Bacteria cause urti recurrent,how to get rid of mold and mildew smell in clothes removing,how to cure bacterial infection throat symptoms - You Shoud Know

admin | What Antibiotics Treat Bv | 23.05.2014
It is generally accepted that regular participation in physical activity is an important factor in the maintenance of health and well being. Figure 1: The relationship between the amount of training and the risk of developing throat infections (URTI).
The immune system consists of many specialist cells that protect the body against attack from bacteria, viruses and fungi that cause illness and infection. As mentioned above, changes in glutamine levels following prolonged exercise were initially thought to be an important factor in the increased rates of URTI in athletes. It is estimated that around 10% of the UK population take some form of vitamin and mineral supplement on a daily basis. While it appears that glutamine and vitamin supplementation may provide little benefit, carbohydrate supplementation does seem to be valuable in the prevention of infection. Although moderate levels of exercise are important for the maintenance of general well being and encourage a healthy immune system, strenuous bouts of exercise or periods of heavy training with insufficient recovery can reduce the body’s ability to fight infection. You may also like -Training and Competition in Warm ConditionsExercise Physiology and its originsBasic Skeletal Muscle Physiology What body type are you?
Upper respiratory tract infections, (URTI or URI), are the illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx. Onset of the symptoms usually begins after 1-3 days after exposure to a microbial pathogen, most commonly a virus.
Influenza (the flu) is a more systemic illness which can also involve the upper respiratory tract (refer to another article). Treatment is generally symptomatic.  This includes rest, plenty of fluids, anti-histamines and anti-pyretics. URTI's may complicate or exacerbate other lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis or asthma.  In such situations, the underlying lung disease may need to be treated more aggressively.
Pain and pressure of the ear caused by a middle ear infection (Otitis media) and the reddening of the eye caused by Viral Conjunctivitis are often associated with upper respiratory infections.


Vitamin C in high doses was thought to help in the treatment of URTI's.  However, medical evidence is lacking. Echinacia is a herbal remedy commonly used in the Western World.  It may help symptomatically, but is not commonly used in medical practise. DD of URTI's include other causes of sneezing, and runny nose such as allergic rhinitis, an allergic disease of the nose, and influenzae, a viral infection caused by a specific virus. Other causes of fever, such as Dengue fever, acute bronchitis and pneumonia may be mistaken for an URTI as the symptoms are similar. URTI is an acronym for upper respiratory tract infection, an infection involving structures and organs between the lips and nostrils and the lower end of the trachea. Unless there is severe pain or a high fever, it is reasonable to leave most attacks of URTI for a couple of days before seeing a doctor, but if the symptoms persist, appropriate help should be sought so that the victim can avoid discomfort and return to work or school as rapidly as possible.
While moderate levels of exercise may reduce an individual’s risk of developing an URTI, the risk is greatly increased following periods of strenuous training (adapted from Neiman, 1994).
Although it appears that a combination of insufficient recovery between training sessions, coupled with a persistent elevation of stress hormones (in particular cortisol), causes a fall in the circulating levels of cells important in fighting infection (leukocytes). While an early field-based study found infection rates were reduced during the week following a marathon when the participants took a drink containing glutamine, these positive findings have not been reproduced in well-controlled laboratory studies. Exercise physiologists widely advocate a diet rich in carbohydrates for individuals taking part in regular training and competition, due to the strong link between the depletion of the body’s limited stores of carbohydrate and the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise. A well-balanced carbohydrate rich diet, coupled with adequate recovery between training sessions, will help eliminate the reduction in the function of the immune system, and lessen the increased risk of infection associated with heavy training loads.
The incidence of acute URTIs in the United States is approximately one billion each year resulting in the most common cause of sick leave from work. Fortunately, most patients are able to destroy the infecting agent within a few days, or even hours, by using the body’s natural defence mechanisms. As a result, the body is less effective at tackling bacteria and viruses, exposing the body to the risk of infection.


Currently, there is no good evidence in the scientific literature to suggest that taking vitamin and mineral supplements is effective in reducing the risk of illness and infection in athletes, and large doses of some vitamins and minerals may actually be detrimental to health.
A reduction in carbohydrate availability during exercise causes an increase in the release of stress hormones, which negatively influence the production of many immune cells. Tonsillitis, epiglottitis, glandular fever, sinusitis and the common cold can all be considered as different types of URTI.
The majority of these infections are so mild that they are barely noticed, but when the defence system is overwhelmed by the disease, a doctor’s assistance is necessary.
Moreover, a serious athlete will undertake repeated bouts of training throughout this period, which serves to further stress the immune system when already in a weakened state.
For a number of years it was thought that a reduction in the circulating levels of the amino acid, glutamine, was an important factor in this response. Eating a well-balanced diet, sufficient to meet the increased energy needs of training, will typically provide ample levels of the vitamins and minerals required.
Therefore consuming a high carbohydrate diet, as well using carbohydrate-containing sports drinks before, during and after training will help alleviate this increase in stress hormone production and consequently reduce the negative effect on the immune system. Subramaniam said the recently launched national antibiotic guideline and the reintroduction of the anti-microbial stewardship programme protocol was a step forward to streamline anti-microbial use and promote good prescribing practice.He said all stakeholders, including healthcare administrators, practitioners and pharmacists. As glutamine is a fuel source for cells involved in fighting infection, and this reduction may in turn affect their function.
But it now seems that the fall in glutamine levels seen following strenuous exercise is not great enough to alter the function of the immune cells.



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