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admin | What Cures Bv | 27.02.2014
The process of natural selection follows a sequence, as listed below.Some of the variations within a population may give some individuals an advantage over others in the population. Vernita Gordon (left) is shown with co-authors Nalin Ratnayeke and Karishma Kaushik (bottom right). Researchers studying a dangerous type of bacteria have discovered that the bacteria have the ability to block both their own growth and the growth of their antibiotic-resistant mutants. The bacteria in this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, frequently cause pneumonia in hospital patients and life-threatening infections for cystic fibrosis patients and people with HIV and chronic wounds. The researchers found that these bacteria produce a byproduct that can change the pH balance in ways that help suppress the antibiotic-resistant bacteria among them.
Recreational users of coastal waters such as swimmers and surfers are at risk of exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria, according to new research published this week.
Given the alarming rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and the long lead-in time for developing novel drugs, the discovery of new ways to use the antibiotics already available and approved for use in humans is paramount. Sharks, skates, and rays can detect very weak electric fields produced by prey and other animals using an array of unusual organs known as the ampullae of Lorenzini.
Unique sections of coral DNA can indicate a higher tolerance to environmental stress, researchers have revealed for the first time.
Researchers at The Australian National University (ANU) have found possums in New Zealand prefer to eat leaves high in available protein, giving authorities new evidence to help them limit possum damage to New Zealand's forests.
Ninety per cent of Norway's two million pairs of cliff-nesting seabirds are located in nesting colonies above the Arctic Circle. Today, I attended the seminar that talked about drug-resistant bacteria and how, if we don’t do something about it soon, we have a big problem on our hands. I started my research by looking for articles that didn’t agree with the theory that antibiotic-resistant bacteria is passed on to humans by animals. I think that more experiments need to be conducted before scientists decide that antibiotics should no longer be given to animals. At this point in time, there is not enough evidence to get rid of the practice of feeding animals antibiotics.
For years the critical question of antibiotic resistant bacteria and it’s relationship to the health and welfare of the general population has been debated and discussed at a variety of levels. In recent years a mounting body of evidence would suggest that this line of reasoning is no longer valid. Bacteria are remarkable resourceful organisms able to adapt to a wide variety of adverse conditions that man and nature have developed to greatly modify or halt their activities. To oversee this ambitious project the President created an interagency task force with the Secretaries of Agriculture, Defense and Health and Human Services providing the necessary leadership and direction.
Another issue that must be addressed is the need to bring livestock producers and veterinarians up to speed on that which now constitutes the acceptable use of antibiotics.
In the face of increased antibiotic resistance there is an urgent need for new antibiotics, vaccines and other therapeutic measure to combat disease. At this time there is an increasing movement towards the “One Medicine’ concept where all health care providers interact and move towards a common goal.
Today there are few, if any, disease outbreaks in which one country can stand alone in resolving problems that are of universal importance. Everyone involved in animal agriculture at any level should be aware of this emerging problem and the threat it poses to both humans and animals. The discovery might lead to better ways to fight a class of bacteria that have contributed to a growing public health crisis by becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotic treatments. It is part of a class of pathogenic bacteria that are becoming increasingly antibiotic-resistant and that includes E. The finding supports the notion of adding a base (a substance with higher pH) to certain inhaled treatments that can be given along with antibiotics, for example in cystic fibrosis patients. They are created in cells through a process called gene expression, which uses instructions from stretches of DNA called genes to build proteins. A problem so big that drug-resistant bacteria could soon become the number cause of deaths by the year 2050. I found that scientists liked to focus on the potentially negative effects antibiotics have when administered to the animals that we eat. Maybe later on down the line, there will be a practice initiated in the meat industry that keeps animals big and able to feed many without there being a question of health safety. Now the question has reached the highest level of government prompting President Barak Obama to issue an Executive Order to thoroughly study the problem. Of the total volume of antibiotics produced annually in the United States the great percentage of that production has been added to animal feed  to promote more efficient feed utilization and provide a low level of antibiotic to control possible intestinal infections.

These changes have not always occurred quickly but given enough time the bad bugs will usually find a way to survive. Assuming that the funding is approved those involved in animal agriculture, especially in the beef industry, are going to be required to make some significant changes in their management practices. Some farmers, veterinarians and feed dealers may not stay abreast of what is going on in the cutting edge of the industry. Within five years the FDA, the USDA and the industry will evaluate and report on the total sales of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the types and prevalence of antibiotic-resistance among selected foodborne  pathogens and commensals isolated from retail meat and farm animals. For reasons that remain somewhat unclear the development of new antibiotics has slowed to a snail’s pace in recent years.
All animals, two legged and four legged, often interact at some level and sharing of information becomes increasingly important as the planet continues to shrink and especially in the face of a disease that many species share in common.
Effectively combating antibiotic resistance throughout the globe will require government, industry, academia and the human and animal health sectors working together. Funding to support all of the many levels of research will be necessary to find all of the answers lies in the hands of our representatives in Washington. Dunbar DERBY, VT — A steady stream of visitors braved the back roads for Vermont’s maple open house weekend March 28 and 29.
This would help tamp down antibiotic resistance, while allowing doctors to lower the dosage of antibiotics that are toxic at high doses and that produce nasty side effects such as deafness and kidney damage. With this knowledge about drug-resistant bacteria, it is understandable why patients and doctors are trying to shy away from the misuse of antibiotics in humans. This order would appear to signal a significant shift in the thinking of those who have long been involved in studying the problem. This period of adaptation has led in many instances to the development of the so-called super bugs which now plague physicians and hospitals throughout the world.
Under FDA Guidelines the use of medically important antibiotics presently used for growth promotion in food producing animals will be eliminated and there will be veterinary oversight of such antibiotics when used for treatment, control or prevention of disease. To address this potential concern the FDA will be developing a plan to insure that all potentially involved parties are informed of the mandated changes.
Veterinary colleges may be required to revise some of their course materials in order that future graduates are fully in tune with new treatment protocols.
The latter group are those organisms which exist in a given environment without doing harm.
The large pharmaceutical companies have scaled back on their research and development creating a huge void in the creation of new antibiotics. Response times, isolation protocols and treatment programs need to be in place to insure maximum effectiveness in times of extreme urgency. The global community has limited tools to address this global threat due to the critical lack of data on the magnitude, epidemiology and economic impact of antibiotic resistance, as well as the lack of diagnostic and therapeutic options. While there are many studies such as this one that talk about the potential dangers of giving antibiotics to animals, there are also some studies that are unsure. The control group will eat meat known to have been treated with antibiotics and the other group will not eat meats known to have been treated with antibiotics. The decreased use of antibiotics in animals is not a bigger problem than drug resistant bacteria. For decades the addition of antibiotics to animal feed has been an accepted practice defended by animal scientists as having little or no impact on the possibility of antibiotic resistance.
It was this serious public health problem that led to an Executive Order issued in September 2014 entitled, “Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria”. This change in a long standing practice will require that all of those involved at any level be informed of the changes. Both the FDA and the USDA will be developing new guidelines to insure that all involved are fully aware of their new responsibilities.
A baseline for the use of antibiotics will be developed using the sales of antibiotics from 2009 through 2013.
It has fallen on smaller companies to take up the slack and their research activities are often limited by inadequate funding and facilities. Data collection in all aspects of a disease outbreak needs to be complete, accurate and swift making it critical that all members of the health care network are working together. It is important that in the face of an outbreak in one part of the world that it be rapidly detected, diagnosed and contained at the point of emergence. An article that I found a few days before the seminar talked about how pediatricians are asking for the decreased use of antibiotics in animals. This act created a five year, $1.2 billion overview that would bring together experts in both human and veterinary medicine to develop a plan that would resolve the problem.

Many will find themselves somewhat confused as they work their way through regulations that are crystal clear to the bureaucrats who wrote them but murky to those in the trenches. The present plan calls for a study to look at production practices at selected  points in the food chain to determine whether certain antibiotic use practices in food production facilitate the development of resistance. The Federal Government has stepped into the picture offering grants and support to assist these smaller innovators.
In this era of instant communication a major obstacle has been overcome.There are in place a number of systems that monitor bacterial resistance and they can provide almost instant information about a suspect case anywhere in the world. This bacterium would survive the treatment and breed, passing on the antibiotic - resistant gene to its offspring. This is because antibiotics in the animals that humans eat could lead to an even larger immunity to antibiotics.
After a certain amount of time, the data will be compared and we will be able to see if the consumption of antibiotic-fed animals increases the likelihood of the participants not responding to the antibiotics they were initially given. As of right now, drug-resistant bacteria is the most dangerous thing on the horizon for humans.
At this time the National Animal Health Monitoring System collects voluntary on-farm use information but there is need for increased on-farm antibiotic use data so the USDA will be developing a plan to increase monitoring. The great likelihood is that one or more of these innovators will come up with a new class of yet to be defined antimicrobials that will supplement or replace antibiotics as we now know them. But even they had to admit that the amount of antibiotic-resistant bacteria passed on to humans from the animals we eat is unknown.
I understand that this experimental design is not very thought through and could probably be done better, but the main idea is understood. And we need to come up with ways to decrease the chances of this dangerous thing happening.
At this time there are so-called biopharmaceutical incubators that allow academics and independent start-ups the opportunity to brainstorm among themselves to hopefully come up with ideas that may change current treatment and preventative programs. But no one seems to be worried about the consequences we potentially face if we were to alter the way food is currently mass produced to the population. And how are we supposed to know if giving animals antibiotics negatively effects humans if we do not know the amount of antibiotic-resistant bacteria being passed from animals to humans?
We need more experiments to test the theory that antibiotic-fed animals pass on antibiotic-resistant bacteria to the people eating them. I just don’t know if the ways of decreasing this danger lies in the halt of giving animals antibiotics. There are a lot of people on this earth to feed and, with the help of antibiotics, animals are able to grow much larger and, therefore, feed even more people. Or, scientists could do some digging with meat industry workers and find out if there is any antibiotic-resistant bacteria actually being passed on at all.
My question is, could the decreased use of antibiotics in animals cause an even bigger problem for humans than drug-resistant bacteria? Whatever experiment is conducted, there needs to be a wide range of different demographics so that we can see if the consumption of antibiotic-fed animals effects different kinds of people differently. This article prefaces the entire debate by saying that the decrease of antibiotic intake in animals could greatly effect food distribution.
It wouldn’t do anybody any good if people were eating sick animals and then dying or getting sick from it.
The decreased use of antibiotics in animals could decrease their growth rate and that means less food to go around. Also, meat industry workers are not very public with their antibiotic distribution techniques in their animals.
That means that scientists have no legitimate numerical data to support their theory that antibiotic use in animals is creating ARB’s in humans. This article talks about how the resistance problem everyone is so worried about is mostly passed from human to human and the bacteria naturally found in animals is removed when adequately cooked. There is little to no concrete evidence that supports the argument that the passing of ARB’s is from animal to human.

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