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In case there is passage of black stools, it may be indicative of bleeding in the stomach or upper intestine. Viruses: Herpes simplex virus, rotavirus and Norwalk virus are some of the viruses that cause diarrhea. Parasites: These can cause infection in the digestive system when they enter the body through food and water.
Intolerance to Certain Foods: Some individuals cannot digest the components present in certain foods. Medications: The intake of certain medications can result in adverse reactions in the body. Diseases: Conditions that affect the intestine such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease usually trigger diarrhea. Bowel Disorders: Irritable bowel syndrome and other conditions that hamper the functioning of the intestine commonly cause bouts of diarrhea. Hormone Disorders: Conditions that arise due to hormonal imbalances such as hyperthyroidism and diabetes can also lead to diarrhea. It is important to consult your doctor for diarrhea treatment in case the symptoms are severe.
Some studies have found that an arrowroot solution prepared with boiled water, or simply a glass of tender coconut juice could help alleviate the symptoms.
To treat dehydration caused by diarrhea, add a little salt to the juice of bitter gourd and drink. To reduce abdominal cramps arising from diarrhea, add half a teaspoon each of lemon juice and ginger juice to black pepper powder.
Black tea contains beneficial tannins which help to alleviate inflammation and infection in the intestines.
To reduce pain and cramps, soak a small towel in warm water and place it over your abdomen. Do keep in mind, that while many of these remedies can help reduce the discomfort of diarrhea and hasten recovery, not all of them will be equally effective in all situations and for everyone.
Your diet, quite naturally, has a direct influence on the outcome of the condition and it would be absolutely necessary for you to adhere strictly to the dietary recommendations given to you by your doctor.
Diarrhea can be alleviated by following a diet comprising of foods such as ginger, garlic, cumin, fennel, carom seeds, buttermilk and bananas. Doctors usually recommend eating bananas, rice, toast, yogurt, tea and applesauce during bouts of diarrhea. Avoid eating foods which are high in fiber as it is difficult for the stomach to digest them properly. Acupuncture: Stimulating certain points in the body may help to reduce discomfort and improve functioning of the digestive system.
Aromatherapy: The use of essential oils helps to relieve different ailments, including intestinal problems.
Health advice for bile salt diarrhoea: I have bile salt diarrhoea (after getting my galbladder removed in Jan 2006).
Home remedies for stomach infection and loose motions: Im suffering with stomach infection and loose motions so please tell me some home made medicines for my problem to get relief as soon as possible. Eat a piece of 1-2 ounce high quality dark chocolate and cold black tea, all help mild diarrhea. In boiling water add 3 spoons of yoghurt, to this add a pinch of turmeric, asafetida, crushed garlic, curry leaves and salt.
In developing countries, diarrhoeal diseases constitute one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity in children, and a major cause of malnutrition and growth retardation. In developing countries, rotavirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella and Cryptosporidium are the major causes of infantile diarrhoea.
In western countries, viral infections are the most common aetiology for illnesses presenting with diarrhoea. Treatment must be based on the main characteristics of the disease and on understanding the underlying pathogenesis.
Watery diarrhoea, regardless of its aetiology, requires replacement of lost fluids and electrolytes. Food should be continued, in all types of diarrhoea, and increased during convalescence so as to prevent any harmful effect on nutritional status.
Antimicrobials and antiparasitics should not be routinely used; the majority of episodes of diarrhoea, including serious ones accompanied by fever, do not respond to such treatment.
The place of probiotics in the treatment of diarrhoeal disorders can be deduced by different approaches. Background: Diarrhoeal diseases have remained a major health problem in South Sudan where they accounted 45% prevalence in under five-year olds. Methodology: We investigated causative agents of diarrhoeal diseases and their antibiogram in persons presenting with diarrhoea to selected health facilities in Juba. Conclusion: With emerging menace of resistance to commonly used antibiotics in South Sudan we recommend antibiotic resistance monitoring and regulation of antibiotic use. Diarrhoeal diseases are a major health problem in developing countries [1] and accounts for an approximate global mortality of two million people annually [2].
Stool specimens were emulsified in peptone water, selenite F broth, Alkaline Peptone Water (APW) and incubated at 35-370C for 6-8 hours. Antibacterial susceptibility was determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using Mueller–Hinton (MH) agar and results interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2011). Antibiotic resistance in the three (3) different species of pathogenic bacteria of 30-100% was found to amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and co-trimoxazole. A bivariate analysis for association of the most plausible factors with stool culture results was done but did not yield any independent significant association - see Table 3. This study has established enteropathogenic bacteria as a significant cause of diarrhoea among children and adults irrespective of their ages as evident by 6.99% prevalence.
We acknowledge and appreciate the support of AMREF Kenya country office, Wilson Branch for allowing the testing of the research specimens and the World Health Organization, South Sudan for supporting the shipment of specimens.
Gascon J, Vargas M, Schellenberg D, Urassa H, Casals C, Kahigwa E, Aponte J, Mshinda H, Vila J, 2000.
Okeke IN, Ojo O, Lamikanra A, Kapper JB, Etiology of acute diarrhea in adults southwestern Nigeria. Guerrant RL, Van Gilder T, Steiner TS, Thielman NM, Slutsker L, Tauve RV, Hennessy T, Griffin PM, DuPont H, Sack RB, Tharr P, Neill M, Nachamkin I, Reller RB, Osterholm MT, Bennish ML, Pickerring LK, Pratice guidelines for the managment of infectious diarrhea. Shapiro RL, Kumar L, Phillips-Howard P, Wells JG, Adcock P, Brooks J, Ackers ML, Ochieng JB, Mintz E, Wahlquist S, Waiyaki P, Slutsker L, Antimicrobial-resistant bacterial diarrhea in rural western Kenya.

Chamomilla 30: For diarrhoea during the period of dentition in children, this medicine named Chamomilla is important.
Cuprum ars 30: These are useful for copious, dark, watery stools with pain and rumbling in the abdomen.
Gelsemium 30: This medicine is suitable for diarrhoea from undue mental nervousness and apprehension just before attending to any important work. Ipecac 30: For diarrhoea caused by eating indigestible or rich foods, Ipecac can be consumed. Nux v 30: This medicine is suitable for diarrhoea of persons leading a sedentary, modern life and consuming rich foods and stimulants. Phos acid 30: This is suitable for painless and non-debilitating diarrhoea, the stools being watery and whitish.
Podophyllum 30: The diarrhoea that occurs from eating too many fruits in summer, Podophyllum is important.
Veratrum alb 30: For diarrhoea before and during menses and preceded by cutting pain in the abdomen. However, it is important to seek medical advice if symptoms are getting worse, the diarrhoea lasts for more than two days or you have abdominal swelling or bulging. Chronic or recurring diarrhoea may be a sign that you have an underlying condition such as IBS, ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease so it is important to see your doctor when this occurs. Individuals, who suffer from kidney or heart disease, should seek quick medical attention when diarrhea occurs. Many individuals react in this manner to antibiotics or medications used to treat hypertension. Quick medical attention is also necessary in case of diarrhea in infants and young children. In the same study, like arrowroot, a water based solution with African finger millet was also tested and the findings indicate that all of these solutions decreased water loss induced by a cholera infection, while instead increasing water absorption. Add a pinch of black salt to half a teaspoon of Indian gooseberry powder and consume after meals. You can add some sugar to the tea since it helps to enhance the absorption of water and sodium. Add some dried leaves of blackberry to boiling water, steep for about ten minutes and then filter. When diarrhoea lasts longer than one month or becomes recurrent, it is called chronic diarrhoea. Fortunately, the outcome is, in most cases, spontaneously favourable in five days and only 5% to 10% of the patients need to be investigated. Mortality has decreased in the past 20 years, with 1.5 million deaths attributable to these diseases in 2004. Breastfeeding is preferred in young children and especially in areas of hygienic risk (hydration, nutrition and immune protection). Between 2006 and 2007, the country reported a morbidity of 8,337 cases and 176 deaths due to diarrhoeal outbreaks. Globally, 88% of diarrhoea cases are attributable to unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene. Peptone water-emulsified specimens were inoculated into Karmali medium, Sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC) and Deoxycholate Citrate agar (DCA) and Hektoen enteric agar (HE) for Campylobacter, E. Commonly used antibacterials as per South Sudan treatment guidelines were selected for sensitivity testing. Data were collected on standard structured questionnaire, entered, cleaned and analyzed by Epi Info® 7 (CDC, Atlanta, USA).
Distribution and bacterial culture results for diarrhoeagenic bacterial among study participant attending selected health facilities in three payams of Juba City, South Sudan. Proportionate Isolation rate of bacteria among the study participants attending selected health facilities in Juba City.
Age group specific prevalence of diarrhoeagenic bacterial among study participant attending public health facilities in Juba City. Although all isolates were however ceftriaxone susceptible, quinolone resistance was identified with intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in the majority of Shigella isolates and nalidixic acid resistance in all of the S.
Reporting either having any other diarrhoea or diarrhoea with blood by the participants did not have any association with their education level, employment status and sex. This study established the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of bacterial pathogens isolated from stool of persons with diarrhoea. The global burden of diarrhoeal disease, as estimated from studies published between 1992 and 2000. Eisenberg S, Goldstick J, Cevallos W, Trueba G, Levy K, Scott J, Percha B, Segovia R, Ponce K, Hubbard A, Marrs C, Foxman B, David LS, Trostle J. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens isolated from childhood diarrhoea in four provinces of Kenya. Antibiotic susceptibility of Enteric pathogens from the Maasai community, Narok and Kajiado Districts, Kenya. Bacterial & Viral Infection, caused by parasites, germs, virus, bacteria or a poison, which has entered into the body through food, water or air. Frequent small, watery, dark and offensive stools, especially at midnight with rapid loss of strength are the symptoms. Trembling, dullness, dizziness, drowsiness and thirstlessness are other features of this medicine.
Loose stools with grass green mucous, accompanied by persistent nausea, a clean tongue and thirstlessness are some of the other symptoms. There is loud gurgling and abdominal pain in the morning followed by profuse, painless, foul-smelling and multi-coloured loose stools. Stools, which are profuse, watery and gushing, are accompanied by cramps in hands and feet, and cold sweat on the forehead. All rights reserved including the right to reproduce the contents in whole or in part in any form or medium without the express written permission of Jupiter Infomedia Ltd.
Common viral infections that cause diarrhoea include rotavirus (especially in children), norovirus and others. The causes include contaminated water and food, contact with an infected person, unwashed hands or dirty utensils. Antibiotics fight off both bad and good bacteria in your body, so sometimes the balance in your gastrointestinal tract can be disturbed.
Lactose intolerance occurs in people who lack the enzymes to break down lactose, which is a sugar found in milk and other dairy products.

Artificial sweeteners containing sorbitol found in chewing gum and sugar-free products may cause it. Treatments containing loperamide are very effective and can be used early on to prevent the problem from getting worse. The treatment for diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause and may include the intake of oral rehydration drinks, medications to relieve pain and anti-nausea medications.
It is available in the form of capsules and you can take a couple of goldenseal capsules a day until the condition is resolved.
This distinction is important from the practical point of view for etiological reasons and also due to the underlying physiopathological mechanisms.
However, due to the abundance of lost water and electrolytes, acute diarrhoea can be life-threatening, particularly for the very old and very young, and especially in subjects at risk. Despite this improvement, in all countries together, diarrhoea remains the second cause of death in children below age five, right after pneumonia. Mixed infections due to two or more enteropathogenic agents occur in 5 to 20% of cases observed in healthcare institutions. In fact, due to their mechanisms of action and their mainly digestive site of action, it is according to this approach that the use of probiotics has been evaluated and justified as a possible symptomatic and even etiological diarrhoea therapy. A total of 286 stool specimens or rectal swabs from randomly selected adults and children with diarrhoea respectively were collected between September and December 2012 , inoculated into Cary Blair media (Oxoid®, UK) and transported in a triple package container at 20C-80C for laboratory analysis. Further study of antimicrobial resistance trends in the area, including during outbreak periods, would help to inform antibiotic choices. In-roads to the spread of antibiotic resistance: regional patterns of microbial transmission in northern coastal Ecuador.
Bacterial infections that cause diarrhea are typically from contaminated food or water and include salmonella and E. Along with diarrhoea, the symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, sweating and fever. Some blood pressure medications and the magnesium found in some antacids can also trigger diarrhoea. Consuming too much caffeine or alcohol area may also be a cause as both may stimulate the intestines to make waste move too quickly through your body. You can then slowly progress to eating foods such as rice cereal, crackers, baked fish and steamed vegetables. Therefore, it appears difficult, even illogical, to treat all these diseases in a global manner. Selenite F broth emulsified specimens were inoculated into DCA and HE for Salmonella isolation. There is an emerging menace of resistance to commonly used antibiotics in South Sudan with ceftriaxone being the only antibiotic currently reliably active against the enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in this study. Other pathogens (virus) and physiological factors could be responsible for much of the uncharacterized diarrhoea in the study but which are difficult to identify by methods deployed in this study. Enteric Bacteria Pathogens AssociatedWith Diarrhoea of Children in the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria.
These symptoms are very much common in the diarrhoea patient, and for all these the medicine Veratrum is important. Always remember when taking prescription medications to talk to your doctor about any possible side effects. It is thought that the hormonal changes associated with premenstrual syndrome may also be a cause. Anti-diarrhea drugs are helpful in alleviating the symptoms; however you should consult your doctor before taking them.
However, it should be noted that in practice, symptomatic treatment of diarrhoea is logically addressed to these different types of diarrhoea. Approximately 80% of deaths attributable to diarrhoea occur during the first two years of life. These outbreaks could be due to the influx of people from neighboring countries following the comprehensive peace agreement (CPA). Patients who could not consent or had known underlying causes other than bacteria were left out.
APW-emulsified specimens were inoculated into Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts sucrose agar for Vibrio cholerae isolation and sub-cultured in Heart infusion agar (HIA).
Antibiotic use needs to be monitored and regulated in South Sudan to prevent outbreak of multidrug resistance. Chronic diarrhea is associated to functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease. This results in inflammation of the intestine and leads to abdominal bloating, pain, diarrhoea, and gas.
Treatment of diarrhea may also involve treatment for the underlying disorder, such as Crohns disease, or Ulcerative Colitis or infections.
Ample fluid and electrolyte replacement and maintenance is the cornerstone for management of diarrheal illness [8].
Inoculated plates were incubated at 35-370C except Karmali plates that were incubated at 420C in 5% carbon dioxide atmosphere for 18- 24 hours. Frequent travelers to foreign countries are at risk for traveler’s diarrhea, which happens by eating food or drinking water contaminated with bacteria, viruses, or parasites.
Suitable antimicrobial treatment shortens bacterial excretion and clinical periods, but the incidence of multidrug-resistance is rising [9]. To our knowledge, no diarrhoea-causing bacterial pathogens were identified in these outbreaks due to facilities for bacterial culture and isolation being unavailable.
This prevalence was lower than that of Ifeanyi [13] in Nigeria probably due to difference in socioeconomic indices and the exclusion of E.
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic and Bacterial Pathogens in Diarrhoeal and Non-diarroeal Human Stools from Vhembe District, South Africa. This study determined the prevalence, distribution and antibacterial susceptibility profiles of enteropathogenic bacteria causing diarrhoea in patients attending selected health facilities in Juba City. This concurred with the findings of Samie et al [14] in South Africa and Sabrina et al [15] in Tanzania. The isolates of enteric bacteria pathogens had similar distribution trends across all ages as shown in Figure 2.

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