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admin | Prevent Bv | 15.08.2014
This past March, Margaret Chan, director-general of the World Health Organization warned that life as we know it may soon be over. There is an increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, the infection-battling drugs that have reinforced every single of aspect of medicine. If there really is an evolving resistance to antibiotics it means every medical procedure that depends on antibiotics to fight attendant infections could become compromised, from hip replacements to chemotherapy, organ transplants to neo-natal care.
Some scientists claim a post-antibiotic era will mean an end to modern medicine as we know it. FDA stands accused of regularly raising the bar that antibiotics must cross to get approved.
The antibiotic resistance problem is caused by too many people demanding antibiotics for a common cold.
It is also worth nothing that if we take the wrong drug or too little of it, allows bacteria to hone its defence mechanisms. I think in order to fight the antibiotic resistance problem, it is imperative for physicians and patients to play a role in decreasing the misuse of antibiotics.
A It definitely struck me to learn that we are losing the battle against antibiotic resistance. Tag words: antibiotic, antimicrobial, antibiotic resistance, penicillin, Fleming, methicillin, vancomycin, MRSA, VRE, ESBL, horizontal gene transfer, HGT, antibiotic sensitivity, zone of inhibition.
Bacteria are classified under a distinct kingdom because of its peculiar cellular and morphological characteristics that makes it different and distinct from all other kingdoms like fungi, animal and virus.
This article will discuss some major characteristics that are helpful in the determination of different types of bacteria.
Streptococcus Pyogenes is the causative agent of mild sore throat and skin infections that may worsen in certain situations to lead to life threatening infections like toxic shock syndrome and septicemia (when bacteria gain access to the blood stream).
E- Coli is a gram negative bacillis as discussed previously and is considered as a causative agent of travelera€™s diarrhea; however some pathogenic strains can also lead to bloody diarrhea and circulatory shock. Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera and is associated with intake of improperly cooked food or poor sanitary conditions.
The most common causative agent of food poisoning throughout the world is Enteritis salmonella and can lead to serious and life threatening food poisoning, diarrhea, circulatory shock and dehydration in children.
Lactobacillus acidophilus exists in different parts of human body like intestine, vagina and oral cavity. Due to its beneficial properties, it is used in a variety of dietary products like tempeh, yogurt, miso and probiotics supplements. Bacillus subtilis occurs independently in the environment around us and was first used by Nazi army to manage diarrheal illness. Bifidobacterium animalis is found in the intestine of animals and humans as a normal commensal that aid in digestive process.


Streptococcus thermophilus is classified under coccus and it has the ability to withstand a temperature of about 212 degrees Fahrenheit. Lactobacillus reuteri is one of the probiotics agents that are present in maternal breast milk and becomes a permanent part of gut flora. Since bacterial organisms are so minute, it is impossible to view the organisms without compound microscope.
Gram staining is a special method that involves dying the outer covering of the bacterial cell wall that prevents it from physical and environmental trauma. There are a number of structural and functional variations in the bacteria of one group that helps in adapting these bacterial agents to survive in one environment where other bacteria cannot.
Rickettsia is considered unique bacteria since it is incapable of surviving outside living organisms. All bacteria are characterized by a cell wall outside cell-membrane; however, mycoplasma is unique as it lacks a cell wall that is also considered a protective mechanism that makes it easier for bacteria to evade antibiotic therapies. It was on a short-cut through the hospital kitchens that Albert was first approached by a member of the Antibiotic Resistance. In the past 25 years bacteria have become increasingly immune to the antibiotics in our medical arsenal.
These hurdles mean that if new antibiotics do eventually reach the market, they may have cost between $500 million and $1 billion to develop.
The downside is that every time we use them, we expose bacteria to the drugs, potentially allowing them to develop immunity. This is why we are always advised to complete a course of antibiotics, even when we feel better. Antibiotics should only be prescribed when a test shows that there is a bacterial infection present. I remember Professor Read talking about this in the beginning of the semester, how eventually all the antibiotics out there will be deemed worthless because of the constant mutations and new resistant strains. Most, but not all, resistance mechanisms are encoded by plasmids, which are potentially transmissible to other bacteria. Bacteria are microscopic, unicellular (single celled) ancient organisms that are responsible for a number of lethal diseases. Vibrio Cholerae is linked to hundreds and thousands of deaths worldwide (mostly in under- developed countries) due to cholera outbreak. Infection can be controlled by timely intake of proper antibiotics and circulatory support.
It is associated with a high mortality rate after initial infection and characterized by blood diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, fever and may lead to death if proper treatment is not instituted at the right time.
Our body is loaded with hundreds and thousands of bacteria that serve to colonize our body in order to prevent overgrowth of pathogenic elements.


It is responsible for slightly acidic pH of vagina that is helpful in preventing overgrowth of other microorganisms.
In addition it can also be consumed in supplemental doses to improve the symptoms of constipation or irritable bowel syndrome. In order to visualize the cellular components and to differentiate bacteria from other microbial agents, staining techniques are used by scientists to categorize different bacteria.
On the basis of gram staining, bacteria are widely classified as gram positive (bacteria with the cell wall) and gram negative (bacteria without cell- wall). These occurs abundantely in the environment and also as normal commensal on the human body (in nostrils, skin, oral cavity and genitals).
Most popular species are salmonella (the causative agent of typhoid) and E- Col (causative agent for hemorrhagic diarrhea).
Due to unstable morphological features, it is transmitted by different vector sources like ticks, fleas and mites to cause life threatening infectious diseases like Rocky mountain spotted fever and typhus. It is causative agent for life threatening pulmonary infections and some strains may cause pelvic disease.
At the same time, we have developed only a trickle of new drugs to take the place of those that have become useless. Regardless, patients often demand that their physicians prescribe antibiotics when they are not needed. So, if it is in my understanding, there could be a different strain of the same bacteria that does not show up in tests because the new strain lacks an enzyme? There are different types of bacteria that shares classic morphological characteristics of the kingdom but are classified differently in 5 major groups on the basis of their habitat, laboratory characteristics, staining methods, requirement of certain nutrients for the generation of energy and presence of certain cytoplasmic extensions like flagella or cilia (that are helpful in the motility of bacteria). Gram negative as well as gram positive bacilli are well known causative agents for gastroenterological, pulmonary and cutaneous infections.
Taking antibiotics when you have a viral infection not only wastes your time and money, but also contributes to increasing antibiotic resistance. 12 o'clock: Efflux pumps are high-affinity reverse transport systems located in the membrane that transport the antibiotic out of the cell.
Pylori and took two rounds of antibiotics to clear it out, which took a lot out of her as the antibiotics were very strong. In the case of streptomycin, the antibiotic is chemically modified so that it will no longer bind to the ribosome to block protein synthesis.
For example, the penicillinases are a group of beta-lactamase enzymes that cleave the beta lactam ring of the penicillin molecule.



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