reaction regularly results in an inflammation of infected tissue, which can be observed, for example, as purulent discharge in common cold or swollen joint in bacterial arthritis. For example, Streptococcus pneumoniae , causing pneumonia, can trigger fluid collection in the lungs, impeding oxygen exchange between the air and the blood and thus reducing the oxygen supply to the tissues, what may result in death. When in doubt, a doctor can take a sample of blood, urine, stool, sputum, nasal or other discharge and send it to laboratory, where microbes can be determined by serologic tests or a culture. A doctor can often make a diagnosis from symptoms and physical examination, but in doubtfull or severe cases, lab tests has to be done to determine the causing microbe.
The extent of infection is generally determined by the number of organisms and the toxins they release. However, with a basic understanding of how bacteria cause disease and how to recognize bacterial infections it is possible to deal successfully with the majority of problems.


Other bacterial infections cause localised surface disease such as fin rot and ulcers, however, if these are not resolved they can lead to a systemic infection. The problem is that many clinical signs of bacterial disease could also be caused by other problems such as viruses,A  poor water quality or parasites and we need to be aware of the dangers of jumping to conclusions.
These are normally free-living, either in the water on the fish, but are capable of adopting a pathogenic role under certain circumstances. My own experience is that small cuts or abrasions on healthy fish rarely become infected a€“ in much the same way that we do not get infections every time we cut ourselves. This is typically the situation when the disease starts to spread and several fish are affected. It mostly comes down to the experience of the person on the spot in deciding how severe the situation is and what course of action is required. What they do is knock the bacteria back for a short time, giving the fisha€™s own defences chance to start fighting back and the wound-healing process chance to start.
So really any anti-bacterial treatments should be seen as supportive treatment for the fisha€™s own immune system and what we are trying to do is to tilt the balance of health back in the fisha€™s favour. Topical treatments, if used properly can be very effective in dealing with minor to moderate cases a€“ providing that the infection is not systemic. It is important to use the appropriate antibiotic (established by laboratory antibiotic sensitivity tests).
The key pages are essential reading for all beginners and intermediates who are serious about disease prevention. Contamination also refers to presence of pathogenic microbes on medical equipment, in the water, food etc. Examples of viral infections: influenza, childhood diseases like chicken pox, rubella, rubeolla and infectious mononucleosis, AIDS, viral hepatitis, viral hemorrhagic fever, etc. Effective over the counter or prescribed anti-fungal ointments and oral medications are available. The key to successful treatment of bacterial disease is early, accurate diagnosis and treatment. Many of these are saprophytes, normally living on dead organic matter such as plant and animal remains or faeces.
This is a very delicate relationship, but generally when an opportunistic bacterium tries to establish an infection the fish host is able to resist by a variety of defence mechanisms. I mention this because there is often a tendency to diagnose obvious bacterial infections as a€?cutsa€? or scrapes and hope they get better. This is similar to the situation when we catch colds and other diseases if we are run-down. Under these conditions, especially if fish are still stressed, it seems that some opportunistic bacteria can become primary pathogens through weight of numbers.
However, before any treatment is started it is important to try and establish the underlying cause a€“ particularly if several fish are affected, as this would suggest some form of environmental stress.
I would normally expect to see signs of improvement a€“ that is a reduction in inflammation or the first visible signs of skin growth a€“ within seven days of the start of treatment. While the use of medicated food has obvious advantages, the disadvantages are the slight delay while the food is ordered and processed, very sick fish may not be eating and there is widespread resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics. The caudal (tail) fin has advanced fin rotA  The fish survived with a combination of antibiotic injections andA  topical treatments. Fish can become stressed for a variety of reasons, the most common reasons being poor water quality, parasites, overcrowding, thermal stress.
It is possible to prepare your own medicated food by top-dressing ordinary food with an appropriate antibiotic.
As it usually involves sedating the fish for every treatment it can be very time-consuming, particularly if large numbers of fish are involved.
Except of acyclovir and related antiviral drugs, at present, there is not a lot of effective medicines for viral diseases available. This is particularly relevant to koi ponds, which, for a variety of reasons, are often susceptible to outbreaks of bacterial disease. In organically-rich water there may be millions of these opportunistic bacteria in every litre of water, but under normal circumstances, they do not pose a threat to healthy fish. The positive side is that there is a very high success rate (typically > 90%)a€“ even in the most severe cases.
Surgical removal of parasitic cysts, like in Echinococcus, from the liver, bones, brain or lungs is sometimes required. This situation can be directly compared to the normal microbial flora of the human mouth and skin which are teeming with potentially harmful a€?germsa€™ but rarely cause any problems unless the bugs can get past our body defences.



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