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admin | Natural Treatment Bacterial Vag | 09.11.2014
There was little need for any sewage treatment facility before Virginians clustered into densely-populated cities, starting in the 1700's. Soldiers during the Revolutionary War and the Civil War could create concentrations of waste. When armies were on the march, regiments often avoided using the exact same campsite as units who had marched that route in front of them just a day earlier. Prior to the automobile, the most obvious waste problem in urban areas was horse manure on city streets.
The rivers diluted the human waste transported by sewer pipes and animal manure that washed down streams. Wastewater from industrial facilities may be treated onsite at those facilities and then discharged under a Virginia Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit, or pre-treated onsite and then transported by the local sewer system to a municipal wastewater tratment plant. In a rare incident, Fairfax County sued the Krispy Kreme bakery in Lorton because that facility was discharging too much "doughnut grease and slime" from cooking 83 million doughnuts a year. In contrast, the City of Hopewell chose to subsidize treatment of nitrogen-rich waste produced by Honeywell and other industrial plants. To ensure smooth flow, fast food restaurants such as McDonalds are not allowed to empty their fryers directly down the drain. Typically, the greatest need for sewer pipe maintenance is to remove blockages caused by tree roots. Sewer pipes built in the 1950's and 1960's, as Virginia suburbs grew during the baby boom, were designed to last 50 years. A similar problem to infiltration is infill, when stormwater is introduced into the supposedly-separate sanitary sewer system. Infill and Infiltration (I&I) are problems because, once all storage ponds and tanks are filled, sewage treatment plants receiving too much flow through the intake pipes will be forced to dump partially-processed or untreated sewage directly into streams.
In Richmond's West End neighborhoods, separate sewer lines were installed in many small watersheds and slanted downhill at a gentle slope until reaching the James River. At the entrance to a wastewater treatment plant, a grate will intercept any cigarette filters, popsicle sticks, coins, and other solid objects that were flushed down toilets and traveled through the pipes. Bacteria eat the organic materials in the wastewater during the secondary treatment, reducing the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).
Bacteria also strip the nitrogen out of the water during secondary treatment, in a two-stage process, both anaerobic (without oxygen) and aerobic (oxygen-loving) bacteria convert the nitrogen in the wastewater into nitrites (NO2), nitrates (NO3), and ultimately nitrogen gas (N2) molecules.
Through a carefully managed flow of water, in tanks with baffles and air jets ("biological reactors"), ammonia (NH3) and ammonium molecules (NH4) in wastewater are nitrified (converted to NO3) by aerobic bacteria. Biological reactors are designed to use gravity as much as possible to move the wastewater between aerobic, anoxic (no oxygen), and anaerobic zones.
The nitrogen gas escapes into the air, and the living bacteria form a layer of activated sludge on the bottom of the tank.


At the end of secondary treatment, there may be a third step - tertiary treatment, commonly required in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Tertiary treatment can create an additional layer of sludge, to be handled along with the solids extracted from wastewater during primary and secondary treatment. The wastewater generated at Dulles International Airport is carried by the Potomac Interceptor pipe downstream to Blue Plains, where treated effluent is released into the river downstream of any water intake.
The wastewater of Waynesboro and Staunton will flow to the main stem of the Shenandoah River, from which Winchester extracts water for its use. The Broad Run Water Reclamation Facility in Loudoun County must comply with the Dulles Watershed policy, because the discharged waste will enter the Potomac River just upstream of drinking water intake pipes for Fairfax and the District of Columbia.
The purpose of disinfection in the treatment of wastewater is to substantially reduce the number of microrganisms in the water to be discharged back into the environment. Chlorination remains the most common form of wastewater disinfection in North America due to its low cost and long-term history of effectiveness.
Sludge removal is a simple and clean job, that can be done within 15 minutes, by simple operating the valves and use of the installed discharge pump. Hotel ubicate in kuna yala in area porvenir islands have 6 room private ,included three meal ,tours in the beach and transportation. Municipal waste water, including sewage, is treated in a multistep process before the treated water is released into the environment. Biosolids may also contain traces of synthetic organic compounds and metal compounds, including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and selenium.
The average household's sewage leads to the production of between 0.5 and 1 kilogram of biosolids (dry weight) per week. Primary waste water treatment is the physical or chemically enhanced settling of suspended particles. Primary treatment removes only one-third of the BOD and virtually none of the dissolved minerals. The clarified waste water is combined with aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Following treatment in the biotowers, the effluent flows into post-secondary sedimentation tanks where it is allowed to settle once again.
Tertiary treatment includes a range of processes that improve the water quality of the effluent before it is released into a lake, river, or into the ground.
But one major disadvantage is that chlorination of residual organic material can generate chlorinated-organic compounds that may be carcinogenic or harmful to the environment. Because no chemicals are used, the treated water’s taste is more natural and pure as compared to other methods. The disinfection pump (8a) gives out liquid disinfectant in precisely measured doses so as to eliminate any remaining bacteria and viruses, resulting in high-quality treatment coefficients and effluent suitable to discharge overboard but, UV disinfection reactor (8b) can be installed as an alternative to this disinfection pump.


Biosolids are predominantly water and organic material which come from the micro-organisms used in sewage treatment. They contain the nutrient-rich organic materials derived from sewage solids (sewage sludge). Many compounds with intense odors, such as sulfides and thiols, can be oxidized in air to compounds that don't have a bad smell. These materials precipitate as a flocculant material that traps the suspended particles in the waste water. These microorganisms break down the dissolved organics or incorporate them into new microbial cells (biomass) which then settle out of suspension, together with undigested material, as "sludge." The system must be well aerated to promote the growth of the aerobic organisms. The surface of the tank is slowly swept by a skimmer to remove surface growth on residual organics. It includes physical, chemical and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. UV radiation causes damage to the genetic structure of bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, making them incapable of reproduction. Grey water can enter the unit either through the grey water inlet (13) for disinfection only, or through the inlet (1) for biological treatment The discharge pump (9) and level switches (10) automatically maintain substance levels in the disinfection tank (7).
Its objective is to produce a wastestream and a solid waste or sludge also suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment.
A limited amount of sludge (11) settles at the bottom of the unit and can be released through air (12) and discharged by the pump (9).
The sewage is continually circulated through trickle filters housed in "biotowers" or "activated growth units" where redwood slats are stacked and act as substrates for the attachment and growth of the microorganisms. The liquid sewage is sprayed over the slats to enhance aerobic conditions, and the organic compounds are broken down as the sewage trickles past the microbes growing on the slats. The water portion of the sewage runs through the tower, reenters the aeration tank, and is recirculated back through the towers for further clarification. As the microbial populations increase, foam appears on the surface and cells begin to clump together and settle.
Some of the activated sludge is used to inoculate incoming effluent from the primary tanks.



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