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admin | Get Rid Of Bacterial Infection | 16.10.2015
Antibiotic resistance marker gene used in genetically modified crops found in bacteria isolated from all China’s rivers. A new study conducted in China finds 6 out of 6 major rivers tested positive for ampicillin antibiotic resistant bacteria [1].
The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens, commonly dubbed “superbugs”, are increasingly common due to the overuse of antibiotics in medical and veterinary practices, and the ever-increasing application of genetic engineering to industrial processes including agriculture, biofuel fermentation and environmental remediation on top of laboratory research.
The transfer of genes directly into the genetic material of cells, bypassing normal reproduction, is referred to as horizontal gene transfer, to distinguish it from the usual vertical gene transfer that occurs in natural reproduction within the same species or in some cases between closely related species. The new study led by Jun Wen Li at Sechuan University reveals widespread contamination of 6 out of 6 major urban rivers (the Sungari, Haihe, Yellow, Yangtze, Huangpu and Pearl Rivers) with bacteria carrying a synthetic version of the bla gene [1]. The researchers took samples from the rivers, extracted plasmids from bacteria present, and used PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and quantitative real-time PCR to assess the presence of bla DNA.  The assay was specific for the bla gene that comprises most recombinant plasmid strains, such as pBR322 and pUC19, both widely used for research and genetic modification. Metagenomic technology, which involves transforming environmental genomic DNA into a laboratory recipient strain, is a unique way to study complex genetic samples from ecosystems without purifying the strains.
The rivers sampled are in highly industrial areas, and the Pearl River in particular was previously reported the most polluted with antibiotics, though the study did not attempt to determine the source of the pollution. But there is another likely major source of GM antibiotic resistance, and that is from GM crops planted in the fields.
The majority of GM crops already released commercially or field trialled in the open environment carry antibiotic resistant genes derived from the synthetic plasmids that were used for genetic modification. This study is the first to address the potential pollution of our environment with antibiotic resistant genes from genetic engineering experiments. If you find this report useful, please support ISIS by subscribing to our magazine Science in Society, and encourage your friends to do so. Hundreds, if not thousands of years of medical research is being undone as I write this with no regards for the consequences of changing bacterial genes, our genes and the genes of plants that were created by the Almighty God for our benefit.
They knew darn well that the wheat would not break down well either and this is the cause of the epidemic of Diverticulosis and other Intestinal blights affecting the populace. Horizontal gene transfer was speculated about and later proven by the Newcastle University research conducted in 2002.
This new discovery of the widespread contamination of bacteria with a new resistant trait puts millions of peoples lives at risk. Unfortunately the pharmaceutical companies will make hay experimenting with antibiotics and charging a fortune for them too. Why don’t they just stop meddling with stuff they don’t have a right to meddle with? According to new research published this week in the journal Nature, an acyldepsipeptide antibiotic called ADEP in combination with the bactericidal antibiotic drug rifampicin eliminates the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that is resistant to many antibiotics.
Senior author of the study, Prof Kim Lewis of Northeastern University, suspected that a different adaptive function of bacteria might be the true culprit in making these infections so devastating.
The study represents the culmination of more than a decade of research on a specialized class of cells produced by all pathogens called persisters. Prof Lewis and his colleagues posited that if they could kill these expert survivors, perhaps they could cure chronic infections. They have found that persisters achieve their singular goal by entering a dormant state that makes them impervious to traditional antibiotics. A recent study found that a drug called ADEP effectively wakes up the dormant cells and then initiates a self-destruct mechanism. Coupling ADEP with rifampicin, allowed the team to completely destroy the bacterial population without leaving any survivors. The new approach completely eradicated MRSA cells in a variety of laboratory experiments and, importantly, in a mouse model of chronic MRSA infection.
While ADEP targets MRSA, the team believes similar compounds will be useful for treating other infections as well as any other disease model that can only be overcome by eliminating a population of rogue cells, including cancerous tumors.
Efforts to address antimicrobial resistance have seen significant progress, but not enough. That list forms the basis for FDA’s categorization of classes of antimicrobials as important, highly important and critically important. One additional tool in addressing threats posed by antimicrobials is the establishment of monitoring programs for microbial-resistant microbes that integrate human, food and animal sampling schemes. Monitoring programs are invaluable, especially with the emergence of new antimicrobial-resistant pathogens.
Food scientists should also consider the effects of nonantimicrobial factors like metals and disinfectants. Because co-resistance and co-selection present such a complex and uncertain set of issues, little consensus has been reached on mitigation strategies for the occurrence of microbial resistance. Though scant risk management information is available for imported foods, Codex Alimentarius Commission (CODEX) established an ad hoc Intergovernmental Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance in 2007.


Incidence of resistance to various antimicrobials differs greatly by country and region due to substantive differences in antimicrobial administration practices. Review basic principles of membrane filtration & separations, processing including system design, membrane & equipment, selection costs, economics, and practical applications. The Food Microbiology Short course provides insight into the most recent developments of food-borne pathogens, toxins, and contaminants that may occur in a food plant environment.
This text provides critical tools and data needed to augment routine food analysis and enhance food safety by aiding in the detection of counterfeit, and potentially deleterious, foods. In the May issue of Food Engineering, learn how to improve processes and better utilize tools in your company to reduce waste. Discovering a bacteria-killing molecule that is safe and effective for patients can easily take a decade. Single antibiotics are becoming less and less effective against bacteria, so doctors frequently must use combinations of antibiotics. The professors plan to use existing image analysis technology to automatically record the effects of various antibiotic cocktails on bacteria. In a new research, it has been confirmed that antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been found. NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Wastewater from cities and hospitals releases some antibiotic-resistant bacteria into the environment, according to a new French study.
And although wastewater treatment plants cut the number of bacteria overall, the treatment process boosts the proportion of bacteria resistant to some antibiotics, the research found. For the study, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, Bertrand and his team collected and analyzed samples from 11 sites in the Besancon wastewater network.
After wastewater had been treated to make it suitable for release back into the environment, the number of antibiotic-resistant E.
Although some towns, such as Wichita Falls, Texas, have turned to recycling wastewater due to an ongoing drought, experts said the new results likely don't mean much for people drinking water from American faucets. Each wastewater treatment plant must meet specific standards, including for the number of bacteria and the amount of oxygen the water contains.
Still, the importance of wastewater as a source of antibiotic resistance remains to be seen. Infections in humans caused by resistant bacteria are more difficult and complicated to treat than infections caused by non-resistant bacteria. Sequencing of the gene responsible, the bla gene, shows it is a synthetic version derived from a lab and different from the wild type. Previously, genetic engineering experiments were confined to the laboratory, but with industrial and agricultural applications becoming more common over the last decade, the chances of uncontrolled discharge as well as deliberate release into the environment has widened.
Plasmids often carry antibiotic resistance marker genes to allow selection with antibiotics for the modified DNA or cells carrying the gene of interest (see [2] (FAQ on Genetic Engineering, ISIS Tutorial). The bla gene confers resistance to the most common class of antibiotics called ?-lactams, which includes besides ampicillin (a beta-lactam), the penicillin derivatives (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems. As this study concerned plasmids within environmental microbes, the procedure was modified so that the plasmids were extracted and electro-transformed directly into the laboratory strains. What is clear is that once recombinant (GM) plasmids or plasmid sequences are discharged into the environment, the DNA can spread to wild bacteria through the process of horizontal gene transfer.
China both grows and imports GM foods and trees, many of which harbour the bla gene including: Syngenta’s Bt11 Yieldgard Maize and Bt176 NaturGard Knockout Maize, Monsanto’s Mon21 Roundup Ready Maize and Bayer’s ZM003 Liberty Link Maize.
It provides the first comprehensive and direct evidence of horizontal gene transfer from genetic engineering and genetic modification.
Recently I received a bland reply thanking me for pointing out the frontline special about my crucked montana represenitives, especially Baucus who is in the money club for the federal reserve.
However it could be considered a deliberate act to reduce population levels or a totally reckless act on the part of the mad scientists who simply did not consider the possibility of unforeseen hazards.
It is responsible for several chronic infections such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis, or infections of implanted medical devices.
Since these drugs work by targeting active cellular functions, they are useless against dormant persisters, which aren’t active at all. FDA has since issued restrictions on extra-label uses of critically important antimicrobials like fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins in food animal species. A number of programs are in various stages of development, but the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) and the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP) are the most mature at this point. One such pathogen is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which has aggravated public health officials with its increasing incidence of infection. Aureus to methicillin and other antimicrobials can complicate treatment of drug-resistant bacteria. One strategy involves prohibiting the use of certain antimicrobials in agricultural animals, such as when broiler producers in Quebec ceased the in ovo administration of ceftiofur.
The task force’s mandate, to provide guidelines for a structured risk analysis framework to address human health risks associated with antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in food and animal feed, could arm national and regional food safety authorities with an improved ability to assess risks posed by resistance in imported foods.


Accordingly, while US operations should continue to be prudent with antimicrobials and strive for alternatives, they must also recognize the international interdependence of food production.
Nikolaou and Tam’s work can more efficiently analyze data to find drug combinations that are both effective against bacteria and safe for patients. Physicians, however, are presented with the challenge of considering overwhelming permutations of antibiotic combinations and dosing regimens for patients.
A laser detector modified for their purposes can feed the data to computer software the team is in the process of developing that runs the patented mathematical model. The researchers claim that during a new study they have discovered new strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The NDM-1 gene can make the bacteria completely resistant to most of the antibiotics used for the treatment.
This suggests to the researchers that synthetic plasmid vectors from genetic engineering applications may be the source of the ampicillin resistance, which is affecting the human population. One prime example is the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, many of which carry antibiotic resistant genes. The presence of these antibiotic resistance genes and plasmids in the environment leaves open the possibility of the genes being taken up and transferred into the genetic material of unrelated species of bacteria, some of which may well be serious pathogens.
Antibiotics selection was used to identify clones expressing resistant plasmids, which were then isolated and analyzed. Thus, researchers suggest that horizontal gene transfer of genetically engineered plasmids to microbes in the soil or from lactic acid bacteria to human and animal gut microbes is a likely consequence of such pollution, and may well underlie the rise in antibiotic resistance in animals as well as humans.
It can be predicted that similar findings will emerge elsewhere, if the appropriate molecular probes are used with the most sensitive PCR assays, which hitherto has not been done.
A Survey of Drug Resistance bla Genes Originating from Synthetic Plasmid Vectors in Six Chinese Rivers.
The Hidden Hazards of Genetic Engineering, TWN Biotechnology Series, Third World Network, 2001. He reciprocated by pushing aspertame legislation through and he even has a disease from aspertame named Rumsfeld Disease. They call it unintended consequences in some high brow circles and simply dismiss them as nothing to worry about.
For this reason, persisters are critical to the success of chronic infections and biofilms, because as soon as a treatment runs its course, their reawakening allows for the infection to establish itself anew. According to researchers, the intervention caused a significant reduction in ceftiofur-resistant S.
Restrictions on the use of critically important antimicrobials could be coming within five years, but in the meantime, trade pressure on jurisdictions with less control over antimicrobial administration could spur quicker development of meaningful policies. By the end of 2015, they anticipate developing the first working prototype of a methodology and associated software that improves the process of determining effective antibiotic cocktails for patients in clinical settings, as well as expedites the development and approval of new antibiotics.
Nikolaou and Tam are working to optimize the process by reducing the amount of time and guesswork needed to assess which drug combinations are the most effective at killing bacteria. This is the first time that these bacteria have been found in the drinking water of New Delhi.
They found that 4% of the water supplies and 30% of the water pools had the resistant bacteria. Previously unaffected bacteria can pick up resistance genes from other bacteria that carry them, and resistance can also spread through food crops irrigated with affected water.
The bla gene confers resistance to a wide range of therapeutic antibiotics and the widespread environment pollution with bla resistant bacteria is a major public health concern.
Bt ‘Shanyou’63, was already the subject of controversy since 2005; the unapproved variety (both in China and other countries) illegally sold and planted in Hubei province, contaminated Chinese rice products exported to Europe and Japan, and has been detected in China and various countries since then. Gene Technology and Gene Ecology of Infectious Diseases.Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease1998, 10, 33. He is congressman at large for the big agricultureal districts and can stop the GMO contamination If he wasn’t elected by Monsatin to begin with. Heidelberg and Escherichia coli on poultry products and in the percentage of ceftiofur-resistant S. As recently as July 2009, the European Union called on China to tighten export controls on rice products because shipments might contain traces of the Bt 63 strain, which is not authorized in the European Union [8].
In addition, some transformants are resistant to other antibiotics such as gentamicin and sulfanilamides.
Perhaps it is not a coincidence that the Yangtze River, one of those tested in the study, runs through the Hubei province.
With this technique focusing on plasmids, it is worth noting that plasmid sequences integrated into the bacterial genome were not investigated, and if measured, would likely increase the rate of antibiotic resistant gene contamination further.



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