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admin | Prevent Bv | 19.08.2014
Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography.
The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air. The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram.
The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy).
X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity. In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem.
X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines.
In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose. To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators. The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens.
Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images. Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised. Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue.
Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels. An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s.
The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them. For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging. Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier.
Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.
The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes. The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo.
Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month.
Hospital-diagnosed maternal bacterial infections during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders in children, according to a Kaiser Permanente. The research contributes new evidence to a body of scientific literature on the role of infection in autism risk and points to areas for further examination.


The study included 407 children with autism and 2,075 matched children who did not have autism.
Women with bacterial infections (of the genitals, urinary tract and amnion) diagnosed during hospitalization, had a 58 percent greater risk of having a child with an ASD. While not very common in any of the mothers studied (1.5 percent of mothers of a child with ASD vs.
While the mechanism for how maternal infections may influence autism risk has not been firmly established, Zerbo said animal tests have shown that immune-system responses to infections during pregnancy may influence the neurological development of the fetus.
Ousseny Zerbo, PhD, research fellow, Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, and study'lead author.
We conducted a nested case–control study including 407 cases and 2,075 frequency matched controls to investigate the association between maternal infections during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Kaiser Permanente can conduct transformational health research such as this study in part because it has the largest private patient-centered electronic health system in the world. In addition to Croen and Zerbo, co-authors of the study were Yinge Qian, MS, and Cathleen Yoshida, MA, Kaiser Permanente Division of Research; Judith K.
The study was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Kaiser Foundation Research Institute and Autism Speaks. The Kaiser Permanente Division of Research conducts, publishes and disseminates epidemiologic and health services research to improve the health and medical care of Kaiser Permanente members and society at large.
This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines. The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube. A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area. The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen.
In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than one million visitors each month.
The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human.
Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world! The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice.
All infants born between January 1995 and June 1999 who remained members of the Kaiser Permanente health plan for at least two years following birth.
0.5 percent of mothers of a child without ASD), infections diagnosed during hospitalization in the second trimester were associated with children having more than a three-fold increase in risk of developing ASD.
Cases, controls, and maternal infections were ascertained from Kaiser Permanente Northern California clinical databases. Grether, PhD, formerly of the California Department of Public Health; and Judith Van de Water, PhD, Department of Rheumatology, University of California, Davis. It seeks to understand the determinants of illness and well-being, and to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of health care. We are recognized as one of America's leading health care providers and not-for-profit health plans.
If it is thin and watery, which can be the loss of amniotic fluid, which means that you must go to emergency room.


The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines. These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels.
Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images.
In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated. After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface.
Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
It also connects Kaiser Permanente's research scientists to one of the most extensive collections of longitudinal medical data available, facilitating studies and important medical discoveries that shape the future of health and care delivery for patients and the medical community. Currently, DOR's 550-plus staff is working on more than 250 epidemiological and health services research projects.
Founded in 1945, our mission is to provide high-quality, affordable health care services and to improve the health of our members and the communities we serve. If it is thicker and gelatinous, like you can lose the mucus plug, which is normal and not a cause for concern. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel.
In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g. For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels.
This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event". When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film. Care for members and patients is focused on their total health and guided by their personal physicians, specialists and team of caregivers. Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history. Our expert and caring medical teams are empowered and supported by industry-leading technology advances and tools for health promotion, disease prevention, state-of-the-art care delivery and world-class chronic disease management. The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource. Kaiser Permanente is dedicated to care innovations, clinical research, health education and the support of community health.
Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology. Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not.



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